S-- - SH R GM F

clattergumneckBiotechnology

Oct 23, 2013 (4 years and 18 days ago)

382 views

W







S
T
A

T
E

-
O
F

-

T

H
E

-

S
C

I
E

N
C

E


O

N


T
H

E


H

E
A

L
T

H


R

I
S

K

S


O
F


G
M

F

O
O

D
S




V
1.24.
1
3
e all

kn
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ies

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ead

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i
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act

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a
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t
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f
oo
d

su
pp
l
y
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v
e
r
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eat
s
;

e
v
e
r
y
o
n
e

is

a
f
f
ecte
d
.

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h
e

i
n
c
r
ea
s
e

in

s
e
v
e
r
al

d
i
s
ea
s
e
s

in

N
or
th

A
m
e
r
ica

m
a
y

b
e

d
u
e

to

t
h
e

pro
f
ou
n
d

c
h
a
n
g
es

i
n

o
u
r

d
i
et.

T
h
e

m
o
s
t

r
a
d
ical

c
h
a
n
g
e

o
cc
u
rr
ed

a little

o
v
er

a
d
eca
d
e

a
g
o

w
h
e
n

g
e
n
etic
a
l
l
y
m
od
i
f
ied

(
GM)

c
rop
s

w
e
r
e

i
n
t
rod
u
ce
d
.

T
h
eir

i
n
f
l
u
e
n
ce

o
n

h
ealth

h
a
s

b
een

la
r
g
e
l
y

i
g
n
or
e
d
,

b
u
t

r
ece
n
t

s
t
u
d
ies

s
h
o
w

s
e
r
i
o
u
s
prob
l e
m
s
.

G
e
n
etical
l
y

m
od
i
f
i
e
d

or
g
a
n
i
s
m
s

(
GM
O
s
)

h
a
v
e

b
een

li
n
k
ed

to t
h
ou
s
a
n
d
s

o
f

t
o
x
ic

o
r

alle
r
g
i
c
-
t
y
p
e

r
eacti
o
ns
,

t
h
o
u
s
a
n
d
s

of
s
ic
k
,

s
te
r
ile,

a
n
d

d
ead

li
v
e
s
t
o
c
k
,

a
n
d

d
a
m
a
g
e

to
v
i
r
t
u
al
l
y

e
v
e
r
y

or
g
a
n

a
n
d

s
ys
t
e
m

s
t
u
d
ied

in lab
a
n
i
m
a
l
s
.

1

Nea
r
ly

e
v
e
r
y

i
n
d
e
p
e
n
d
e
n
t
a
n
i
m
al

f
ee
d
i
n
g

s
a
f
e
t
y

s
t
u
d
y

s
h
o
w
s

a
d
v
e
r
s
e

o
r

un
e
x
p
lai
n
ed

e
f
f
ect
s
.


GM

f
ood
s

w
e
r
e

m
a
d
e

po
ss
i
b
le

b
y

a te
c
hn
o
l
og
y

d
e
v
el
op
ed

in t
h
e

1970
s

w
h
e
r
e
b
y

g
e
n
es

f
r
o
m

o
n
e

s
p
ecies

a
r
e

f
or
ced

i
n
to

t
h
e

DNA

o
f
o
t
h
er

s
p
ecie
s
.

Ge
n
e
s

prod
u
ce

pro
tei
ns
,

w
h
i
c
h

in

t
u
r
n

can

g
e
n
e
r
ate

c
h
a
r
acte
r
i
s
t
ics

o
r

t
r
ait
s
.

T
h
e

p
r
o
m
i
s
ed

t
r
aits

a
s
s
o
ciated

w
i
t
h

G
M
Os

h
a
v
e

b
een

s
k
y

h
i
g
h

v
e
g
eta
b
les

g
r
o
w
i
n
g

in

t
h
e

d
e
s
e
r
t,

v
it
a
m
in

f
or
t
i
f
ied

g
r
ai
n
s
,

a
n
d

h
i
g
h
l
y

prod
u
cti
v
e

c
rop
s

f
ee
d
i
n
g

t
he

s
ta
r
v
i
n
g

m
i
l
li
on
s
.

N
o
n
e

o
f

t
h
e
s
e

a
r
e

a
v
aila
b
le.

I
n

f
act,

t
h
e

on
l
y

t
w
o

t
r
aits

t
h
at

a
r
e

f
ou
n
d

in
n
ea
r
l
y

all

c
o
m
m
e
r
i
c
ialized

G
M

p
la
n
ts

a
r
e
h
e
rb
i ci
d
e

t
o
le
r
a
n
ce

a
n
d
/
o
r

p
e
s
tici
d
e

prod
u
cti
o
n
.


He
rb
ici
d
e

t
o
le
r
a
n
t

s
o
y
,

c
or
n
,

c
o
tt
o
n
,

a
n
d

ca
n
o
la

p
la
n
t
s

a
r
e

e
n
g
i
n
ee
r
ed

w
i
t
h

b
acte
r
ial

g
e
n
es

t
h
at

all
o
w

t
h
e
m

to
s
u
r
v
i
v
e

o
t
h
er
w
i
s e
d
ea
d
l y

do
s
es

o
f

h
e
rb
ici
d
e
s
.

T
h
is

g
i
v
es

f
a
r
m
e
r
s

m
or
e

f
l
e
x
i
b
il
it
y

in

w
ee
d
i
n
g

a
n
d

g
i
v
e
s

t
h
e

G
M

s
eed

c
o
m
p
a
n
y

l
o
t
s

m
or
e

pro
f
it.

W
h
en
f
a
r
m
e
r
s

b
u
y

GM
s
ee
d
s
,

t
h
e
y

s
i
g
n

a c
o
n
t
r
act

to
bu
y

o
n
l
y

t
h
at
s
eed

prod
u
ce
r

s

br
a
n
d

o
f

h
e
rb
ici
d
e.

He
rb
ici
d
e

t
o
le
r
a
n
t

c
r
o
p
s

c
o
m
pr
i
s
e
a
bo
u
t

80
%

o
f

all

GM

p
la
n
ts.

T
h
e

o
t
h
er

20
%

a
r
e

c
or
n

a
n
d

c
o
tt
o
n

v
a
r
ieties

t
h
at

prod
u
ce

a
p
e
s
tici
d
e

in

e
v
e
r
y

cell.

