may have adverse effects on biological diversity

clatteringlippsBiotechnology

Dec 5, 2012 (4 years and 8 months ago)

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Biotecnologie ambientali
aa 2012-2013
Rischi ambientali e Protocollo di Cartagena



Le piante coltivate e la sindrome da domesticazione: shattering
e dormienza


Rischi e benefici ambientali delle piante transgeniche
in paragone a quelle convenzionali
.


Convenzione di Rio, Protocollo di Cartagena e normativa sulle
piante create tramite ingegneria genetica


Piante per una maggiore sostenibilità ambientale (es. plastiche
biodegradabili), per il risanamento (fitodepurazione) e come
biosensori di contaminazione.


Interazione pianta-microrganismo: le risposte di difesa delle
piante e generazione di specie resistenti.


Interazione simbiotiche pianta-microrganismo: fissazione
dell’azoto (batteri azoto fissatori)
PROGRAMMA
La convenzione di Rio o sulla Biodiversità (CBD)
http://
www.cbd.int
/

The Convention on Biological Diversity
is an international treaty to sustain the
rich diversity of life on Earth.
42 articoli e 2 annex
http://www.cbd.int/doc/legal/cbd-en.pdf
in ita:
http://www.admin.ch/ch/i/rs/0_451_43/
Article
2. Use of Terms
"Biotechnology"
means any technological application that uses biological
systems, living organisms, or derivatives thereof, to make or modify
products or processes for specific use.
Article 8.
In-situ Conservation
(
g
) Establish or maintain means to regulate, manage or control the
risks associated with the use and release of living modified organisms
resulting from biotechnology which are likely to have adverse
environmental impacts that could affect the conservation and sustainable
use of biological diversity, taking also into account the risks to human
health:
(
h
) Prevent the introduction of, control or eradicate those alien
species which threaten ecosystems, habitats or species:
Its objectives are
:

the conservation of biological diversity, the sustainable use of its
components, and the fair and equitable sharing of benefits arising
out of the utilization of genetic resources.
1. Each Contracting Party shall take legislative, administrative or policy measures, as
appropriate, to provide for the
effective participation in biotechnological research activities
by
those Contracting Parties, especially developing countries, which provide the genetic
resources for such research, and where feasible in such Contracting Parties.
2. Each Contracting Party shall take all practicable measures to
promote and advance priority
access
on a fair and equitable basis by Contracting Parties, especially developing countries,
to
the results and benefits arising from biotechnologies
based upon genetic resources provided
by those Contracting Parties. Such access shall be on mutually agreed terms.
3. The Parties shall consider
the need for and modalities of a protocol setting out appropriate
procedures, including, in particular, advance informed agreement, in the field of the safe
transfer, handling and use of any living modified organism resulting from biotechnology that
may have
adverse effect on the conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity
.
4. Each Contracting Party shall, directly or by requiring any natural or legal person under its
jurisdiction providing the organisms referred to in paragraph 3 above, provide any available
information about the use and safety regulations required by that Contracting Party in handling
such organisms, as well as any available information on the potential adverse impact of the
specific organisms concerned to the Contracting Party into which those organisms are to be
introduced.

Article 19.
Handling of Biotechnology and Distribution of its Benefits


Nasce il Protocollo di Cartagena
Conference of the Parties (COP)
:
governing body of the Convention
The governing body: Conference of
the Parties to the Convention serving
as the meeting of the Parties to the
Protocol (COP-MOP)
1700 M$ in 12 years from GEF
+ 3400 in cofinancing of
biodiversity projects
An additional protocol to the
Convention of Biological Diversity


è frutto delle decisioni prese
all’interno della CBD
The
Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety to
the Convention on Biological Diversity

It was adopted on 29 January 2000 and
entered into force on 11 September
2003.

http://bch.cbd.int/database/attachment/?id=10694
Eventuale testo in italiano (non necessariamente corretto)
http://www.rfb.it/csa/links/archivio/protocollo-cartagena-traduzione.htm

The
Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety to the Convention on Biological Diversity

An international agreement which aims to ensure the safe handling, transport and
use of
living modified organisms
(LMOs) resulting from
modern biotechnology
that
may have adverse effects on biological diversity
, taking also into account
risks to

human health
. It was adopted on 29 January 2000 and entered into force on 11
September 2003.

The Protocol
promotes biosafety
by establishing rules and procedures for the
safe transfer, handling, and use of LMOs, with specific focus on transboundary
movements of LMOs. It features a set of procedures including one for LMOs that
are to be intentionally introduced into the environment called the
advance informed agreement
procedure, and one for
LMOs that are intended to be used directly as food or feed or for processing
.

