Experience and lessons from Rio+20 preparation process for Tanzania


Nov 9, 2013 (3 years and 5 months ago)


Experience and lessons from Rio+20 preparation
for Tanzania

Amani NGUSARU, June 2012

Rio+20 preparation p
rocess for Tanzania

Tanzania with the support from UNDP/UNDESA provided financial and technical
support in the process for preparing

Tanzania stocktaking report
. The government focal
point for this process was the Vice President’s Office (Department of Environment) and
they effectively utilized all the funds that were provide by UNDESA.

The process involved hiring a consultant from
the University of Dar es Salaam to
produce a draft stocktaking report based on wide consultations with key Government
Ministries and Departments, UN agencies, NGOs, development partners and private
sector stakeholders.

The focal point for sustainable dev
elopment in the Govern
ment led the process of hiring
the consultant and facilitated

the consultative process for developing the

The consultations were guided by the TOR that was developed with inputs from

At the govern
ment level, the stakeholders include President’s Office
Commission, Ministries Finance, Agriculture, Livestock and Fisheries, Foreign Affairs,
Energy and Minerals. Others were Ministries of Infrastructure, Water, Education, Youth
and employment, H
ousing, Trade, Natural Resources and Tourism, Vice President’s
Office, National Environment Management Council and Prime Minister’s Office
and Local Government Authority.

At the level of civil society, this included organizations representing Ma
jor NGOs
including Journalists for Environment in Tanzania, WWF, IUCN, CARE International,
and Platform of NGOs consortium engaged on Climate Change initiatives. Others
stakeholders were Higher learning Institutions and colleges.

Various government docum
ents, related literature and National policies were reviewed
and in the end a Stocktaking Report was produced.

The next step
National Stakeholders

that brought
together government representatives, UN agencies, NGOs and other groups and
that were not reached during the initial consultations.

This was the most
useful meeting and quite substantive comments were obtained including
tion to broaden the coverage of the report to reflect more strongly on the
status and progress of sustainable development in Zanzibar.

The development partners
that took part in consultations included WB, DFID, NORAD, CIDA and USAID.

Through the leade
rship of the UN Resident Coordinator,
UN agencies in Tanzania
launched a process for making further inputs to the report and submitted a joint detailed
contribution to the report.

The UN process also involved discussions based on the
UNDAP programme workin
g group on Environment and Climate Change. This was
especially made easier by the existence of UN Delivering as One initiative in Tanzania.
These agencies including UNDP, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNEP, WFP, UNWOMEN and
FAO made specific inputs to the Stocktaking Rep
ort by working directly with the
Consultant. Another effort involved UNHABITAT that also submitted a detailed
contribution including recommendations drawn from similar RIO+20 regional processes
that were being coordinated by UNHABITAT.

Other substantial co
ntribution came from
the UNDP Regional Service Centre in South Africa based on support provided by
Regional Climate Change Policy Advisor.

Similarly the development partners paid particular attention to the Tanzania Rio+20

where the process

and early results were presented and discussed during
the DPG
main meeting that is mostly attended by Heads of Missions in Tanzania and
Chaired by the UN Resident Coordinator.

Based on all these consultations and contributions the Final

Tanzania was produced.

Importance of UN Support

The UN support for Tanzania Rio+20 preparations was a
ppreciated and

recognised by
all stakeholders and
donors. It
contributed significantly in preparing the Tanzania
delegation to

adequately engage in

discussions prior and during the conference in Rio.
together with other messages based on other UNDP/UNDESA HQ
processes was

used by
the delegation of
during NY discussions

as part of
preparation of initial negotia
tion document for Rio+20 Conference.

The Minister of
Environment from Tanzania and other senior government staff were involved in these
discussions. Tanzania representative also took part in the
Africa wide regional
preparation meetings that took place in
May in Senegal.

Outreach Activities

on Rio+20

Some outreach activities were conducted for sensitizing the general public about the
importance of Rio+20 Conference. This included a meeting that convened key NGOs
involved in addressing climate change issues across the country through their umbrella
nization known as Forum CC.

Another outreach event was conducted on 05 June 2012 two weeks before Rio+20
Conference for Local Journalists t
o raise
awareness on the key issues to be
discussed at the Rio+20

and to
them to
report on and info
rm the general
public about the key issues which are relevant to Tanzania.