T
h
is

is

ac
c
o
m
p
l
is
h
ed
d
u
e

to a
g
e
n
e

f
r
o
m

a
s
o
il

b
act
e
r
i
u
m

ca
l
led

Ba
cill
u
s

t
hu
r
i
ng
ie
n
s
is

o
r

B
t,

w
h
i
c
h

prod
u
ces

a
n
at
u
r
al

i
n
s
ec
t
-
k
ill
i
n
g

po
i
s
o
n

ca
l
led

B
t
-

t
o
x
i
n
.

I
n

a
dd
iti
o
n

to
t
h
e
s
e

t
w
o

t
r
ait
s
,

t
h
e
r
e

a
r
e

al
s
o

d
i
s
ea
s
e

r
e
s
i
s
t
a
n
t

GM

H
a
w
a
i
ian

p
a
p
a
y
a,

z
u
cc
h
i
n
i

a
n
d

c
roo
k

n
eck

s
q
u
a
s
h
,

w
h
i
c
h
c
o
m
pr
i
s
e

w
e
ll

u
n
d
er

1
%

o
f

G
M
O

ac
r
ea
g
e.



T
H

E

F
DA

S



N
O

N

-

R
E

G

U
L

A
T

I
O

N



O

F

G
M

F
O

O
D

S



Rh
et
or
ic

f
r
o
m

t
h
e

U
n
ited

St
a
t
es

g
o
v
e
r
n
m
e
n
t

s
i
n
ce

t
h
e

ea
r
l
y

1990
s

p
ro
clai
m
s

t
h
at

G
M

f
ood
s

a
r
e

n
o
d
i
ff
e
r
e
n
t

f
r
o
m

t
h
e
ir

n
a
t
u
r
al
c
o
un
te
rp
a
r
ts

t
h
at

h
a
v
e

e
x
i
s
ted

f
o
r

ce
n
t
u
r
i
e
s
.

T
h
e

F
oo
d

a
n
d

D
r
u
g

A
d
m
i
n
i
s
t
r
ati
o
n

(
F
D
A
)

h
a
s

la
b
eled

t
h
e
m


G
e
n
e
r
al
l
y

R
e
c
o
gn
ized

as
Sa
f
e
,


o
r

G
R
A
S.

T
h
is

s
tat
u
s

a
l
l
o
w
s

a
prod
u
ct

to
b
e

c
o
mm
e
r
c
ialized

w
i
t
h
ou
t

a
n
y

a
dd
iti
o
n
al

te
s
t
i
ng
.

A
cc
ord
i
n
g

to US

l
a
w
, to
b
e
c
o
ns
i
d
e
r
ed

G
R
A
S

t
h
e

s
u
b
s
t
a
n
ce

m
u
s
t

b
e

t
h
e

s
u
b
j
ect

o
f

a
su
b
s
ta
n
t
ial

a
m
o
u
n
t

o
f

p
ee
r
-
r
e
v
i
e
wed

p
u
b
li
sh
ed

s
t
u
d
ies

(o
r

e
q
u
i
v
ale
n
t)

a
n
d
t
h
e
r
e

mus
t

b
e

o
v
e
r
w
h
e
l
m
i
n
g

c
o
ns
e
n
s
u
s

a
m
o
n
g

t
h
e

s
cie
n
ti
f
ic

c
o
mm
un
i
t
y

t
h
at

t
h
e

prod
u
ct

is

s
a
f
e.

GM
f
ood
s

h
ad

n
ei
t
h
e
r
.

N
o
n
et
h
el
e
ss
,

i
n

a
pr
ece
d
e
n
t
-
s
e
tti
n
g

m
o
v
e

in

199
2

t
h
at

s
o
m
e

e
x
p
e
r
ts

c
o
n
t
e
n
d

w
a
s

ill
e
g
al,

t
h
e

F
D
A

d
ecla
r
ed

t
h
at

GM

c
ro
p
s

a
r
e

G
R
A
S
as

l
o
n
g

a
s

t
h
eir

prod
u
ce
r
s

s
a
y

t
h
e
y

a
r
e.

T
hus
,

t
h
e

F
D
A

do
es

n
o
t

r
e
q
u
i
r
e

an
y

s
a
f
e
t
y

e
v
a
l
u
at
i
o
n
s

o
r

la
b
eli
n
g

o
f

GMO
s
.

A

c
o
m
p
a
n
y

c
a
n
e
v
en

i
n
t
rod
u
ce

a GM

f
oo
d

to t
h
e

m
a
r
k
et

w
i
t
h
o
u
t

t
e
lli
n
g

t
h
e

a
g
e
n
c
y.


Institute

for

Responsible

T
echno
l
ogy


P
.O.
B
ox

469


F
ai
r
field,

I
A

52556


U
S
A

+
1.641.209.1765


info@
r
es pon
s
i bl et ec hnol ogy.o
r
g

w
ww.
r
es po
n
s i bl et ec hnol ogy.o
r
g

2


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u
c
h

a le
n
i
e
n
t

a
ppro
ach

w
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s

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a
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h
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e
s
u
lt

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t
h
e

i
n
f
l
u
e
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ce

o
f

la
r
g
e

a
g
r
i
c
u
l
t
u
r
al

c
orpo
r
ati
o
n
s

A
cc
ord
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n
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to He
n
r
y

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i
lle
r
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w
h
o
h
ad

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d
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n
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le

in

b
i
o
tec
hno
l
og
y

i
s
su
e
s

at

t
h
e

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D
A

f
r
o
m

197
9

t
o
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94
,


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n

t
h
is

a
r
ea,

t
h
e

US

g
o
v
e
r
n
m
e
n
t

a
g
e
n
c
ies

h
a
v
e

do
ne
e
x
act
l
y

w
h
at

b
i
g

a
g
r
i
b
us
i
n
e
s
s

h
as

a
s
k
ed

t
h
e
m

to
d
o a
n
d

t
o
ld

t
h
e
m

to
do.

2

T
h
e

Ag

b
i
o
tech

c
o
m
p
a
n
y

w
ith

t
h
e

g
r
eate
s
t

i
n
f
l
u
e
n
ce

w
as
clea
r
l
y

Mo
ns
a
n
t
o
.

A
cc
ord
i
n
g

t
o t
h
e

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ew

Y
o
r
k

Tim
e
s
,


W
h
at

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ns
a
n
to

w
i
s
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ed

f
o
r

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r
o
m

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a
sh
i
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o
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s
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a
n
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b
y

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te
n
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o
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,
t
h
e

b
i
o
tec
h
n
o
l
og
y

i
n
du
s
t
r
y

g
o
t
.

. . .

W
h
en

t
h
e

c
o
m
p
a
n
y

a
b
r
up
t
l
y

d
eci
d
ed

t
h
at

it

n
ee
d
ed

to t
h
r
o
w

o
f
f

t
h
e

r
e
g
u
lati
o
n
s

a
n
d

s
p
eed

its
f
ood
s

to

m
a
r
k
et,

t
h
e

W
h
ite

H
o
us
e

q
u
i
c
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y

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s
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e
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ed

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h
ro
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h

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s
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al
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s

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c
y

o
f

s
e
l
f
-
p o
l i ci
n
g
.


3


T
h
is

po
licy

w
a
s

h
e
r
al
d
ed

b
y

V
ice

P
r
e
s
i
d
e
n
t

Dan

Q
u
a
y
le

o
n

M
a
y

26
,

19
9
2
.

He

c
h
ai
r
ed

t
h
e

C
ou
n
cil

o
n

C
o
m
p
etit
i
v
e
n
e
ss
,

w
h
i
c
h

h
ad
i
d
e
n
t
i
f
ied

GM

c
rop
s

as

an

i
n
d
us
t
r
y

t
h
at

c
o
u
ld

boo
s
t

US

e
x
por
t
s
.

T
o ta
k
e

a
d
v
a
n
t
a
g
e,

Q
u
a
y
l
e

a
nn
ou
n
ced


r
e
f
o
r
ms


to “
s
p
eed

u
p a
n
d
s
i
m
p
l
i
f
y

t
h
e

pro
ce
s
s

o
f

br
i
ng
i
n
g


GM

prod
u
cts

to

m
a
r
k
e
t

w
i
t
h
o
u
t


b
ei
n
g

h
a
m
p
e
r
ed

b
y

unn
ece
ss
a
r
y

r
e
g
u
la
t
i
o
n
.

4

T
h
r
ee

d
a
y
s

late
r
,
t
h
e

F
D
A

po
li
c
y

o
n

n
o
n
-
r
e
g
u
l
a
ti
o
n

w
as

u
n
v
eile
d
.


T
h
e

p
e
r
s
o
n

w
h
o

o
v
e
r
s
a
w

i
ts

d
e
v
el
o
p
m
e
n
t

w
as

t
h
e

F
D
A

s

D
e
p
u
t
y

C
o
mm
i
s
s
i
o
n
er

f
o
r

P
o
li
c
y
,

M
ic
h
ael

Ta
y
l
or
,

w
h
o
s
e

po
s
i
ti
o
n

h
ad
b
een

c
r
eated

e
s
p
ecial
l
y

f
o
r

h
i
m

in

1991
.

P
r
i
o
r

to t
h
at,

T
a
y
l
o
r

w
as

a
n

o
u
t
s
i
d
e

att
or
n
e
y

f
o
r

bo
th

Mo
ns
a
n
to

a
n
d

t
h
e

F
ood

B
i
o
tec
hn
o
l
og
y

C
ou
n
cil.

A
f
ter
w
or
k
i
n
g

at

t
h
e

F
D
A
,

h
e

b
ec
a
m
e

M
on
s
a
n
t
o

s

v
ice

pr
e
s
i
d
e
n
t.

T
h
e

O
b
a
m
a

a
d
m
i
n
i
s
t
r
ati
o
n

h
a
s

p
u
t

T
al
y
o
r
b
ack

i
n
to

t
h
e

F
D
A

as

t
h
e

US

F
oo
d

Sa
f
e
t
y

C
za
r
.



T
H

E


F
D

A

C

O
V

E
R

S


U
P


H

E
A

L
T

H


R
I

S

K
S





T
a
y
l
or

s

G
M
O

po
li
c
y

n
ee
d
ed

to c
r
eate

t
h
e

i
m
pr
e
ss
i
o
n

t
h
a
t

u
n
i
n
te
n
d
ed

e
f
f
ec
t
s

f
r
o
m

GM

c
r
op
s

w
e
r
e

n
o
t

an

i
s
s
u
e.

O
t
h
e
r
w
i
s
e

t
h
eir
G
R
A
S

s
ta
t
u
s

w
o
u
ld

b
e

u
n
d
e
r
m
i
n
ed

a
n
d

t
h
e
y

w
o
u
ld

n
eed

t
h
e

e
x
te
n
s
i
v
e

te
s
t
i
n
g

a
n
d

la
b
els

t
h
at

a
r
e

n
o
r
m
al
l
y

r
e
q
u
i
r
ed

f
o
r

food
a
dd
iti
v
e
s
.

B
u
t

i
n
te
r
n
al

m
e
m
o
s

m
a
d
e

p
u
b
lic

f
r
o
m

a l
a
w
s
u
it

s
h
o
w
ed

t
h
at

t
h
e

o
v
e
r
w
h
e
l
m
i
n
g

c
o
ns
e
n
s
u
s

a
m
o
n
g

t
h
e

a
g
e
n
c
y

s
c
ie
n
t
i
s
ts
w
a
s

t
h
at

G
M

c
rop
s

can

h
a
v
e

u
n
pr
e
d
icta
b
le,

h
a
rd
-
t
o
-
d
etect

s
i
d
e

e
ff
ec
t
s
.

Va
r
i
o
u
s

d
e
p
a
r
t
m
e
n
t
s

a
n
d

e
x
p
e
r
ts

s
p
elled

t
h
e
s
e

o
u
t in

d
etail,
li
s
t
i
n
g

a
l
le
r
g
i
e
s
,

t
o
x
i
ns
,

n
u
t
r
it
i
o
n
al

e
f
f
ects,

a
n
d

n
e
w

d
i
s
e
a
s
es

as

po
te
n
tial

d
a
n
g
e
r
s
.

T
h
e
y

u
r
g
ed

su
p
e
r
i
or
s

to
r
e
q
u
i
r
e

l
o
ng
-
t
er
m

s
a
f
e
t
y
s
t
u
d
i
e
s
.

5

I
n

s
p
ite

o
f

t
h
e

w
a
rn
i
n
gs
,

acc
ord
i
n
g

to
p
u
b
lic

i
n
te
r
e
s
t

att
or
n
e
y

St
e
v
e
n

D
ru
k
er

w
h
o

s
t
u
d
ied

t
h
e

F
D
A

s

i
n
te
r
n
a
l

f
il
e
s
,

R
e
f
e
r
e
n
ces

to t
h
e

u
n
i
n
te
n
d
ed

n
e
g
at
i
v
e

e
ff
e
c
ts

o
f

b
i
o
e
n
g
i
n
e
e
r
i
n
g

w
e
r
e

pro
g
r
e
ss
i
v
e
l
y

d
elet
e
d

f
r
o
m

dr
a
f
ts

o
f

t
h
e

po
li
c
y

s
ta
t
e
m
e
n
t
(o
v
er

t
h
e

pro
te
s
ts

o
f

a
g
e
n
c
y

s
c
ie
n
t
i
st
s
).


6


F
D
A

m
ic
rob
i
o
l
o
g
i
s
t

L
o
u
is

P
r
i
b
y
l,

P
h
D,
w
ro
te

a
bo
u
t

t
h
e

po
l
i
c
y
,


W
h
at

h
a
s

h
a
pp
e
n
ed

to t
h
e

s
cie
n
t
i
f
ic

el
e
m
e
n
ts

o
f

t
h
i
s

do
c
u
m
e
n
t?
W
it
h
o
u
t

a
s
o
un
d

s
ci
e
n
t
i
f
ic

b
a
s
e

to
r
e
s
t

o
n
,

t
h
is

b
ec
o
m
es

a
b
r
o
a
d
,

g
e
n
e
r
al,


W
h
at

d
o I
h
a
v
e

to
d
o to

a
v
o
id

t
ro
u
b
le

-
t
y
p
e

do
c
u
m
e
n
t.

. . .
I
t

w
ill

l
oo
k

l
i
k
e

a
n
d

prob
a
b
ly

b
e

j
us
t

a
po
litical

do
c
u
m
e
n
t.

. . .
I
t

r
e
a
d
s

v
e
r
y

pr
o
-
i
n
d
us
t
r
y
,

e
s
p
ecial
l
y

i
n

t
h
e

a
r
ea

o
f

u
n
i
n
t
e
n
d
ed
e
ff
e
c
t
s
.

7


T
h
e

s
cie
n
ti
s
t
s


c
o
n
ce
rn
s

w
e
r
e

n
o
t

o
n
l
y

i
g
n
or
e
d
,

t
h
eir

v
e
r
y

e
x
i
s
te
n
ce

w
a
s

d
e
n
ie
d
.

T
h
e

o
ff
ic
i
al

F
D
A

po
li
c
y

s
tate
d
,


T
h
e

a
g
e
n
c
y

i
s

n
o
t
a
w
a
r
e

o
f

a
n
y

i
n
f
o
r
m
ati
o
n

s
h
o
w
i
n
g

t
h
at
f
ood
s

d
e
r
i
v
ed

b
y

t
h
e
s
e

n
e
w

m
e
t
h
od
s

d
i
f
f
er

f
r
o
m

o
t
h
er

f
ood
s

in

a
n
y

m
e
a
n
i
ng
f
u
l

o
r

un
i
f
o
r
m
w
a
y
.

8

I
n

sh
a
r
p

c
o
n
t
r
a
s
t,

a
n

i
n
te
r
na
l

FDA

r
e
por
t

s
tate
d
,


T
h
e

pro
ce
ss
es

o
f

g
e
n
etic

e
n
g
i
n
ee
r
i
n
g

a
n
d

t
r
a
d
iti
o
n
al

br
ee
d
i
n
g

a
r
e

d
i
ff
e
r
e
n
t
a
n
d

acc
ord
i
n
g

to t
h
e

te
c
hn
ic
a
l

e
x
p
e
r
ts

in

t
h
e

a
g
e
n
c
y
,

t
h
e
y

le
a
d

to
d
i
ff
e
r
e
n
t

r
i
s
ks
.

9

T
h
e

FDA

s

d
ece
p
ti
v
e

n
o
ti
o
n

o
f

n
o
d
i
f
f
e
r
e
n
ce

w
a
s
c
o
i
n
ed


s
u
b
s
t
a
n
tial

e
q
u
i
v
a
le
n
c
e”

a
n
d

f
o
r
m
ed

t
h
e

b
a
s
i
s

o
f

t
h
e

US

g
o
v
e
r
n
m
e
n
t

po
s
i
t
i
o
n

o
n

G
M
O
s
.


M
a
n
y

s
ci
e
n
ti
s
t
s

a
n
d

or
g
a
n
izat
i
o
n
s

h
a
v
e

c
r
iticized

t
h
e

U
S

po
s
iti
o
n
.

T
h
e

Nati
o
n
al

A
ca
d
e
m
y

o
f

Scie
n
c
e
s

a
n
d

e
v
e
n

t
h
e

pro
-
GM

R
o
y
al
S
o
cie
t
y

o
f

L
o
n
do
n

10

d
e
s
c
r
i
b
e

t
h
e

US

s
ys
t
e
m

as

i
n
a
d
e
q
u
ate

a
n
d

f
l
a
w
e
d
.

T
h
e

e
d
it
o
r

o
f

t
h
e

pr
e
s
ti
g
i
o
u
s

j
o
u
r
n
al

L
an
cet

s
ai
d
,


I
t

is
a
s
t
ou
n
d
i
n
g

t
h
a
t

t
h
e

U
S

F
oo
d

a
n
d

D
r
u
g

A
d
m
i
n
i
s
t
r
ati
o
n

h
a
s

no
t

c
h
a
n
g
ed

t
h
eir

s
t
a
n
ce

o
n
g
e
n
etical
l
y

m
od
i
f
ied

f
oo
d

a
d
o
p
ted

in

1992
.

. .