Preamble
The Parties to this Protocol,
Being
Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity, …
Recalling
Article 19, paragraphs 3 and 4, and Articles 8 (g) and 17
Recalling
also decision II/5 of 17 November 1995 of the Conference of the
Parties to the Convention to develop a Protocol on biosafety, specifically
focusing on transboundary movement of any living modified organism
resulting from modern biotechnology that
may have adverse
effect on the
conservation and sustainable use of
biological diversity
, setting out for
consideration, in particular, appropriate procedures for advance informed
agreement,
Reaffirming
the precautionary approach contained in Principle 15 of the Rio
Declaration on Environment and Development,
Aware of
the rapid expansion of modern biotechnology and the growing
public concern over its potential adverse effects on biological diversity, taking
also into account risks to human health,
Il Protocollo di Cartagena

A
Protocol
is a binding international instrument, separate from,
but related to, another treaty.”
Recognizing
that modern biotechnology has great potential for human well-
being if developed and used with adequate safety measures for the
environment and human health,
Recognizing also
the crucial importance to humankind of centres of origin
and centres of genetic diversity,
Taking into account
the limited capabilities of many countries, particularly
developing countries, to cope with the nature and scale of known and
potential risks associated with living modified organisms,
Recognizing
that trade and environment agreements should be mutually
supportive with a view to achieving sustainable development,
Emphasizing
that this Protocol shall not be interpreted as implying a change
in the rights and obligations of a Party under any existing international
agreements,
Understanding
that the above recital is not intended to subordinate this
Protocol to other international agreements,
Have agreed as follows:
Paragonate con CBD
Article 8.
In-situ Conservation
(
g
) Establish or maintain means to regulate, manage or control the
risks associated with the use and release of living modified organisms
resulting from biotechnology which are likely to have adverse
environmental impacts that could affect the conservation and sustainable
use of biological diversity, taking also into account the risks to human
health:
(
h
) Prevent the introduction of, control or eradicate those alien
species which threaten ecosystems, habitats or species:
Article 19

“…may have adverse effects”
AIA
The Primary focus of the Cartagena Protocol is the regulation of
transboundary movement of living modified organisms.
The main instrument is the Advanced Informed Agreement (AIA)
- pharmaceuticals
- in transit
- destined for contained use (research)
This Protocol shall
not
apply
to the
transboundary movement of living
modified organisms which are:
Separate AIAs apply

to:
- LMOs intended for direct use as food or feed, or for processing
- LMOs for deliberate release (= cultivation)
The "Advance Informed Agreement" (AIA) procedure
applies to the
first
intentional transboundary movement of LMOs for intentional introduction into the
environment of the Party of import
.
It includes four components:
-notification by the Party of export or the exporter,
-acknowledgment of receipt of notification by the Party of import,
-the decision procedure, and
-opportunity for review of decisions.
The purpose of this procedure is to ensure that importing countries have both the
opportunity and the capacity to assess risks that may be associated with the LMO
before agreeing to its import. The Party of import must indicate the reasons on
which its decisions are based (unless consent is unconditional). A Party of import
may, at any time, in light of new scientific information, review and change a
decision. A Party of export or a notifier may also request the Party of import to
review its decisions.



Art.8


Art.9


Art.10 & 11 (food, feed,
processing)


Art.12
There is a simplified procedure (Art.13)
- Immissione contemporanea alla notifica
- Esenzioni


MAI USATA
ANNEX I

Informazioni richieste dall’AIA per il
rilascio ambientale
ANNEX II

Informazioni richieste dall’AIA uso
per Food, feed, processing
Valutazione del rischio
Tante parole, ma come condurre in pratica una valutazione scientifica del rischio?
Transgenic crops expressing
Bacillus thuringiensis
toxins and biological control
Romeis (2006) Nature Biotech. 24:63-71
doi:10.1038/nbt1180
Tiered approach
Tiered –
sequenziale?
Gerarchica?
Conclusions and recommendations
Although the effects of