Relevant materials and
general information
was shared with Journalists
on Rio+20, e
nvironmental issues and
the UN support to Tanzania and other LDC countries. About 30 J
sensitized on Rio

+20 key issues,
UN reports
shared with the media
through presentations

and online resource

Lessons and e
xperience from


The Tanzania process involved quite wide consultations with key stakeholders.
However, since sustainable development agenda touches on almost all sectors that are
critical for development, the process could have benefited from in
with t
he private sector and

target groups

including chamber of commerce, youth
and children, community based organisations, famers associations, trade unions,
science and technology, business and industry
, but there were
both time and

Similarly, a m
ore active


would have
been better.

It was clear from the consultations that t
here is still perception
among various
that sustainable development is an environmental issue
. The link with the
other two pillars on economic and social aspects
is something that

to be
strengthened. This is
reflected in Tanzania Report where the lens
seem to
mainly focused on en
vironmental issues

The process experienced gen
eral l
ack of
readily availability of

data, indicators and
outcomes to inform progress on sustainable development.

The Tanzania Report
therefore suffers the weakness of indicating clear trends and evidence on sustainable
development patterns over the last t
wo decades.

Assessment of Tanzania on implementation of Rio92

Tanzania has recognized the adverse implications of climate change on water
resources, biodiversity and ecosystems, and desertification among others. On top of
these are the issues relating to

rapid and unplanned urbanization and hazardous and
electronic waste
things that are within its control. These adverse implications and
developments as well as Tanzania’s low resilience to natural disaster have made it a
necessity for Tanzania to pay parti
cular attention to sustainable development.

It is in

context that Tanzania adopted
various Multilateral Environmental Agreements (MEAs)
and embraced green economy concepts in its approach to development as articulated
in the national development strat
egies and development plans.

Formulation of various
sector policies, strategies and legislation after the Rio (1992) is a clear evidence of the
national political commitment towards achieving sustainable development.

What is Tanzania doing to promote Gree
n economy

Tanzania is involved in various clean energy p
initiatives including
of electricity

from hydropower and other non
fossil fuel sources like wind, solar,
hydrothermal and biogas.

Tanzania is p
romoting the use of bio fuels,
where bio fuel
guidelines are in place since November 2010.

Tanzania also r
educed tariffs on solar


ffectively since 2005 the


and related
accessories became

tax exempted. This
cludes import duties and VAT.

institutions have been established in Tanzania for sustainable

Various institutions that were established following Rio92 recommendations included
Vice President’s office

Division of Environment
National Environment Management

other s
based institutions.

The m
andates of these institutions are
being improved to accommodate policy revisions and emerging global

Has Tanzania been actively involved in implementation of local Agendas 21?

A number of ac
tions and programmes relevant to Agenda 21 that have been initiated
including: Continuous review of sectoral policies to address sustainable development
Preparation of the National Environmental Policy (1997)
Formulation of a National
Energy Policy
ing and ratification of several global and regional conventions of
relevance to the environment and sustainable development
Adoption of N
Development Vision 2025;
Development of the Environmental Management Act of 2004
with the establishment of environmental units in all sectoral ministries to address
environmental sustainability issues related to sustainable development.

Has Tanzania introduced integrated planning

and decision making for sustainable

Yes, i
ntegrated planning and decision making has always been promoted in Tanzania
for sustainable development. The sector strategic plans takes into account all national
strategies such as MKUKUTA, the De
velopment Vision 2025, the National Environment
Action Plan (NEAP), and currently, the Five Year Development Plan (2011

What actions have been introduced in Tanzania to strengthen political support for
sustainable development?

Multilateral Enviro
nmental Agreements have been mainstreamed into development
policies and planning leading to sustainable development. Presence of relevant sector
policies that support implementation of various issues required by the MEAs is an
indication of political will
for ensuring sustainable development.

Establishment of
Environment Management Units in all ministries to oversee environmental issues in the
relevant sectors.

Establishment of various institutions and agencies to guide sustainable
development is another in
dication of political support.

Environment issues are now
being integrated in MTEF budgeting for various sectors

Are there specific industry sectors or resource areas where national political
commitment to achieve sustainable development goals has been es

Tanzania Vision on renewable energy

is one of the areas where national political
commitment to achieve sustainable development goals has been particularly strong.

Another strength is the
increasing involvement of the private sector in the

energy development.

Challenges for sustainable development in Tanzania

Tanzania like other LDC countries is faced with a d
of continuing to raise


people’s living standards wh
ile continuing to increase its footprint
, recognizing that

poverty alleviation remains a top priority issue for the Government.

Economic growth
ambitions are
increasingly being influenced by issues of social equity and the
environment and climate change challenges.

There is i
ncreasing trends to widen

balance between the three pillars of sustainable development

in Tanzania
, something
that need to be addressed in Rio+20.
Another challenge is on f
inancial problems: The
nvironmental multi
lateral support
(include Multilateral Financial Institutions like th
World Bank, International Development Agency (IDA), Africa Development Bank, Africa
Development Fund, Various international funds like GEF etc.)

is slowly being
complimented with a broadening development agenda which values natural resource
endowments co
ntribution to development and poverty reduction.

This view, which has
developed over the past 20 years, must form part of the review and assessment of
Rio92 implementation, identification of gaps and challenges that Rio+20 should try to
address and provide

new solutions.

Resource efficiency is
sustainable economic growth, human development and environmental sustainability in

Key issues for Tanzania in Rio+20 as reflected in the National Stocktaking Report

Energy access
, efficiency and sustainability issues

Tanzania is supporting the launch of a UN lead global initiative for universal energy
access. Tanzania is promoting
minimization of wood fuel consumption through the
development of alternative energy sources and wood

fuel energy efficiency
Tanzania is
promoting sustainable renewable energy resources, Energy efficiency and

Tanzania is one of the initial countries that have signed up to the SG’s
SE4ALL initiative.

Food secur
ity and sustainable
agriculture issues

Tanzania is supporting accelerated process towards an “evergreen revolution.” This
revolution will meet the growing food demand while protecting soils, water and
However, there are serious issues related to sound water man
Rising demand is running up against greater scarcity.

Desertification and drought are
becoming more severe.

This is happening even as flooding takes a heavy toll on lives
and livelihoods.

The risk of conflict over scarce water looms large, as does

challenge of coping with water stress.

Closer international cooperation will be needed to
avert conflict.

offer an opportunity for forward
looking action on integrated
water resource management.

Improved resili
ence and disaster

Significant environme
ntal changes are already affecting the people of Tanzania
, often
affecting vast areas at a time. Natural disasters occur more frequently and their impacts
are becoming more severe. Many people especially the poor are unde
r stress.

people must adapt to these difficult circumstances. Building resilience is therefore
crucial. Tanzania desperately need

advancement in earth observation and early
warning systems.

Also crucial are enhanced prevention and preparedness. At
governments and others could commit to work together more closely to strengthen
international management of natural disasters and support resilience building efforts in
vulnerable developing countries.



and capacity building


To effectively meet the new and emerging challenges,
will need international
Technology cooperation, capacity development and finance will be crucial.

acquire technologies to build greener infrastructure

and industries, finance will be
Much of the financing for building greener economies will be mobilized by
developing countries themselves. However, international financial support will be
needed to move towards greener development, especially in t
he least developed

Perhaps Rio+20 will launch a new public and private financing initiative, like a
global green economy fund.

Market uncertainties

Natural resources are the key capital for sustainable development in Tanzania.

unreliable and unavailability of markets is one of the key constraints for
achieving S

Role of UN on Sustainable development
; what

we have been doing in Tanzania


global reach, rich resource

base on good practices and
ability to work as One
UN exploiting comparative advantages of each agency from different perspectives, the
UN, and in p
articular UNDP, in Tanzania has

been able to actively engage in assisting
the Government not only in developing sustainable development
strategies but also in
implementing them.

Here are few examples that

have been engaged in:

Support at the Policy level

Supporting the drafting and enactment of a comprehensive Environmental Management
Act (2004), which as an overarching environme
ntal legislation, provides a framework for
sustainable management of the environment.

Supporting the drafting Water Resource Policy and the enactment of the Water Act
(2009) based on the findings of a project on water conservation emphasizing on the
ing role of water users associations for managing water allocation, conservation
and conflict resolution. The project covering four districts (Pangani, Kilimanjaro, Arusha
and Tanga) in catchment areas focused on climate change adaptation, data collection,

processing and use for water resource allocation.

UNDP in collaboration with the Global Environment Facility (GEF) was successful in
influencing the government in removing the taxes on solar energy devices. It went even
further in associating in setting ‘
Solar Energy Standards’ and Code of Practice’ in
Tanzania. The Government of Tanzania has gone one step further in pursuing the East
African Community to adopt them as common standards in East Africa since 2008.