.
T
h
e

p
o
licy

i
s

t
h
a
t

g
e
n
etical
l
y

m
od
i
f
ied

c
rop
s

w
i
l
l

r
ecei
v
e

t
h
e

s
a
m
e

c
on
s
i
d
e
r
ati
o
n

f
o
r

po
te
n
tial

h
eal
t
h

r
i
s
k
s

as

a
n
y

o
t
h
er

n
e
w

c
rop
p
la
n
t.

T
h
is

s
t
a
n
ce

is

t
a
k
en

d
e
s
p
ite

g
oo
d

r
ea
s
o
n
s

to
b
elie
v
e

t
h
at

s
p
eci
f
ic

r
i
s
k
s

m
a
y

e
x
i
s
t.

. . . G
o
v
e
rn
m
e
n
t
s

s
h
o
u
ld

n
e
v
er

h
a
v
e

all
o
w
ed
t
h
e
s
e

prod
u
cts

i
n
to

t
h
e

f
oo
d

c
h
ain
w
it
h
o
u
t

i
ns
i
s
t
i
n
g

o
n

r
i
g
oro
u
s

te
s
t
i
n
g

f
o
r

e
f
f
ec
t
s

o
n

h
e
a
l
t
h
.


11

T
h
e

R
o
y
al

S
o
cie
t
y

o
f

C
a
n
a
d
a
d
e
s
c
r
i
b
ed

su
b
s
ta
n
ti
a
l

e
q
u
i
v
al
e
n
ce

as

s
ci
e
n
t
i
f
ical
l
y

un
j
u
s
t
i
f
i
a
b
le

a
n
d

i
n
c
o
n
s
i
s
t
e
n
t

w
i
t
h

pr
eca
u
ti
o
n
a
r
y

r
e
g
u
lati
o
n

o
f

t
h
e

t
e
c
hn
o
l
og
y
.


12

3


G

M
O

S


A
R

E


I
N

H
E

R
E

N
T

L
Y


U

N
S

A

F
E




T
h
e
r
e

a
r
e

s
e
v
e
r
al

r
ea
s
o
n
s

w
h
y

GM

p
la
n
ts

pr
e
s
e
n
t

u
n
i
q
u
e

d
a
ng
e
r
s
.

T
h
e

f
i
r
s
t

is

t
h
at

t
h
e

p
r
o
ce
s
s

o
f

g
e
n
e
t
ic

e
n
g
i
n
ee
r
i
n
g

it
s
elf

c
r
eates
un
pr
e
d
icted

alte
r
ati
o
ns
,

i
rr
e
s
p
ecti
v
e

o
f

w
h
i
c
h

g
e
n
e

is

t
r
a
n
s
f
e
rr
e
d
.

T
h
e

g
e
n
e

i
n
s
e
r
ti
o
n

pro
ce
ss
,

f
o
r

e
x
a
m
p
le,

is

acc
o
m
p
l
i
s
h
ed

b
y

ei
t
h
er
sh
oo
ti
n
g

g
e
n
e
s

f
r
o
m

a


g
e
n
e

g
un


i
n
to

a
p
late

o
f

cell
s
,

o
r

us
i
n
g

b
acte
r
ia

to i
n
f
ect

t
h
e

cell with

f
or
ei
g
n

DN
A
.

B
o
th

c
r
eate

m
u
tati
on
s

in

a
n
d

a
rou
n
d

t
h
e

i
ns
e
r
ti
o
n

s
i
t
e

a
n
d

el
s
e
w
h
e
r
e
.
13

T
h
e


t
r
a
n
s
f
o
r
m
e
d


cell

is

t
h
e
n

cl
o
n
ed

i
n
to

a
p
la
n
t

t
h
roug
h

a
pro
ce
s
s

called

ti
ssu
e

c
u
l
t
u
r
e,

w
h
i
c
h

r
e
s
u
lts

i
n

a
dd
iti
o
n
al

h
un
dr
e
d
s

o
r

t
h
ou
s
a
n
d
s

o
f

m
u
t
a
ti
on
s

t
h
roug
h
o
u
t

t
h
e

p
la
n
t
s


g
e
n
o
m
e.

I
n

t
h
e

e
n
d
,

t
h
e

G
M

p
la
n
t

s

D
N
A

can

b
e

a
s
ta
g
g
e
r
i
n
g

2
-
4
%

d
i
f
f
e
r
e
n
t

f
r
o
m

i
t
s

n
a
t
u
r
al

p
a
r
e
n
t
.
14

Nati
v
e

g
e
n
es

c
a
n

b
e

mu
t
ate
d
,

d
elete
d
,

o
r

p
e
r
m
a
n
e
n
t
l
y

t
u
r
n
ed

o
n

o
r

o
f
f
.

I
n

a
dd
iti
o
n
,

t
h
e

i
ns
e
r
ti
o
n

pro
ce
s
s

ca
us
e
s

h
o
l
i
s
tic

a
n
d

no
t
-
w
el
l
-
u
n
d
e
r
s
t
oo
d

c
h
a
n
g
es

a
m
o
n
g

la
r
g
e

n
u
m
b
e
r
s

o
f
n
at
i
v
e

g
e
n
e
s
.

O
ne
s
t
u
d
y

r
e
v
ealed

t
h
at
u
p to
5
%

o
f

t
h
e

n
a
t
u
r
al

g
e
n
es

alte
r
ed

t
h
e
i
r

le
v
els

o
f

pro
tein

e
x
pr
e
ss
i
o
n

as

a
r
e
su
lt

o
f

a

s
i
n
g
le

i
ns
e
r
ti
o
n
.


T
h
e

R
o
y
al

S
o
cie
t
y

o
f

C
a
n
a
d
a

ac
kn
o
w
le
d
g
ed

t
h
at

t
h
e

d
e
f
a
u
l
t

pr
e
d
icti
o
n


f
o
r

GM

c
rop
s

w
o
u
ld

i
n
c
l
u
d
e


a

r
a
ng
e

o
f

c
o
llat
e
r
al

c
h
a
n
g
es
in

e
x
pr
e
s
s
i
o
n

o
f

o
t
h
er

g
e
n
e
s
,

c
h
a
n
g
es

i
n

t
h
e

p
atte
r
n

o
f

pro
tei
n
s

prod
u
ced

a
n
d
/
o
r

c
h
a
n
g
es

i
n

m
eta
bo
lic

acti
v
i
tie
s
.

15

A
l
t
h
o
u
g
h

t
he

F
D
A

s
ci
e
n
t
i
s
ts

e
v
al
u
a
ti
n
g

G
M
Os

in

199
2
w
e
r
e

u
n
a
w
a
r
e

o
f

t
h
e

e
x
t
e
n
t

to

w
h
ich

GM

DN
A

i
s

d
a
m
a
g
ed

o
r

c
h
a
n
g
e
d
,

t
h
e
y

t
o
o

d
e
s
c
r
i
b
ed

t
h
e

po
te
n
tial

c
on
s
e
q
u
e
n
ce
s
.

T
h
e
y

r
e
por
te
d
,


T
h
e

po
ss
i
b
ili
t
y

o
f

u
n
e
x
p
ecte
d
,

acci
d
e
n
tal

c
h
a
ng
e
s

in
g
e
n
etical
l
y

e
n
g
i
n
ee
r
ed

p
la
n
t
s


m
i
gh
t
prod
u
ce


u
n
e
x
p
ected

h
i
g
h

c
o
n
ce
n
t
r
ati
o
n
s

o
f

p
l
a
n
t

t
o
x
i
ca
n
t
s
.

16

GM

c
rop
s
,

t
h
e
y

s
ai
d
,

m
i
gh
t

h
a
v
e

“i
n
c
r
ea
s
ed

l
e
v
els

o
f

k
n
o
w
n

n
at
u
r
a
ll
y

o
cc
u
rr
i
n
g

t
o
x
i
ns
,


a
n
d

t
h
e


a
pp
ea
r
a
n
ce

o
f

n
e
w
,

n
o
t
pr
e
v
i
o
us
l
y

i
d
e
n
t
i
f
ie
d


t
ox
i
n
s
.

17

T
h
e

s
a
m
e

m
e
c
h
a
n
i
s
m

c
a
n

al
s
o

prod
u
ce

alle
r
g
e
n
s
,

ca
r
ci
n
o
g
e
ns
,

o
r

su
b
s
ta
n
ces

t
h
at

i
n
h
i
b
it

a
ss
i
m
il
a
ti
o
n

o
f

n
u
t
r
ie
n
t
s
.


Mo
s
t

o
f

t
h
e
s
e

prob
le
m
s

w
o
u
ld

p
a
s
s

u
nn
o
ticed

t
h
r
o
u
g
h

s
a
f
e
t
y

a
ss
e
ss
m
e
n
t
s

o
n

GM
f
ood
s
,

w
h
ich

a
r
e

la
r
g
e
l
y

d
e
s
i
g
n
ed

o
n

t
h
e

f
a
l
s
e
pr
e
m
i
s
e

t
h
a
t

g
e
n
es

ar
e

l
i
k
e

L
e
g
o
s

t
h
a
t

clea
n
l
y

s
n
ap

i
n
to

p
la
c
e.

B
u
t

e
v
en

i
f
w
e

d
i
s
r
e
g
a
r
d

un
e
x
p
ected

c
h
a
n
g
es

i
n

t
h
e

D
N
A

f
o
r

t
he
m
o
m
e
n
t,

a
prop
er

f
un
cti
o
n
i
n
g

i
ns
e
r
ted

g
e
n
e

s
t
ill

ca
rr
ies

s
i
g
n
i
f
ic
a
n
t

r
i
s
k
.

I
ts

n
e
w
l
y

c
r
eated

GM

pro
tei
n
,

su
c
h

as

t
h
e

B
t
-
t
o
x
i
n
,

m
a
y

b
e
d
a
ng
e
rou
s

f
o
r

hu
m
an

h
eal
t
h

(
s
ee

b
el
o
w
)
.

Mor
e
o
v
e
r
,

e
v
en

i
f

t
h
at

pro
tein

is

s
a
f
e

i
n

its
n
a
t
u
r
al

or
g
a
n
i
s
m
,

o
n
ce

it

i
s

t
r
a
n
s
f
e
r
r
ed

i
n
to

a
n
e
w

s
p
ecies

it

m
a
y

b
e

pro
ce
ss
ed

d
i
ff
e
r
e
n
tl
y
.

A
h
a
r
m
l
e
s
s

pro
tein

m
a
y

b
e

t
r
a
n
s
f
o
r
m
ed

i
n
to

a

d
a
ng
e
ro
u
s

o
r

d
ea
d
l
y

v
e
r
s
i
o
n
.

T
h
is
h
a
pp
e
n
ed

w
i
th

at

le
a
s
t

o
n
e

G
M

f
oo
d

c
ro
p

un
d
er

d
e
v
el
o
p
m
e
nt
,

GM

p
ea
s
,

w
h
i
c
h

w
e
r
e

d
e
s
t
r
o
y
ed

b
e
f
or
e

b
ei
n
g

c
o
mm
e
r
cia
l
ize
d
.


F
D
A

s
ci
e
n
t
i
s
ts

w
e
r
e

al
s
o

q
u
ite

c
o
n
ce
r
n
ed

a
bo
u
t

t
h
e

po
ss
i
b
ili
t
y

o
f

i
ns
e
r
ted

g
e
n
es

s
pon
ta
n
e
o
us
l
y

t
r
a
n
s
f
e
rr
i
n
g

i
n
to

t
h
e

D
N
A

o
f

b
acte
r
ia
i
ns
i
d
e

o
u
r

d
i
g
e
s
t
i
v
e

t
r
act.

T
h
ey

w
e
r
e

p
a
r
tic
u
la
r
l
y

ala
r
m
ed

at

t
h
e

po
ss
i
b
ili
t
y

o
f

a
n
ti
b
i
o
tic

r
e
s
i
s
ta
n
t

m
a
r
k
er

(
A
R
M)

g
e
n
es

t
r
a
n
s
f
e
rr
i
n
g
.
A
R
M

g
e
n
es

a
r
e

e
m
p
l
o
y
ed

d
u
r
i
n
g

g
e
n
e

i
n
s
e
r
ti
o
n

to
h
elp

s
c
i
e
n
ti
s
ts

i
d
e
n
t
i
f
y

w
h
i
c
h

cells

s
u
c
c
e
s
s
f
u
ll
y

i
n
t
e
g
r
ated

t
h
e

f
or
ei
g
n

g
e
n
e.

T
h
e
s
e

A
R
M

g
e
n
e
s
,

h
o
w
e
v
e
r
,

r
e
m
a
i
n

in

t
h
e

cell

a
n
d

a
r
e

cl
o
n
ed

i
n
to

t
h
e

D
N
A

o
f

a
l
l

t
h
e

GM
p
la
n
ts

prod
u
ced

f
r
o
m

t
h
a
t

cell.

O
n
e

F
D
A
r
e
por
t

w
ro
te

in

all

ca
p
ital

le
t
t
e
r
s

t
h
at A
R
M

g
e
n
es

w
o
u
ld

b
e

“A

S
E
R
I
OUS

H
E
A
L
T
H

H
A
Z
A
R
D
,


d
u
e

to t
h
e

po
ss
i
b
i
l
i
t
y

o
f

t
h
a
t

t
h
e
y
m
i
gh
t

t
r
a
n
s
f
er

to
b
acte
r
ia

a
n
d

c
r
eate

su
p
er

d
i
s
ea
s
e
s
,

u
n
t
r
eat
a
b
le

w
i
t
h

a
n
t
i
b
i
o
tic
s
.


A
lth
o
u
g
h

t
he

b
i
o
tech

in
d
u
s
tr
y

c
o
n
f
i
d
ently

a
ss
e
r
ted

th
a
t

g
ene

t
r
a
n
s
f
er

f
r
o
m GM

food
s

w
a
s

n
o
t

po
ss
i
b
le,

the

o
nly

hu
m
a
n

f
ee
d
ing
s
tu
d
y

o
n

GM

food
s

l
a
ter

p
r
o
v
ed

th
a
t

it
do
es

t
ak
e

p
l
a
ce.

T
he

g
enetic

ma
te
r
i
a
l

in

s
o
y
b
e
a
ns

th
a
t

m
a
k
e

th
e
m he
r
b
ici
d
e

t
o
le
r
a
nt
t
r
a
n
s
f
e
r
r
ed

into

the

D
N
A

o
f

hu
m
a
n

g
ut

b
a
cte
r
ia

a
nd

c
o
ntinued

to
f
uncti
o
n
18
.

T
h
a
t

m
e
a
ns

t
h
a
t

l
o
ng

af
ter

w
e

s
t
o
p

e
a
ting

a

GM
c
r
op
,

its

fo
r
ei
g
n

GM

p
r
o
teins

ma
y

b
e

p
r
od
uced

in
s
i
d
e

o
ur

inte
s
t
i
ne
s
.

I
t

is

al
s
o

po
ss
i
b
le

t
h
at

t
h
e

f
or
e
i
g
n

g
e
n
e
s

m
i
g
h
t

e
n
d

u
p i
ns
i
d
e
o
u
r

o
w
n

DN
A
,

w
i
t
h
i
n

t
h
e

cel
l
s

o
f

o
u
r

o
w
n

or
g
a
n
s

a
n
d

t
i
s
s
u
e
s.


A
n
o
t
h
er

w
or
r
y

e
x
pr
e
s
s
ed

b
y

F
DA

s
cie
n
ti
s
t
s

w
as

t
h
at

GM

p
l
a
n
ts

m
i
g
h
t

g
a
t
h
er

“t
o
x
ic

s
u
b
s
t
a
n
ces

f
r
o
m

t
h
e

e
n
v
i
ron
m
e
n
t”

s
u
ch

a
s

p
e
s
ti
c
i
d
es

o
r

h
ea
v
y

m
e
tal
s
,

19

o
r

t
h
at

t
o
x
ic

s
u
b
s
t
a
n
ces

i
n

GM a
n
i
m
a
l

f
eed

m
i
g
h
t

b
i
o
acc
u
m
u
late

i
n
to

m
ilk

a
n
d

m
eat

prod
u
c
t
s
.

W
h
ile
n
o
s
t
u
d
i
e
s

h
a
v
e

l
oo
k
ed

at

t
h
e

b
i
o
acc
u
mu
lati
o
n

i
s
s
u
e,

h
e
rb
ic
i
d
e

t
o
le
r
a
n
t

c
rop
s

ce
r
tai
n
l
y

h
a
v
e

h
i
g
h
er

le
v
e
ls

o
f

h
e
rb
ici
d
e

r
e
s
i
d
u
e
s
.

I
n
f
act,

m
a
n
y

c
ou
n
t
r
ies

h
ad

to i
n
c
r
ea
s
e

t
h
eir

le
g
a
ll
y

all
o
w
a
b
le

l
e
v
el
s

b
y

u
p to
5
0 t
i
m
e
s

in

ord
er

t
o acc
o
m
m
od
ate

t
h
e

i
n
t
rod
u
cti
o
n

of
GM

c
rop
s
.


T
h
e

o
v
e
r
us
e

o
f

t
h
e

h
e
rb
ici
d
es

d
u
e

to GM

c
rop
s

h
as

r
e
su
lted

i
n

t
h
e

d
e
v
e
l
o
p
m
e
n
t

o
f

h
e
rb
ici
d
e

r
e
s
i
s
ta
n
t

w
ee
d
s
.

US
D
A

s
tat
i
s
tics

s
h
o
w
t
h
at

h
e
rb
ici
d
e

u
s
e

is

r
a
p
i
d
l
y

a
c
cele
r
ati
n
g
.

I
ts

us
e
w
a
s

u
p
b
y

5
2
7

m
il
l
i
o
n

po
un
d
s

in

t
h
e

f
i
r
s
t
1
6
y
ea
r
s

o
f

GM

c
rop
s

(1996
-
2
011)
.
G
l
y
p
h
o
s
a
te

u
s
e

p
er

ac
r
e

o
n

R
o
un
d
u
p

R
ea
d
y

s
o
y
b
e
a
n
s

w
a
s

u
p

b
y

227
%

w
h
ile

us
e

o
n

n
on
-
G
M
O

s
o
y

ac
r
ea
g
e

d
ec
r
ea
s
ed

b
y

20
%

o
v
er
t
h
e

s
a
m
e

t
i
m
e

p
e
r
i
od
.

