Presenter: Dr. Karl Ricanek, Jr.

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Nov 30, 2013 (3 years and 6 months ago)

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Presenter: Dr. Karl Ricanek, Jr.

Director Face Aging Group

Dept. of Computer Science, UNCW

Overview


Biometrics Definition


History of Biometrics


Biometrics Overview


Variety of Biometric Technology


Anatomy of a Biometric


Face recognition biometric deep dive


Acquiring face, features of face used, similarity measures, etc.


Remaining challenges of FR


Biometrics, Security and You


Security needs for biometrics


Why implement biometrics for security?


Where can we find biometrics in use today?


What are the future trends for biometrics? Is the movie “Minority Report” on
target?


What are you opinions of a pervasive use of biometrics for security purposes?


Wrap Up / Q&A


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Biometrics Definition


Biometrics (
wikipedia
)
--

Biometrics are used to identify the identity of an input sample
when compared to a template, used in cases to identify specific people by certain
characteristics.


possession
-
based: using one specific "token" such as a security tag or a card


knowledge
-
based: the use of a code or password.


Biometrics (
questbiometric.com
)
--

The word "biometrics" is derived from the Greek
words 'bios' and 'metric' ; which means life and measurement respectively. This directly
translates into "life measurement”. General science has included biometrics as a field of
statistical development since the early twentieth century. A very good example is the
statistical analysis of data from agricultural field experiments comparing the yields of
different varieties of wheat. In this way, science is taking a life measurement of the
agriculture to ultimately determine more efficient methods of growth.


Biometrics technologies measure a particular set of a person's vital statistics in order to
determine identity
.


Biometrics in the high technology sector refers to a particular class of
identification technologies. These technologies use an individual's unique
biological traits to determine one's identity.

The traits that are considered include
fingerprints, retina and iris patterns, facial characteristics and many more.

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History of Biometrics


The earliest written record of biometric use was by the Egyptians during the
building of the great pyramids. The workforce for building the pyramids has
been estimated in the tens of thousands.


Payments were recorded based on identifying characteristics of the person,
parentage, and place of birth.


China 14
th

Century


merchants stamped children’s palm prints and footprints
on paper with ink to differentiate the young children. Practice is in use today
throughout the world.


Alphonse Bertillon (Paris 1890)


developed a system track criminals by taking
multiple body measurements. The system known as
Bertillonage

was used for
years until it was discovered that some people had the same body measures.
(
not a unique measure.
)


Richard Edward Henry (Scotland Yard)


is credited for developing the
fingerprinting method. (
Note: that the Chinese had been doing this for
centuries prior
.)


The last three decades has seen an explosion in the development of, and use of,
biometrics. An impetus was the tragedy of September 11.

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Biometrics Overview


The security field uses three different types of
identification:


Something You Know

a password, PIN, or piece of
personal information (such as your mother's maiden name);



Something You Have

a card key, smart card, or token (like
a Secure ID card); and/or


Something You Are

a biometric.


Of these, a biometric is the most secure and convenient
authentication tool. It can't be borrowed, stolen, or
forgotten, and forging one is practically impossible.

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Biometrics Overview (cont.)


Types of Authentication


Identification (1 to many)
-

A task where the biometric system
searches a database for a reference matching a submitted
biometric sample, and if found, returns a corresponding
identity. A biometric is collected and compared to all the
references in a database. Identification is “closed
-
set” if the
person is known to exist in the database.


Verification (1 to 1)
-

A task where the biometric system
attempts to confirm an individual’s claimed identity by
comparing a submitted sample to one or more previously
enrolled templates.


Watch List (1 to few)
-

The biometric system determines if the
individual’s biometric template matches a biometric template
of someone on the watch list. The individual does not make
an identity claim.


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Biometrics Overview (cont.)


Characteristics of a biometric for authentication:


Uniqueness
-
The same trait will not appear in two
people.


Universality
-
The trait has to occur in many people as
possible.


Permanence
-
The trait does not change over time.


Measurability
-
The trait can be measured with simple
technical instruments.


User friendliness
-
The trait is easily measured with
minimal discomfort.

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Variety of Biometrics


Two categories of biometrics:

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Variety of Biometrics (cont.)


Passive Biometrics


does
not
require active participation
by subject.



Face Recognition
: The identification of a person by their
facial image characteristics.


Voice Recognition
: Identification using the acoustic features
of speech that have been found to differ between individuals.
(partial passive)


Iris Recognition
: This identification method uses the
unique characterizes of the iris. (partial passive)


Gait Recognition
: This identification method uses the
unique characteristics of a person’s walking pattern
differentiate people.

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Variety of Biometrics (cont.)


Active Biometrics


does

require active participation of subject.


Fingerprint Recognition
: Identification by using patterns of friction ridges
and valleys on an individual's fingertips are unique to that individual. By far the
most widely accepted biometric.


Hand and Finger Geometry
: Identification by measuring either physical
characteristics of the fingers or the hands.


Signature Verification
: Identification using the dynamic analysis of a
signature to authenticate a person (
keystroke biometric is a derivative of this
form of biometric)
.


Venial Recognition
: A system for Identification using a persons unique vein
patterns (
retina recognition is a form
).


Palm Print Recognition
: Uses the lines on one's palm to identify an individual
(
similar to fingerprint recognition
).


Bio
-
signal Recognition
: Identification by analyzing signals generated by the
body through its normal chemical/electrical (neural/nervous) system. (
Still in
its infancy as a biometric.
)


DNA
: Identification based on the unique sequence of DNA that all persons
have.

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Variety of Biometrics (cont.)


Multimodal biometric systems are those that utilize more
than one physiological or behavioral characteristic for
enrollment, verification, or authentication.


Multi
-
modal biometric systems are looked to as a means of:


reducing false non
-
match and false match rates,


providing a secondary means of enrollment, verification, and
identification if sufficient data cannot be acquired from a
given biometric sample, and


combating attempts to spoof biometric systems through non
-
live data sources such as fake fingers.

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Anatomy of a Biometric


Face Recognition (identification)


identifies people from
images of their face when presented to the system.


Process


Enrollment
--

faces associated with a group must be “enrolled” into
the system. The process of enrollment involves extracting specific
features from the face image and projecting them in to a hyper
dimensional space (face space).


Query/probe


the face to be identified is presented to the system.
The system extracts the features that it uses and projects the face
into the face space.


Similarity Measure


the system generates a similarity score of the
probe against all enrolled faces. The system uses a criteria to
determine which of the enrolled faces it should match to, if any at
all. (
The probe may not be a known person, i.e. a person not enrolled.
)


Identification


the system selects the best enrolled candidate and
returns it to the end
-
user, if a match is determined likely.

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Anatomy of a Biometric (cont.)

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Enrollment :

Capture and processing of user biometric
data for use by system in subsequent authentication
operations.


Acquire and Digitize

Biometric Data

Extract

High Quality Biometric

Features/Representation

Formulate

Biometric

Feature/Rep Template

Database

Template

Repository

Authentication/Verification :

Capture and processing of
user biometric data in order to render an authentication
decision based on the outcome of a matching process of
the stored to current template.

Acquire and Digitize

Biometric Data

Extract

High Quality Biometric

Features/Representation

Formulate

Biometric

Feature/Rep Template

Template

Matcher

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Anatomy of a Biometric (cont.)


FR’s

remaining challenges:


FR has been an active research topic for the last two decades and many
system challenges have been overcome:


lateral pose


from left profile to full frontal to right profile (
use 3D model
correction
)


angular pose


up/down head position profile (
use 3D model correction
)


azimuth pose


tilt of the head profile (
use 3D model correction
)


lighting/shadowing


lighting differences between enrolled and probe images has
almost been eliminated as a source of error. Strong angular lighting/shadowing is
still a research topic
.
(
Use lighting models to correct.
)


facial expression/gesture


has made significant in roads over the last decade. A
facial gesture can change the location of features and the shape of the face. (
Still
being resolved.
)


aging of face


an aging face undergoes significant changes that affect the shape
and appearance of the face in unpredictable manner. The problem is further
exacerbated by the nonlinear effects of age and the multitude of parameters that
contribute to aging, e.g. sun exposure, smoking, drugs, genetics, gender, ethnicity,
etc. (
My research team is working to resolve these issues.
)

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Anatomy of a Biometric (cont.)

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Example of typical aging:

Caucasian male 18
-

42

Caucasian female 32
-

44

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Anatomy of a Biometric (cont.)


Facial model demonstration.

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Biometrics, Security, & You


Security needs for biometrics:


Physical Security
: Access to a physical location such as
a building or room.


Cyber Security
: Access to an organization’s network
through a biometrically authenticated login schema.


Transactional Security
: Any monetary transaction
which biometrically authenticates, accesses, and
atomically debits or credits the user’s account.

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Biometrics, Security, & You (cont.)


Why implement biometrics for security?


Convenience for users


Control for businesses


Inexpensive implementation


Price/Performance curves dropping


Saves money (i.e., no need for producing keys, etc.)


Accountability/Non
-
Repudiation Improved identification
(i.e., authentication, verification, impersonation)


Improved audit trail


Less administration (i.e., paperwork, cards, etc.)


More security (depends on implementation)

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Biometrics, Security, & You (cont.)


Where can we find biometrics in use today?


Voter Registration


Driver Licensing


Border Control


Passport / VISA


Welfare / Government Insurance (WIC)


Criminal ID / Wanted Persons Lookup


Jail Management


Airports / Frequent Traveler / Passenger Tracking


Check Cashing


eCommerce

& Financial Services



Identity Theft ranked as the number one complaint for the fourth year in
a row, with 635,000 reported instances in 2004, up 300 percent from last
year's figure of 161,819

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Biometrics, Security, & You (cont.)


Where can we find biometrics in use today?


At Walt Disney World biometric measurements are taken
from the fingers of guests to ensure that the person's ticket is
used by the same person from day to day





At your local Harris Teeter grocery chain. They use a finger
geometry system for electronic checking.


Your local bank uses fingerprinting techniques for
authentication.

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Biometrics, Security, & You (cont.)


Examples from
www.youtube.com


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http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=H2a0KYtG97E


http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=R
-
EjqmxH_wQ


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Biometrics, Security, & You (cont.)


FBI has an initiative to collect biometric data on all
citizens. This is a new initiative that flies in the face of
citizens rights over security. More details can be found
at:
http://www.youtube.com/swf/l.swf?video_id=jADItD
HOHOA



What are your opinions of a pervasive use of
biometrics for security purposes?


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Biometrics, Security, & You (cont.)


What are the future trends for biometrics? Is the
movie “Minority Report” on target?


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http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oBaiKsYUdvg


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Closing


Wrap
-
up


Biometrics are here to stay. We have grown accustomed
to their use and utility within our communities.
Biometrics will continue to invade our daily lives.
Minority Report like capabilities are on the horizon and
will be in place in the next decade or two.



Questions & Answers.

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References

1.
www.computer.org/itpro/homepage/Jan_Feb/securit
y3.htm

2.
www.veid.net/Applications/biometrics.htm


3.
http://www.biometricscatalog.org/biometrics/Glossa
ryDec2005.pdf


4.
http://www.biometrics.gov/NSTC/Presentations.aspx


5.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biometric


6.
http://www.questbiometrics.com/


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