Bt
plants have been investigated for a limited number of predator and
parasitoid species under confined conditions, two general trends are evident: first, there is
no indication of direct effects of
Bt
plants on natural enemies
, either in direct plant
feeding assays or when natural enemies have been provided with unsusceptible hosts/prey
containing the Cry toxin; second,
adverse effects on natural enemies have been
observed only in studies with susceptible herbivores as hosts/prey. These effects are
most likely due to reduced host/prey quality.
One exception to this is the reported impact
of
Bt
potatoes on an aphid parasitoid, which was probably due to affected aphid hosts.
In contrast, applications of conventional insecticides have usually
resulted in negative impacts on biological control organisms.
Because
Bt
-transgenic varieties can lead to substantial reductions in
insecticide use in some crops, they can contribute to integrated pest
management systems with a strong biological control component.
David A. Andow et al. (2006) Ecological risk assessment for Bt crops.
Nature Biotechnology 24:749-751.
doi:10.1038/nbt0706-749
Jörg Romeis et al.(2006) Reply to Ecological risk assessment for
Bt

crops. Nature Biotechnology
24
:751-753. doi:10.1038/nbt0706-751
http://bch.cbd.int/
Solo approvazioni a livello europeo
Risk assessment
Laws and regulations
17 su 23 sono di tipo EU
Le rimanenti sono queste
In realtà mancano una serie di norme
Sito Italiano
(in inglese)
Normativa nazionale


Tutti queste buone intenzioni e articoli si scontrano
con una concezione viziata della transgenesi
Mackenzie (2003)
FAQs, http://www.biodiv.org/biosafety/faqs.asp
Mito
: “I transgenici sono innaturali mentre le piante convenzionali
sono naturali e non sono modificate dal punto di vista genetico”
Nuovi geni vengono continuamente creati. In riso hanno identificato 898 retrogeni,
55% sembrano funzionanti e 35% sono chimere (costruiti a partire da geni diversi).
Sono meglio i geni creati consciamente o quelli creati inconsciamente (dalla natura)?
La mutazione
Wp
in soia ha semi più
grandi (22%), più proteine (4%) e i fiori
rosa pallido. La mutazione è dovuta a un
retrotransposone, inserito in una calcone
sintasi, che ha catturato 5 esoni da 4 geni
differenti fusi in un nuovo gene


Relazione di W. Parrott alla PAS
Il mais Bt contaminerà la biodiversità nel centro di origine
mettendo a rischio la sovranità alimentare di centinaia di milioni di
persone
Pannocchie di mais bianco, nero e giallo stese ad asciugare sui tetti delle case di
San Juan
Ostuncalco,
Guatemala. I contadini sanno come mantenere l’identità delle diverse varietà
Foto: cortesia di Eduardo Roesch
Il Grande Mito del mais:
Pannocchie raccolte nei campi in Guatemala; le varietà locali
si incrociano

Foto: cortesia di W. Parrott, Università della Georgia, AL (USA)
Non per questo le varietà hanno perso la loro identità
i contadini sanno bene come mantenere l’identità delle diverse varietà
Il genoma del “Palomero Toluqueno” (varietà indigena) è 78% del B73
Arca di Noé - S. Maurizio al Corso (Mi)


Relazione di J. Gressel e M. Qaim
http://4.bp.blogspot.com/_9MXPl2EjFG4/TRycNxyqCsI/AAAAAAAAAbs/qfpB67p6xMU/s1600/OGM+-+Striga+4.jpg

Mais
Mais infestato
da
Striga
hermonthica
I transgenici sono utili per i PVS?
THE BIOSAFETY PROTOCOL WILL
ENABLE PEOPLE EVERYWHERE
TO ENJOY THE BENEFITS OF
BIOTECHNOLOGY WHILE
AVOIDING UNNECESSARY RISKS.
Biosafety and the environment
(An Introduction to the Cartagena
Protocol on Biosafety)
Il desiderio:
Risultato????
Per la coltivazione occorre
un permesso sulla base di
documentazione scientifica
Varietà convenzionale
Varietà transgenica
La realtà:
Avvistati extraterrestri nel
Nord?
Segnalato predone
Tusken
Scene

di

panico

a

Milano


Qual è la credibilità di un
protocollo che dovrebbe normare una
tecnologia di cui non comprende i
fondamenti?
Bibliografia

Nicholas Kalaitzandonakes (2004) The Potential Impacts of the Biosafety Protocol on
Agricultural Commodity Trade

PRRI (2005)
Guide for notifications and risk assessments for releases into the
environment of genetically modified organisms

Mackenzie (2003) An Explanatory Guide to the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety. IUCN
Environmental Law Centre (
www.iucn.org/bookstore
)

PRRI(2003) Introductory seminar for the participation of public research scientists in the
second meeting of the parties to the cartagena protocol on biosafety

Biosafety and the environment (An Introduction to the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety)