Monsanto presentation

clatteringlippsBiotechnology

Dec 5, 2012 (4 years and 9 months ago)

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What to Expect


Historical Overview


Financial Overview


Mergers and Acquisitions


GM products


Corn Modifications


EPA’s Opinion


Pharmacorn


Conclusion

History


In 1901 J.F. Queeny, longtime employee in the pharmaceutical
industry, started a company to produce for the food and
pharmaceutical industry. The company was named after his wife,
whose maiden name was Monsanto. It was located in St. Louis.


(Queeny had previously run a refining company, which burned down on its first
day of operations)


In the beginning, the company produced saccharin. In 1905 it turned
its first profit.


Interestingly, the entire product of 1903 and 1905 was shipped to a small
company called Coca Cola.


In 1904 Monsanto added Caffeine and Vanillin to its list of products.


In 1913 Monsanto opened offices in New York. World War One forced them to stop
importing raw materials and start making their own, leading to massive expansion.


In 1915 Sales passed One Million Dollars.


In 1917 Monsanto begins aspirin production. Largest producer until 1980. Also in
1917 was the first test case against saccharin (according to the Monsanto website,
“the suit was dismissed in 1925, ending the government's unsuccessful attempts then
to prove saccharin harmful.”


In 1918 Monsanto made its first acquisition of another company, Commercial Acid
Company of Illinois. Monsanto now had two plants.


In 1928 Queeny’s son Edgar took over.


In 1929 expansion moved into other industries with the acquisition of a rubber
chemical company and a textile, leather, and paper chemical company.


On October 10, 1929 the Monsanto Chemical Company was listed on the NYSE. 19
days later the market crashed. Monsanto continued to expand throughout the
depression, acquiring new companies and in 1931 moving into Canada.


In WWII Monsanto’s Dayton Laboratories were heavily involved with the
Manhattan Project, working on Uranium. Monsanto continued to do government
nuclear work until the 1980s. Monsanto was also heavily involved with synthetic
rubber production, another strategic product.


Monsanto entered the agrochemical business as a result of producing
DDT during WWII. By the end of the war they were also making
products to control bacteria, fungi, insects, weeds and rodents. By
1950 Monsanto had a de
-
facto agrochemical business, and in 1951 it
formed a research division to create proprietary pesticides. Further
research and developments, as well as acquisitions, led to the
formation of the Agricultural Division in 1960.

Expansion Continues


In the late 40’s and early 50’s, Monsanto opens opens offices in India,
Brazil, and Japan. They also became involved with joint projects to
produce Nylon, pain pills, and Corvettes.


In the 50’s Monsanto moved into the oil and fertilizer business (via an
acquisition). Also several of its herbicides are approved.


In 1955 Monsanto installed the first IBM data processing computer (the IBM
702, now housed at the Smithsonian institute). In 1959 Monsanto opened a
silicon production facility.


In 1962 Monsanto sales exceeded one billion dollars. A European
headquarters was established in Brussels.


In 1964 Monsanto Chemical Company drops the ‘Chemical’ from its
name.


In 1966 Astroturf is introduced, based on a Monsanto technology.


In 1970 a molecule that will become known as glyphosate, the active
ingredient in Roundup herbicide, is synthesized.


In the mid
-
1970’s, a third of Monsanto’s sales are outside the US.
Several chemical and plastics ventures were introduced, including a
bottle which was “banned as posing a cancer risk by the U.S. Food
and Drug Administration in 1977,”



1981
-

Monsanto entered into its first collaborative research
agreement
-

with Washington University in St. Louis to pursue
biomedical research.


1981
-

DuPont’s purchase of the other half of Monsanto’s
petrochemical venture forces Monsanto out of oil and leads to a
refocusing on high
-
value proprietary products.


Biotechnology is firmly established as the strategic research focus. By the mid
-
1980s several products were underway, including bovine somatotropin (bST)


Approved in 1993 after considerable controversy, and sold under the trade
name of Posilac. As of 1999 Monsanto was still the only producer.


1981
-

Nutrasweet was approved for use in the US. In 1985 Monsanto
bought the company (GD Searle).


