1 A disaggregated emissions inventory for Taiwan with uses in hybrid input-output life cycle analysis (IO-LCA)

clipperstastefulManagement

Nov 9, 2013 (3 years and 7 months ago)

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1
-

A disaggregated emissions inventory for Taiwan with uses in hybrid input
-
output life cycle
analysis (IO
-
LCA)

LIU, CHIA
-
HAO; LENZEN, MANFRED; MURRAY, JOY

[b1]
Department of Environmental Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701,
Taiwan;
[b2] ISA, School of Physics A28, The University of Sydney, Australia

Natural resources forum.
2012 vol. 36 (2) : pp. 123
-

141 [19 p.]
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[0165
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0203 ]

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English
+
[acces au doc
ument]

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>
hybrid io
-
lca; life cycle analysis; input
-
output analysis; ghg
emissions; taiwan; energy; management economics; environment;
metering; control.; general; regulations; norms; economy.; energy; if
-

energie; gestion, economie, management; enviro

-
-
> This paper reports on a life
-
cycle analysis (LCA) of Taiwan's "agriculture and forestry ", "crude
petroleum, coal and natural gas extraction" and "electricity generation " sectors, revealing for the first
time Taiwan's CO2 and CH4 emissions inventories
and matching Taiwan's input
-
output sectors.
Integrated hybrid input
-
output life cycle analysis is used to disaggregate the electricity generation
sector into nuclear, hydro, gas, oil and coal, and cogeneration. Results show that the fossil
-
fuel
-
related
ele
ctricity sub
-
sectors have higher CO2 emissions intensity than the remaining sectors in the economy
and that the "paddy rice" sector is Taiwan's most CH4
-
intensive sector, making rice cultivation an
important source of CH4 emissions. This work is vital to s
ound policy decisions concerning power
generation, coal, and agriculture and forestry at the national level. NR
-

3/4 p.

ref.
[K60/120410196](PASCAL)

2
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An analysis of carbon footprint of vegetable production in Jiangsu, China.

YAN, M.;
PAN, G. X.; CHEN
, L.

Institute of Resource, Ecosystem and Environment of Agriculture,
Center of Agriculture and Climate Change, Nanjing Agric. University, Nanjing 210095, China.

Acta
Horticulturae; 2012. 958, 203
-
210. 22 ref.
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[978
-
90
-
66055
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35
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3 ]

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[0567
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7572 ]

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E
nglish

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I
International Symposium on Sustainable Vegetable Production in Southeast Asia, Salatiga, Indonesia.
+
[
acces

au document]

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>
carbon; chinese cabbages; climate change; crop productio
n;
cucumbers; emission; farm surveys; greenhouse crops; nitrogen
fertilizers; statistical analysis; tomatoes; vegetables; amaranthus;
brassica; brassica pekinensis; cucumis sativus; ipomoea aquatica;

--
> The agricultural sector contributes significantly to

global carbon emissions from diverse sources
such as product and machinery manufacturing, transport of materials and direct and indirect soil
greenhouse gas emissions. In this article, we use farm survey data from the Jiangsu Province, China,
combined wit
h published estimates of emissions for individual farm operations in a whole life cycle
analysis to quantify the relative contribution of a range of farming operations and determine the carbon
footprint of different canopy vegetables (tomato, Chinese cabba
ge, cucumber, water spinach and
amaranth). Over 30 vegetable farms of different vegetable crops at very different scale were randomly
selected and surveyed by questionnaire visits to farmers who manage or operate the vegetable farms.
For carbon footprint c
alculations, emission factors from the literature were used as default values for
the vegetable production except for the factor of N fertilizer, which causes, in particular, high
emissions in its manuf cturing. Statistical analysis was done with ANOVA usi
ng software EXCEL
2003 and JMP. The results show that the estimated mean carbon footprint in kg CE ha
-
1 for different
greenhouse vegetables is 1645.2+or
-
99.9 for tomato, 1287.0+or
-
582.5 for Chinese cabbage, 1272.9+or
-
642.6 for cucumber, 1058.3+or
-
835.5 for

water spinach, and 1546.0+or
-
865.7 for amaranth
respectively. Following a similar trend, the estimated mean carbon footprint in kg CE per ton of
product is 45.9+or
-
26.4 for tomato, 135.4+or
-
74.9 for Chinese cabbage, 43.4+or
-
37.3 for cucumber,
13.9+or
-
11.3

for water spinach and 105.2+or
-
68.1 for amaranth respectively. Of the total carbon
footprint, 78% on average resulted from fertilizer use (59% allocated to inorganic nitrogen fertilizer).
Thus, proper management of nutrients and rational fertilization for

vegetable production may offer
great opportunity both for enhancing economical efficiency and for mitigating climate change in
vegetable production.

ref.
[K20/20123378050](CAB ABSTRACTS)

3
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Biofuels, greenhouse gases and climate change. A review

BESSOU
, C_CILE; FERCHAUD,
FABIEN; GABRIELLE, BENO_T; MARY, BRUNO


Recherche dans HAL via rss; 2012
[consult_e le 12 novembre 2012].

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[1774
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0746, 1773
-
0155]

+
[acces au document]


ref.
[H00/](HAL)

4
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Economic and environmental impact of vegetable crops.

UKU, S.

Ministry of Education
and Science, Tirana, Albania.

Acta Horticulturae; 2012. 960, 255
-
259. 13 ref.
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[978
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90
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66055
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85
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8
]

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[0567
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7572 ]

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English

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V Balkan Symposium on Vegetables and

Potatoes, Tirana, Albania.
+
[
acces

au document]

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>
chillies; crop growth stage; crop production; economic impact;
environmental impact; labour; nitrogen fertilizers; tomatoes; trickle
irrigati
on; vegetables; capsicum; capsicum annuum; solanum
lycopersicum; spain

--
> This article investigates the economic and environmental effects of the expansion of vegetable
crops in the Bardenas irrigation district of Aragon, Spain. The analysis is based on c
rop production
functions, estimated with the EPIC crop growth simulator. The expansion of tomato and pepper in
irrigated areas generates an important increase of production value and of net revenue, but it as well
increase significantly the inputs demand,
water, nitrogen and labour, and pollution by nitrogen. The
expansion of drip irrigation in vegetable crops increase the value of production and net revenue, and
also reduces drastically the contamination by percolation and leaching.

ref.
[K20/20123385256]
(CAB ABSTRACTS)

5
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Environmental Impacts of Water Use in Global Crop Production: Hotspots and Trade
-
Offs
with Land Use

PFISTER, STEPHAN; BAYER, PETER; KOEHLER, ANNETTE;
HEILWEG, STEFANIE

[b1] ETH Zurich, Institute of Environmental Engineering, 8093 Zuri
ch,
Switzerland; [b2] ETH Zurich, Geological Institute, 8092 Zurich, Switzerland

Environmental science
& technology. 2011 vol. 45 (13) : pp. 5761
-

5768 [8 p.]
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[0013
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936X ]

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English
+
[acces au
document]

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>
water use; land use; hot spot; environment impact df
-

utilisation
eau; occupation sol; point chaud; impact environnement dg
-

uso del
agua; ocupacion terreno; punto caliente; impacto medio ambiente;
environment; pollution; ecol
ogy; energy;

--
> Global crop production is causing pressure on water and land resources in many places. In addition
to local resource management, the related environmental impacts of commodities traded along
international supply chains need to be considere
d and managed accordingly. For this purpose, we
calculate the specific water consumption and land use for the production of 160 crops and crop groups,
covering most harvested mass on global cropland We quantify indicators for land and water scarcity
with h
igh geospatial resolution. This facilitates spatially explicit crop
-
specific resource management
and regionalized life cycle assessment of processed products. The vast cultivation of irrigated wheat,
rice, cotton, maize, and sugar cane, which are major sou
rces of food, bioenergy, and fiber, drives
worldwide water scarcity. According to globally averaged production, substituting biofuel for crude oil
would have a lower impact on water resources than substituting cotton for polyester. For some crops,
water sc
arcity impacts re inversely related to land resource stress, illustrating that water consumption is
often at odds with land use. On global average, maize performs better than rice and wheat in the
combined land/water assessment High spatial variability of
water and land use related impacts
underlines the importance of appropriate site selection for agricultural activities. NR
-

38 ref.

ref.
[K60/120420659](PASCAL)

6
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Generating value from the Chiquitania almond
Dipteryx alata

(Vogel): a strategy to reduce the
environmental impact of agropastoral development in Bolivia?[Spanish]

VENNETIER, C.;
PELTIER, R.; COIMBRA, J.