Support at the technical level

Technical a
nd financial assistance was given in the provision of 14,000 improved
cooking stoves in three districts in 2011. The approach has been extended to both
individuals and institutions while enlarging the coverage to bio
gas cooking stoves and
storage. It has
been able to build a knowledge base and a change of the mind set.
While this is still on a pilot basis and needs scaling up as a next step. This is by no
means an easy task as 91% of the rural population relies on bio
mass for cooking.


is now assisting the Government in Declaring the Eastern Arc as a World
Heritage site with the objective of gaining global recognition and conserving the

The UN

is also supporting the Government in addressing deforestation which is a
cal environmental issue in Tanzania through the UN
REDD. This has initiated a
process which looks at land degradation due to economic activity. The challenge is
however huge as over 200,000 hectares of forests are lost every year due to
overgrazing and ill
egal logging.

Other support include

addressing issues
related to
climate c
adaptation and mitigation;

renewable energy technologies,
Sustainable forest
and land management,
water catchment

and protected areas
Biodiversity Conservation and supporting development of functional and
representative networks of protected areas
Valuation of ecosystems; Economic
Environmental analysis;

Supporting programs targeting Poverty

t linkages
Support for clean production, greening of value chain;

Other UN Agencies
Under the current UNDAP, UNDP teams up with UNEP, UNIDO,
FAO, WFP and UNESCO and UNWOMEN in assisting the Government in
strengthening strategies and capacities for
environment and climate change adaptation,
implementation of mitigation strategies, governance frameworks for reducing emissions,
sustainable management of protected areas, land and forests and coordinate, enforce
and monitor environmental and natural reso

for strengthening UN Support
and engage
on S

The UN plays only a catalytic role in environmental sustainability at the national level.
We provide policy advocacy support to integrate environmental policies to
development. We also assist the Government to do things better and differently for
more productive outcomes, mostly on a pilot basis. But these need to be scaled up. And
this requires commitment at the political and bureaucratic levels.

There is
a wealth of good practices that have been proven to be successful at the
national level. These need to be documented to create a resource bank for the use of
others. There also needs to have a follow
up mechanism to evaluate success (or
failures). Monitori
ng and evaluation thus play a key role in this process which is lacking
at the moment.

UN need to provide appropriate funding levels and capacity at country level for
addressing policy issues related to sustainable development.

Major new challenges need
to be further prioritized and addressed

most prominently,
climate change.

Opportunities for strengthening UN Support on S

The UN, UNDP in particular is in a better position to assist in bridging the development
priority gaps between

the Government and the other development partners.

Governments in developing countries are grappled with development priorities such as
poverty reduction, ensuring the provision of basic services such as education and
health, and the provision of employm
ent to a growing labor force. Environmental
considerations may become a less priority to Governments unless they can balance the
two for a better outcome without compromising either of them.

Recent events such as the proposal to build a road that goes through the Serengeti
National Park which has later been

is a clear example of these conflicting
priorities and expectations. On the other hand, donor priorities may tilt towards growt
and business interests. UN and UNDP in particular, with its focus on soft areas (such as
sustainable development policy and capacity building) could use its expertise in bridging
these gaps.

Other opportunities include:
Promoting land policy reforms inc
luding spatial planning
that are critical for sustainable land and forest management;

Ensuring that regulatory
frameworks are enforced, especially those related to tra
de and investment
ment of

dialogue between UNCTs and g
overnment M
around SD issues; and
Existence of E&CC PWG programming as part of UNDAP
y mechanism under One UN System is a good opportunity.

National dialogue on the Post 2015 Global Development Agenda

Looking at the discussions we have had on the Rio+20 a
t the global level it is likely that
Rio+20 could be used as a platform for the debate on the Post
2015 global
development agenda with the renewed focus on sustainable development. The UN in
Tanzania has already commissioned a technical paper evaluating th
e pros and cons of
various options on the table and had a discussion at the recent Country Management
Team Retreat. We are now taking this dialogue to the national level with technical
assistance and financial support from UNDP. This would provide an oppor
tunity for the
Government policy makers to be aware of the issues, challenges and future options so
that they can effectively engage in such discussions at the global level (e.g. Rio+20 and
other UN meetings on the Post 2015 agenda etc).

Other e
xpectations for Rio+20

The is wide expectation from Tanzania
that RIO+20 will produce a blueprint for a
coherent pursuit of sustainable development, that Rio+20 will provide renewed political
ent for sustainable development, that
Rio+20 will be abl
e to mobilization of the
entire UN system in support of sustainable development

that Rio+20 will produce
new commitments in financing and technology cooperation, especially for LDCs.


While much of this process wa
s focused on the lead up
to Rio+20

Government understands that
the National Reports provide the basis for the country’s
strategic policy stance on sustainable development.
It is therefore expected that
Tanzania National report could form
the basis for longer term policy

action and
programmatic support way after the Rio conference.