In the late 80’s and early 90’s Monsanto did a major restructuring
which included the sale of “non
-
strategic businesses” such as
“AstroTurf stadium surface and related businesses, polyethylene film,
sorbate food preservatives, Fome
-
Cor foam board, Fisher Controls
International, and others.”


Monsanto consolidated businesses around high
-
value
-
added
proprietary products. Emphasis was increasingly on life sciences'
agriculture, pharmaceuticals and food.


The early 1990s saw several new products including GM potatoes
(protected from insects), insomnia and arthritis medication, as well as
the bovine sematropin mentioned earlier.

Monsanto’s Worldwide Locations

Argentina

Australia

Austria

Belgium

Brazil

Bulgaria

Canada

Chile

China

Colombia

Costa

Rica

Croatia

Czech

Republic

Denmark

France

Germany

Greece

Guatemala

Hong Kong

Hungary

India

Indonesia

Italy

Japan

Kenya

Korea

Malawi

Malaysia

Mexico

Pakistan

Philippines

Poland

Portugal

Puerto Rico

Romania

Russian

Federation

Senegal

Singapore

Slovakia

South

Africa

Spain

Taiwan

Tanzania

Thailand

Turkey

Ukraine

United Kingdom

United States

Venezuela

Vietnam

Zimbabwe


Patent Expiration Leads to Lower Sales


According to Monsanto’s financial statement, one of the causes of
lower income in 2003 was lower sales of Roundup Herbicide.


Glyphosate, the basic ingredient in Monsanto’s Roundup herbicide, became
widely available through various generic labels soon after Monsanto’s
glyphosate patent expired in 2000. Monsanto responded to increased
competition by lowering the price of its Roundup products.


But the company may also have sought to maintain customers by requiring
farmers to use its brand of glyphosate on crops grown with Monsanto’s
Roundup Ready seed. Using an off
-
brand of glyphosate on a Roundup Ready
crop could void certain warranty protections from the company.


Currently this issue is in the courts.

Financial Overview

Financial Summary

($ in millions, except per share)

First Quarter
2003

First Quarter

2002

Change

Net Sales

$1,147

$1,221

(6)%

Net Income (Loss)

$60

$(1,736)

NM

Net Income Before Cumulative Effect

of Accounting Changes*

$72

$86

(16)%

Diluted Earnings (Loss) per Share

$0.23

$(6.59)

NM

Diluted Earnings per Share Before

Cumulative Effect of Accounting
Changes*

$0.28

$0.33

(15)%


Total Assets

$9,195

$8,890


When Large Corporations Get Hungry


In 2000 Monsanto merged with Pharmacia & Upjohn


Pharmacia merged with Upjohn (of Kalamazoo, Michigan) in mid
-
1990s.


Merger of Monsanto leads to stripping of pharmaceutical elements
followed by an IPO of Monsanto later in the year. Final spinoff occurs
in 2002.


Later that year PNU was gobbled up by Pfizer.


Economic weakness and political unrest in Brazil and Argentina
severely weakened those currencies and caused defaults on payments
owed to Monsanto by growers in South America to skyrocket.


Analysts and investors say Monsanto's weak stock price and
management turmoil may put the company in play.


The most suitable candidate is BASF,


large size of the deal in this uncertain economy


Monsanto's potential legal liability at its former Solutia subsidiary would be hurdles
that any buyer would have to overcome.


DuPont and Syngenta would likely face antitrust barriers because of their strong
position in seeds and herbicides


Bayer is in the process of integrating its recent purchase of Aventis CropScience
and is unlikely to attempt a major deal


Dow would "love" to buy Monsanto given its stated desire to become a top
-
tier
ag player, but given Dow's own weakened financial position and management
turmoil, such a deal is unlikely.


Other Recent Monsanto Actions:


Monsanto has announced that it plans to transfer some of its new
genetically
-
enhancing cotton technology to Cotton Incorporated, the
company funded by American cotton growers and importers, to
increase demand for and profitability of cotton.


According to Monsanto, this underscores the company's commitment to
growers, consumers and the ag industry, outlined in the Monsanto Pledge.


The Pledge is a series of commitments that describe the company's policies for the
products developed through biotechnology
-

including sharing knowledge and
technology to improve agriculture and the environment.

Monsanto and GM


Organic Farmers in Canada filed a class action lawsuit against
Monsanto and Aventis, saying GM canola had infiltrated their crops.


The Farmers say this makes them vulnerable to suits from GM crop producers,
due to a case last year where a farmer had to pay Monsanto $15,000 after GM
corn was found on his fields, despite his protests it had blown in from elsewhere.


Monsanto's patent for the gene inserted to make Roundup Ready seeds
mandates that every purchaser of the seed sign a Grower's Agreement
and a Technology Use Agreement


The farmer can use the seed for one
-
time planting and may only sell it to a
commercial purchaser authorized by Monsanto for consumption.


The farmer may not sell or give the seed to anyone else, and he is prohibited
from saving the seed for replanting the following year


The Technology Use Agreement also authorizes Monsanto to enter the
contracting farmer's land to verify compliance with the agreement


Accordingly, the court reasoned, if any person knowingly "uses" a plant
containing the patented gene without having paid for the seed or having signed
the requisite agreements, he has violated the terms of Monsanto's patent


No determinative inquiry into how that farmer came to be in possession of the
patented seed is necessary

A Little More History


The mid 1990’s introduced a host of new GM products, as well as the
creation of a joint venture which became the world’s largest producer
of Rubber chemicals. Six biotech and agricultural companies were
acquired.


In 1997 Monsanto spun off the straight chemical businesses to focus
on ‘life sciences’.


The current decade has shown Monsanto to be focusing on GM
products and bioenergy, as well as expanding into foreign markets
with GM products.

GM Products introduced in the 1990s:


Roundup Ready
®

glyphosate
-
tolerant soybeans,


NewLeaf insect
-
protected potatoes


Bollgard
®

insect
-
protected cotton


Delayed
-
ripening tomato approved but not commercialized.


Asgrow
®

and Stine Seed acquired by purchase


YieldGard® corn


Bollgard® cotton


New Leaf potatoes


New Leaf Plus potatoes


Roundup Ready® canola


Roundup Ready® cotton


Roundup Ready® soybeans

Focus: GM Corn

Monsanto Protein Technologies


Overview


20 years experience in plant biotechnology


Leader in plant biotechnology and recombinant protein technology


Planted on over 90% of all biotechnology acres


Why corn:


Company’s vast knowledge genetic structure of corn and corn production.


Experience allows it to create a development process that adheres to
pharmaceutical and regulatory standards.


Pharmaceutical proteins are stable in maize.


Large amounts of proteins can be extracted.

Maize Production


Total world maize production for 1999/2000 exceeded 604 million
tons.


11.5% was traded internationally


US dominates world’s maize production and is largest exporter.


European Union maize purchased from US is less than 1% of total US export.


World markets will be effected by:


Technical change
-

genetically modified maize and value
-
enhanced maize


Reason for no differentiation between gm and conventional corn data:


“Even non
-
gmo crop likely isn’t completely free of gmo germaplasm.”

GM Breakdown

Genetic Modifications Not Approved in EU

Product

Trait

Mon GA21 (Monsanto Roundup Ready)

Resistance to Roundup herbicide

DBT 418 (Dekalb BT Xtra)

Protection from European Corn Borer

DLL 25 (Dekalb GR)

Resistance to Liberty herbicide

Mon 810 +
Mon GA21 (Monsanto
Yieldgard and Monsanto Roundup
Ready, stacked)

European Corn Borer protection and
resistance to Roundup herbicide

Mon 810 + T25 (Monsanto Yieldgard
and AgrEvo Liberty Link, stacked)

European Corn Borer protection and
resistance to Liber
ty herbicide


Corn Modification: Why?


Two of the main reasons:


Resistance to European Corn Borer


Tolerance to the herbicide glufosinate


Bt Corn = Bacillus thuringeinsis:


Soil bacteria that creates the insecticide when the corn pollen is released.


Can also release smell that attracts feeding insects.


Toxin produced is depended on target insect, ie moths or butterflies


Toxin ingested by larva, toxin paralysis mouth and stomach


Resistance is slow to build up.


In 1998 ~ 20% of total corn acreage planted was Bt Corn.

Negative Effects of Bt Corn


Destruction of bystander species:


Monarch butterflies killed


Fed on the milkweed that was contaminated by Bt corn pollen.


Green lacewings died


Ingested European corn borers that had eaten Bt corn.


Their death is counter productive since they are insect predators


Soil contamination:


Toxin produced by genetically modified corn can remain in soil for up to 234
days.

Conventional Corn Growers Legal Response


Conventional corn growers must state:


that no seed represented by the seed company as GMO seed was planted.


that seed represented by the seed company as non
-
GMO seed was planted.


that care was taken in avoiding contamination in bins, augers, and in the
combine.


In no uncertain terms should they state:


that the crop in question has no GMO germplasm.


that no contamination has occurred from mechanical handling and storage of the
crop.


that no contamination has occurred from pollen drift.


Monsanto’s Newest GM Corn


Corn was designed to resist rootworm.


Approved by the EPA in February.


Also a Bt variety.


Sold as YieldGard Rootworm corn.


EPA requires Monsanto to ensure that 20% of the acreage where the seeds are
planted is kept as a buffer zone.


Reason: to reduce the risk of the rootworm developing a tolerance to the corn’s
pesticide.

EPA’s Take on GM


EPA is “confident that it does not pose risks to human health and
environment”


Stephen L. Johnson, Assistant Administrator of
EPA’s Office of Prevention, Pesticides, and Toxic Substances


“these corn varieties show no signs of adverse effects to human
health.”


Therefore, the EPA approved Bt corn sales until 2008.


It does require insect resistance management (IRM) and grower education.
Monsanto is also required to provide a validated analytical method for detection
of the Bt protein in corn.


Test kits are available to test corn quickly for modifications


can be used on the
corn itself or on the corn plant.

EPA’s Opinion of Bt Corn


no adverse human health effects


no insect resistance after five years of commercialization


no adverse effect to non
-
target wildlife, plant or beneficial
invertebrates under typical agricultural conditions


have provided significant benefits to growers, the public and the
environment


EPA’s Requirement of Monsanto


collect data on soil retention of the Bt protein


conduct studies on the long
-
term effects of Bt corn on the Monarch
butterfly population


conduct studies on the effects of Bt corn on birds and other insects


file annual reports on insect resistance plans, and any signs of insect
resistance development


prepare remedial action plans to use if insect resistance occurs


Quality Protein Maize


Created to provide the nutritional needs (amino acids)


Particularly children being weaned


QPM is created for both human and animal consumption


Highest impact areas would be Africa, but also important in Central America
and some South American countries.


Production and distribution concerns:


Must be grown in areas where other QPM is grown.


Due to recessive gene requiring activation during pollination


Plant
-
Made Pharmaceuticals


Corn Modification


Goal is to maximize therapeutic protein in corn


Therapeutic proteins are used as pharmaceutical antibodies to treat viral
infection, cancer, heart disease, etc.


Additional benefits:


Lower capital investment


Process is environmentally sustainable


Plants are natural and processes and wastes are minimized.


Plants are isolated and after harvest, the proteins are extracted


Proteins are delivered to pharmaceutical companies

Monsanto’s Commitment to Plant
-
Made
Pharmaceuticals


Full compliance to all applicable laws, regulations, and guidelines.


Food and Drug Administration, Health Canada, US Department of Agriculture,
and Canadian Food Inspection Agency


Grow and process these plants separately from food and feed


All corn is grown west of the Rocky Mountains
-

away from the Midwest Corn
Belt


Protect people, food, and feed, and the environment


Conduct internal audits of their processes regarding their confinement
procedures.

Conclusion

Monsanto has remade itself repeatedly in its 102
year history. Although its current focus is on
Transgenic agricultural products, it clearly has the
assets and know
-
how to accommodate the ‘next
big thing’ in any of the fields they currently work
in (and probably many of the ones they do not).