Fundacion para la Conservacion del Bosque Chiquitano,
Avenida Ejercito Nacional no 160, Santa Cruz de la Sier
ra, Bolivia.

Bois et Forets des Tropiques;
2012. 311, 35
-
48. 18 ref.
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[0006
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579X ]

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Spanish
+
[acces au document]

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>
afforestation; agroforestry systems; agropastoral systems;
biodiversity; environmental i
mpact; farmers; income; nature
conservation; non
-
wood forest products; rural communities;
silvopastoral systems; socioeconomics; bolivia

--
> To help reconcile economic development and forest conservation in Bolivia, the Foundation for the
conservation of C
hiquitanian dry forest (FCBC) is seeking to support non
-
timber forest production
(NTFP), for example of Chiquitanian almonds,
Dipteryx alata

(Vogel). The edible fruits of this
indigenous tree from the Chiquitanian dry forest eco
-
region, are harvested by in
digenous communities,
processed by a producers' association and marketed mainly in the Santa Cruz district. Although
obstacles exist, building up a commercial Chiquitanian almond sector is a promising avenue for socio
-
economic development. It provides oppo
rtunities for indigenous families to earn an additional income,
becoming part of a strategy to reduce risks by diversifying production and economic activities. The
emergence of outlets for Chiquitanian almonds has fostered a spontaneous protective attitude

towards
the species among producers, although at present this is limited to individual spaces such as fields,
pastures and courtyar s. More than urging rural communities to preserve the integrity of forest areas,
this kind of development encourages them t
o establish plantations. Nevertheless, the context and the
ecological characteristics of this leguminous fodder tree favour its plantation as part of agro
-
forestry or
sylvopastoral systems, which are not widespread in this eco
-
region. This option would the
refore help to
mitigate the negative effects of agro
-
pastoral development, by promoting more environmentally sound
practices. An increasing number of private livestock farmers are taking up this technical option, and
Dipteryx alata

could become a key to pr
omoting reforestation of man
-
made pastures.

ref.
[K20/20123314827](CAB ABSTRACTS)

7
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Life cycle assessment of the cogeneration processes in the Cuban sugar industry

P_REZ
GIL, MAYLIER; CONTRERAS MOYA, ANA M.; ROSA DOM_NGUEZ, ELENA


Journal of
Cleaner Pr
oduction. 2013. 41, 0, 222
-
231

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[0959
-
6526]

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[acces au document]

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>
bagasse; cogeneration; eco
-
indicator 99; electricity; energy; lca

--
> The cogeneration process from sugarcane bagasse is

an alternative way to reduce fossil fuels
consumption. In the environmental assessment of products, processes and services the methodology of
Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) is commonly used. This study aimed to evaluate and compare the
environmental impacts of

the life cycle of different cogeneration technologies currently used in the
Cuban sugar industry. For doing this, a combination of nine steam generators models with eight
turbogenerators was analyzed, for a total of 72 alternatives, using the Eco
-
indicato
r 99 and the software
SimaPro. The electricity generated daily (1000_kWh) was the functional unit used for the analysis. The
results showed that the reduction of this process emissions to the air, water and soil had a favorable
effect on the categories of
carcinogenesis, radiation, ecotoxicity and land use. The category of Human
Health damages reached higher impacts in the cogeneration stage, which represented about 80% of the
total environmental impact of the process. It was evidenced that the largest cont
ribution to this category
was the emissions of particulate material from bagasse combustion. The combination of the steam
generator German Modified EKE 80 with the Russian turbogenerator 2500 was the alternative that
involved a reduction of the total impac
t compared to the rest of alternatives.

ref.
[Z82/](SCIENCE
DIRECT)

8
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Modelling the environmental impact of pesticides sprayed on greenhouse tomatoes: a regional
case study in Colombia.

BOJACA, C. R.; GIL, R.; CASILIMAS, H.; ARIAS, L.
A.; SCHREVENS, E.


Facultad de Ciencias Naturales e Ingenieria, Universidad de Bogota Jorge
Tadeo Lozano, Bogota, Colombia.

Acta Horticulturae; 2012. 957, 61
-
68. 18 ref.
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[978
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90
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66055
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15
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5 ]

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[0567
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English

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IV International Symposium on Models for Plant
Growth,
Environmental Control and Farm Management in Protected Cultivation
-

HortiModel2012, Nanjing,
China.
+
[
acces

au document]

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>
air

pollution; environmental impact; geographical variation; life
cycle assessment; pesticide residues; pesticides; simulation models;
spatial variation; tomatoes; topsoil; solanum lycopersicum; colombia

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> In many horticultural areas, the pest management in

bio
-
physically limited and technically
constrained production systems is reduced to a chemical control strategy. The environmental impact
and fate of pesticides and fertilizers is becoming a matter of growing concern among research
organizations and gover
nmental institutions in countries such as Colombia. The objective of the present
work was to estimate the environmental impact caused by the pesticides used in greenhouse tomatoes.
Primary information was collected through structured interviews with a repr
esentative set of local
growers. For each grower amount of pesticide products used as well as the pesticide management
schemes were investigated. Through a life cycle assessment approach the environmental impact of
pesticides manufacture, transport and fie
ld use was estimated. An adapted version of the PestLCI and
USES
-
LCA models were used to estimate the environmental fate of pesticides for each individual
production unit. The USES
-
LCA model considered t e field use stage with the topsoil layer and the air

as the affected environmental compartments. Afterwards, the impact was scaled
-
up to the regional level
by modelling the spatially variability observed for the surveyed pesticide data. In order to determine if
the environmental impact caused by pesticides
is evenly distributed or exhibited any spatial pattern a
point pattern analysis was carried out. Results indicated a higher impact at the manufacture stage for
most of the categories analysed. A high variability on the environmental impact was observed at
the
regional scale due to the different products and schemes applied by individual growers in the region.

ref.
[K20/20123377998](CAB ABSTRACTS)

9
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Promouvoir la durabilit_ par lanalyse du cycle de vie des produits

GUELDRY, MICHEL;
KNUCKLES, JAMES


Reche
rche sur Internet; 2012; information non valid_e. [consult_e le 28
novembre 2012].

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[1492
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8442]

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>
analyse des processus; comptabilit_ int_gr_e; cycle de vie des
produits; eco
design; triple imp_ratif

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> "... Nous proposons ici une m_thode pour g_rer limpact du cycle de vie des produits (CVP) sur le
triple imp_ratif (social, environnemental et _conomique), cette durabilit_ entrepreneuriale que lon
exprime aussi souvent comme la

r_conciliation multiforme du __triple P__ (Population, Plan_te et
Profits/Prosp_rit_) pour d_passer les exc_s et contradictions du syst_me actuel, ce __triple C__
(Carboniferous Consumer Capitalism) non durable. Notre analyse des flux et des processus qui

constituent le CVP englobe ses trois dimensions compl_mentaires identifi_es par Chris T. Hendrickson
et al., _ savoir __inventory, impact, and improvement__ (2006). Dans ce but, nous nous situons dabord
par rapport aux id_es dominantes dans le champ de la
nalyse du CVP. Ensuite, nous proposons de lier
cet inventaire syst_matique _ ses impacts, cest
-
_
-
dire, selon lexpression de Marc J. Epstein et Bill
Birchard, consultants bien connus aux _tats
-
Unis pour la responsabilit_ sociale des entreprises, de
__compte
r ce qui compte__ (2000). C tte _valuation du CVP permet den discuter les applications et
am_liorations pratiques (__improvement__) par la comptabilit_ int_gr_e ou __triple__. Cet instrument
permet de hi_rarchiser les d_cisions, de minimiser limpact n_gati
f et daugmenter limpact positif du
CVP, et, au bout du compte, de servir des finalit_s plus vastes que le seul lucre ou le seul profit. ..."
(Source Internet)

ref.
[Z27/](THE WEB)

10
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Which carbon footprint tool for the cotton supply chain.

VISSER, F.;
DARGUSH, P.;
SMITH, C.

School of Agriculture and Food Sciences, University of Queensland, Brisbane,
Australia.

World Cotton Research Conference
-
5, Mumbai, India, 7
-
11 November 2011; 2011. 323
-
337. 37 ref.
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[978
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93
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81361
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51
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1 ]

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English

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World Cott
on Research Conference
-
5, Mumbai,
India, 7
-
11 November 2011.
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acces

au document]

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>
accuracy; carbon; carbon dioxide; cotton; emission; life cycle
assessment; supply balance; sustainabi
lity; gossypium; gossypium
hirsutum; australia

--
> Appropriate and user
-
friendly tools are required by members of the textile supply chain, including
farmers, to measure the carbon footprint levels of raw materials and products. The purpose of the study
is

therefore to identify the most appropriate carbon footprint calculator to be used by cotton suppliers to
meet the emerging sustainability measurement requirements from brand owners and retailers in the
textile supply chain. The textile sector has adopted
a Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) approach to evaluate
the sustainability levels of raw materials. Currently there is interest in the development of standards
and methods that are suitable for the calculation of the carbon footprint levels of products in particu
lar.
The first step in terms of the methodology was to identify a range of applicable carbon footprint
calculators that may be used by industry for a cotton crop. Nine calculators were identified and they
were analysed following an outcome
-
based approach.
The next phase comprised of an actual case study
n an irrigated cotton farm in the Goondiwindi district in Australia where the field data was gathered to
populate the nine calculators. The reporting framework was developed that incorporates both on
-
farm
an
d off
-
farm emission sources and that is also aligned to a Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) approach. The
results show that total net carbon footprint for the same cotton from the same farm varies from 828 kg
CO
2

e/ha to 4703 kg CO
2

e/ha according to the different calculators. It appears that there are big
differences in the methodologies that are being applied, especially for soil carbon emissions, and
results even vary for common 'standardised' emission indicators like fuel use. We

conclude there is a
compelling need for an internationally standardised format and methodology for crop
-
level carbon
footprint calculations for the textile supply chain. Although these are all 'reputable' CFP tools, applied
to the same farm data, they gen
erate vastly

ref.
[K20/20123356672](CAB ABSTRACTS)



1
-

Assessing environmental performance by combining life cycle assessment, multi
-
criteria
analysis and environmental performance indicators

HERMANN, B.G.; KROEZE, C.;
JAWJIT, W.


Journal of Cleaner
Production. 2007. 15, 18, 1787
-
1796

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[0959
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6526]

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document]

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>
analytic hierarchy process (ahp); environmental performance;
eucalyptus; life cycle assessment (lca); pulp; thailan
d

--
> We present a new analytical tool, called COMPLIMENT, which can be used to provide detailed
information on the overall environmental impact of a business. COMPLIMENT integrates parts of
tools such as life cycle assessment, multi
-
criteria analysis and
environmental performance indicators. It
avoids disadvantages and combines complementary aspects of these three tools. The methodology is
based on environmental performance indicators, expanding the scope of data collection towards a life
cycle approach an
d including a weighting and aggregation step. A_case study on the Thai pulp industry
illustrates the usefulness of COMPLIMENT.

ref.
[Z82/](SCIENCE DIRECT)

2
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Biofuel scenarios in a water perspective: the global blue and green water footprint of road
tran
sport in 2030.

GERBENS
-
LEENES, P. W.; LIENDEN, A. R. VAN; HOEKSTRA,
A. Y.; MEER, T. H. VAN DER

Dept. of Water Engineering and Management, University of
Twente, P.O. Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede, Netherlands.

Global Environmental Change; 2012. 22: 3,
764
-
77
5. many ref.
--

[0959
-
3780 ]

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English
+
[acces au document]

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>
biodiesel; bioenergy; biofuels; biomass; climate; climatic change;
ethanol; fossil fuels; fresh water; maize; oil palms; rap
eseed;
renewable energy; renewable resources; road transport; soyabeans;
sugarbeet; sugarcane; sweet sorghum; water resources; wate

--
> Concerns over energy security and climate change stimulate developments towards renewable
energy. Transport is expected
to switch from fossil fuel use to the use of fuel mixtures with a larger
fraction of biofuels, e.g. bio
-
ethanol and biodiesel. Growing biomass for biofuels requires water, a
scarce resource. Existing scenarios on freshwater use usually consider changes in
food and livestock
production, and industrial and domestic activities. This research assesses global water use changes
related to increasing biofuel use for road transport in 2030 and evaluates the potential contribution to
water scarcity. To investigate w
ater demand changes related to a transition to biofuels in road transport,
the study combines data from water footprint (WF) analyses with information from the IEA APS
energy scenario for 2030. It includes first
-
generation biofuels, bio
-
ethanol from sugar
cane, sugar beet,
sweet sorghum, wheat and maize, and biodiesel from soybean, rapeseed, jatropha and oil palm. Under
the IEA APS scena io, the global biofuel WF will increase more than tenfold in the period 2005
-
2030.
The USA, China and Brazil together wil
l contribute half of the global biofuel WF. In many countries,
blue biofuel WFs significantly contribute to blue water scarcity. The research provides a first
exploration of the potential contribution of transport biofuel use to blue water scarcity. In 203
0, the
global blue biofuel WF might have grown to 5.5% of the totally available blue water for humans,
causing extra pressure on fresh water resources. When biofuel use continues to expand after 2030,
countries should therefore consider the water factor wh
en investigating the extent to which biofuels can
satisfy future transport energy demand.

ref.
[K20/20123343137](CAB ABSTRACTS)

3
-

Economic impact of payment of carbon credits and environmental services in forestry
investments in the Caribbean region of
Costa Rica.[Spanish]

FONSECA, W.; NAVARRO,
G.; ALICE, F.; REY
-
BENAYAS, J. M.

Escuela de Ciencias Ambientales, Campus Omar
Dengo, Universidad Nacional de Costa Rica, Apdo postal 86
-
3000, Heredia, Costa Rica.

Ecosistemas; 2012. 21: 1/2, 21
-
35. 42 ref.
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[1697
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2473 ]

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Spanish
+
[acces au document]

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>
bananas; carbon markets; discounts; ecological restoration;
economic impact; ecosystem services; emission; forest management;
forest pla
ntations; forestry practices; forests; investment; natural
regeneration; pineapples; prices; secondary forests; timbers

--
> The goal of this study is to estimate the economic efficiency of the investment associated with
forest restoration processes through

the establishment of forest plantations (
Vochysia guatemalensis

and
Hieronyma alchorneoides
) and natural regeneration (secondary forest with and without
management). Different economic scenarios were considered with variations from revenues coming
from timber sales, payment of environmental services (PES) by the Costa Rican government, and sales

of emission reduction certificates. Forestry activities were analyzed in the context of other alternative
uses such as cattle, bananas and pineapple plantations. The investment analysis was performed taking
into account the land expectation value (VET) wi
th annual minimum acceptable discount rates in real
terms (TMA) of 9%, 6% and 3%, which reflected different investor preferences and conditions. For
plantation forestry and secondary forest with and without intensive management, estimated average
investmen
t were US$5200, S$1730 y US$1373 ha
-
1, respectively. Timber revenues were above
US$21142 ha
-
1 for both species under plantation forestry. Secondary forest revenues were US$1250
and US$13408 ha
-
1 for secondary forest with low and intensive management, respe
ctively. CER and
PSA represented marginal quantities compared with timber revenues. Pineapple and banana plantations
are land uses with the highest economic efficiency, followed by forest plantations. Cattle
-
raising and
secondary forest with and without ma
nagement are not only the least profitable land uses but also their
calculated values are below the land price. Forest restoration will not become an acceptable economic
activity for a landowner that relies on income generated from environmental services a
nd carbon
credits at current prices. High timber prices and low discount rates (desirable macroeconomic
conditions) are determining factors in achieving efficient and sustainable investments in forestry
activities in the Cari

ref.
[K20/20123309973](CAB AB
STRACTS)

4
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Effects of different water supply on water consumption and yield of pumpkins in a cold high
altitude semiarid region.

WANG ZHENYU; DONG XIAOJIE; LI SHUWEN; CHAI
YANLIANG; WEN HONGDA

College of Resources and Environment Sciences, Agricultural

University of Hebei, Baoding 071001, China.

Journal of Agriculture, Biotechnology and Ecology;
2012. 5: 2, 30
-
38. 19 ref.
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[2006
-
3938 ]

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English
+
[acces au document]

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>
crop yield; flowering; high altitude; irrigation; pumpkins; rain;
sandy soils; semiarid zones; water supply; water use; water use
efficiency; cucurbita; china; hebei

--
> Drought, surface roughness and thin s
oil layer are factors limiting high and sustained crop yield in
the sandy chestnut soil of North West Hebei plateau. A plot experiment was conducted to study the
effects of five irrigation methods on yield and water consumption of pumpkins. The irrigation
methods
studied were: simulated poor rain year (W158,CK), normal rain year (W258), plentiful rain year
(W358), poor rain plus supplemental irrigation year (W178, supplying 10 mm water once at flowering,
vine elongation and fruit enlargement), normal rain p
lus supplemental irrigation (W278, supplying 10
mm water at flowering and vine elongation and fruit enlargement). The results showed that the
thickness of irrigated pumpkin flesh increased 42.25% to 3.03 cm compared with the control. The
average fruit weig
ht was 1.56 kg, an increase of 116.67%. The highest yield was 19604.5 kg.hm
-
2,
which was an increase of 117.41%; the water use efficiency of the treatment, W278 was 64.76 kg.mm
-
1.hm
-
2, being 38.49% greater than that o CK. The treatment, W278 also gave pump
kin fruits with
improved shape, thicker flesh and better water use efficiency. Thus, the treatment (W278) was the best
irrigation scheme for production of good quality pumpkin in the region under study.

ref.
[K20/20123331831](CAB ABSTRACTS)

5
-

Evaluating

Environmental Performance of Concentrated Latex Production in Thailand

JAWJIT, WARIT; PAVASANT, PRASERT; KROEZE, CAROLIEN


Recherche sur Internet;
2012; information non valid_e. [consult_e le 31 octobre 2012].

+
[
acces

au document]


ref.
[Z27/](THE WEB)

6
-

LCA applied to perennial cropping systems: a review focused on the farm stage

BESSOU,
CECILE; BASSET
-
MENS, CLAUDINE; TRAN, THIERRY; BENOIST, ANTHONY


LCA
applied to perennial cr
opping systems. 2012. , ,
-

--

[0948
-
3349, 1614
-
7502]

+
[acces au document]


ref.
[Z83/](SPRINGER)

7
-

Seasonal vegetables; an environmental assessment of seasonal food

KARLSSON, HANNA


Recherche sur Internet; 2012; information non valid_e. [consult_e le 30 octobre 2012].

+
[
acces

au
document]

--
>
environmental impact; greenhouses; life cycle analysis; seasona
l
food; sweden; vegetables

--
> "... The environmentally conscious consumer is advised to consume seasonal food even though
there is not a universally accepted definition of the term seasonal food. The ambiguity around the term
seasonal food concerns the si
ze of the geographical area and the permitted production systems from
which the consumer may acquireseasonal food. This study addresses the ambiguity of the term by
focusing on the Swedish per capita consumptionof carrots and tomatoes and by assessing the
environmental impact of four different definitions of seasonal food. The four definitions are Swedish
season (Habit A), Swedish season without climate controlled greenhouses (Habit B), European season
(Habit C) and European season without climate controlle
d greenhouses (Habit D). Life Cycle
Assessment (LCA) was used to assess the environmental impact of tomato and carrot production in
Sweden and inthe two main import countries for tomatoes, the Netherlands and Spain, and carrots, the
Netherlands and Italy.
The impact categories include were global warming potential, fossil fuel
depletion, arable land use, acidification potential and eutrophication potential. Habit B with neither
climate controlled greenhouses nor long transportation distances had a significa
ntly lower impact for
global warming potential, fossil fuel depletion andacidification potential and the second lowest
eutrophication potential but the highest arable land use. The energy use and energy sources for heating
in the tomato production were the

most important factors for the aggregated impact from tomato and
carrot consumption for Habit A and C. Impacts from transportation were significant forHabit D.
Generally, the consumption of carrots contributes 10
-
30% to the aggregated impact, except for
a
rableland use where carrot consumption dominates the impact. The study also showed that for produce
from climatecontrolled greenhouses seasonality is less important for the environmental impact because
the impact from energy use and energ

ref.
[Z27/](THE
WEB)

8
-

Social and environmental impact of rapid change in the coastal zone of Vietnam: an
assessment of sustainability issues

GOWING, J. W.; TUONG, T. P.; HOANH, CHU
THAI; KHIEM, N. T.


Recherche sur Internet; 2012; information non valid_e. [consult_e l
e 30
octobre 2012].

+
[
acces

au document]


ref.
[Z27/](THE WEB)

9
-

The water footprint of bioenergy

GERBENS
-
LEENES, WINNIE
; HOEKSTRA, ARJEN
Y.; MEER, THEO H. VAN DER


Recherche sur Internet; 2012; information non valid_e.
[consult_e le 20 octobre 2012].

--

[0027
-
8424, 1091
-
6490]

+
[acces au document]

--
>
biomass; clima
te change; energy; natural resource use;
sustainability

--
> "... All energy scenarios show a shift toward an increased percentage of renewable energy sources,
including biomass. This study gives an overview of water footprints (WFs) of bioenergy from 12 cr
ops
that currently contribute the most to global agricultural production: barley, cassava, maize, potato,
rapeseed, rice, rye, sorghum, soybean, sugar beet, sugar cane, and wheat. In addition, this study
includes jatropha, a suitable energy crop. Since cli
mate and production circumstances differ among
regions, calculations have been performed by country. The WF of bioelectricity is smaller than that of
biofuels because it is more efficient to use total biomass (e.g., for electricity or heat) than a fraction

of
the crop (its sugar, starch, or oil content) for biofuel. The WF of bioethanol appears to be smaller than
that of biodiesel. For electricity, sugar beet, maize, and sugar cane are the most favorable crops [50
m3/gigajoule (GJ)]. Rapeseed and jatropha,
typical energy crops, are disadvantageous (400 m3/GJ).
For ethanol, sugar beet, and potato (60 and 100 m3/GJ) are the most advantageous, followed by sugar
cane (110 m3/GJ); sorghum (400 m3/GJ) is the most unfavorable. For biodiesel, soybean and rapeseed
sh
ow to be the most favorable WF (400 m3/GJ); jatropha has an adverse WF (600 m3/GJ). When
expressed per L, the WF ranges from 1,400 to 20,000 L of water per L of biofuel. If a shift toward a
greater contribution of bioenergy to energy supply takes place, th
e results of this study can be used to
select the crops and countries that produce bioenergy in the most water
-
efficient way. ..." (Source
Internet)

ref.
[Z27/](THE WEB)

10
-

Using LCA to assess environmental impact of processing tomato production: first approach.

COLETTO, L.; FREZZA, A.; ELSAYED, M.; NICOLETTO, C.; SAMBO, P.;
BONA, S.

Dept. of Environmental Agronomy and Crop Production, University of Padova, Viale
dell'Unive
rsita 16, 35020, Legnaro (PD), Italy.

Acta Horticulturae; 2012. 936, 79
-
85. 13 ref.
--

[978
-
90
-
66054
-
94
-
3 ]

--

[0567
-
7572 ]

--

English

--

XXVIII International Horticultural Congress on
Science and Horticulture for People (IHC2010): International Symposiu
m on Quality
-
Chain
Management of Fresh Vegetables: From Fork to Farm, Lisbon, Portugal.
+
[
acces

au document]

--
>
agricultural production; crop yield; cultivars; fruits; life cycle
assessment; mul
ching; tomatoes; solanum lycopersicum; italy

--
> The agriculture is one of the most productive activities tied to the environment and it has been often
difficult to understand its economical, social and environmental pressure. In the last years the
prospec
tive has changed: the primary objective of agriculture is not only to produce food but, also, to
manage the land in a sustainable way. This research studied a tomato crop grown adopting different
practices and evaluated possible combinations able to reduce

environmental burdens of tomato
cultivation. The field work has been developed between March and September 2009 using a factorial
combination of four transplant data, four commercial varieties and two agronomic treatments (mulched
and not mulched). The to
ol used to appraise the environmental impact was the software SimaPro 7.2.3
that uses LCA (Life Cycle Assessment) methodology; in this way it was possible to analyze the whole
production cycle, from the seed to the harvested fruits. The impacts were based
on evaluating a 1 kg of
healthy ripe product; t e evaluation methods used were Eco
-
indicator 99 H/A and Ecological Scarcity
(2006). The results showed differences between mulched and not mulched treatment, the first had
superior production, and so a positi
ve impact on environmental parameters. One variety (NPT) was, on
average of combinations, the most productive, probably because it was the best adaptable to the
different conditions in the field; this variety had also a lower environmental impact as it use
s the same
resources obtaining higher yields. No differences were found among transplant periods for all the LCA
categories.

ref.
[K20/20123342965](CAB ABSTRACTS)