T
h
e

r
ate

o
f

a
pp
licati
o
n

is

accele
r
ati
n
g

d
u
e

in

la
r
g
e

p
a
r
t

to t
h
e

e
m
e
r
g
e
n
ce

o
f

h
e
rb
ici
d
e

t
o
le
r
a
n
t

w
ee
d
s
,

n
o
w
f
ou
n
d

o
n
m
i
lli
on
s

o
f

ac
r
e
s
.

A
c
c
ord
i
n
g

to a
s
t
u
d
y

b
y

C
h
a
r
les

B
e
n
broo
k
,

t
h
e

i
n
c
r
e
m
e
n
tal

i
n
c
r
ea
s
e

p
er

y
ear

w
as

1.
5

m
illi
o
n

po
un
d
s

in

4


1999
,

1
8
m
illi
o
n

i
n

2003
,

7
9

m
illi
o
n

in

2009
,

a
n
d

a
bo
u
t

9
0

m
illi
o
n

in

2011
.

A
n
d

as
R
ound
u
p

b
ec
o
m
es

l
e
s
s

e
f
f
ect
i
v
e,

f
ar
m
e
r
s

a
r
e
n
o
w

u
s
i
n
g

m
or
e

t
ox
ic

h
e
rb
ici
d
e
s
,

su
c
h

as

2
-
4
D.


T
h
e

p
e
s
tici
d
e
-
prod
u
ci
n
g

B
t

c
rop
s

d
o
r
e
d
u
ce

t
h
e

a
m
ou
n
t

o
f

s
pr
a
y
ed

o
n

i
ns
ectici
d
e
s
,

b
u
t

t
h
e

t
o
tal

a
m
ou
n
t

prod
u
ced

b
y

t
h
e

c
rop
s

is

f
ar
g
r
eater

t
h
a
n

t
h
e

a
m
ou
n
t

o
f

d
i
s
p
laced

s
pr
a
y
.

F
o
r

e
x
a
m
p
le,

B
t

c
or
n

t
h
at

k
ills

t
h
e

c
or
n

roo
t
w
o
r
m

prod
u
ces

o
n
e

to
t
w
o

po
un
d
s

o
f

B
t
t
o
x
i n

p
er

ac
r
e,

b
u
t

r
e
d
u
ces

s
pr
a
y
ed

i
ns
e
c
tici
d
es

b
y

o
n
l
y

a
bou
t

0.1
9

po
un
d
s
.

S
m
a
r
t
Stax

c
or
n
w
i
t
h

e
i
gh
t

g
e
n
es

prod
u
ces

3.
7

po
un
d
s

of
B
t

t
o
x
in

p
er

ac
r
e,

b
u
t

d
i
s
p
laces

o
n
l
y

0.
3

po
un
d
s

o
f

s
pr
a
y
ed

i
ns
ecti
c
i
d
e
s
.

20


A
ll

o
f

t
h
e

a
bo
v
e

r
i
s
k
s

a
ss
o
cia
t
ed

w
i
t
h

GM

f
ood
s

a
r
e

m
a
g
n
i
f
i
ed

f
o
r

h
i
g
h
-
r
i
s
k

g
ro
u
p
s
,

s
u
c
h

as

pr
e
gn
a
n
t

w
o
m
e
n
,

c
h
i
l
dr
e
n
,

t
h
e

s
i
c
k
,

a
nd
t
h
e

el
d
e
r
l
y
.

T
h
e

f
o
ll
o
w
i
n
g

s
e
c
t
i
o
n

h
i
g
h
li
g
h
t
s

s
o
m
e

o
f

t
h
e

prob
l
e
m
s

t
h
at

h
a
v
e

b
een

i
d
e
n
t
i
f
i
e
d
.



G
M

DI
E

T


S

H
O

W
S


T

OX
I

C


R

E
A

C
T

I
O

N
S


I

N


T
H

E


D
I

G
E

S

T
I

V
E


T

R
A

C
T




T
h
e

v
e
r
y

f
i
r
s
t

c
ro
p

su
b
m
itted

t
o t
h
e

F
D
A

s

v
o
l
u
n
ta
r
y

c
on
s
u
l
t
ati
o
n

pro
ce
ss
,

t
h
e

Fl
a
v
r
S
a
v
r

t
o
m
at
o
,

sh
o
w
ed

e
v
i
d
e
n
ce

o
f

t
ox
i
ns
.

O
u
t

o
f

2
0
f
e
m
ale

r
ats

f
ed

t
h
e

GM

t
o
m
at
o
,

7

d
e
v
el
op
ed

s
t
o
m
a
c
h

l
e
s
i
o
ns
.

21

T
h
e

d
i
r
ect
o
r

o
f

F
D
A

s

O
f
f
ice

o
f

S
p
ecial

R
e
s
ea
r
ch

S
k
ills

w
ro
t e
t
h
at

t
h
e

t
o
m
at
o
es

d
id

n
o
t

d
e
m
o
ns
t
r
ate

a

r
e
a
s
o
n
a
b
le

ce
r
tai
n
t
y

o
f

n
o

h
a
r
m
,

22

w
h
i
c
h

is

t
h
eir
n
o
r
m
al

s
t
a
n
d
a
r
d

o
f

s
a
f
e
t
y
.

T
h
e
A
dd
iti
v
e
s
E
v
al
u
a
ti
o
n

B
r
a
n
c
h

a
g
r
eed

t
h
at

u
n
r
e
s
o
l
v
ed

q
u
e
s
ti
o
n
s

s
till

r
e
m
a
i
n
.

23

T
h
e

po
litical

a
ppo
i
n
tee
s
,

h
o
w
e
v
e
r
,

d
id

n
o
t

r
e
q
u
i
r
e

t
h
a
t

t
h
e
t
o
m
ato

b
e

w
i
t
h
d r
a
w
n
.

1


A
cc
ord
i
n
g

to
A
rp
ad

P
us
ztai,

P
h
D,

o
n
e

o
f

t
h
e

w
or
l
d

s

lea
d
i
n
g

e
x
p
e
r
ts

in

GM
f
oo
d

s
a
f
e
t
y

a
s
s
e
s
s
m
e
n
t
s
,

t
h
e

t
y
p
e

o
f

s
t
o
m
a
c
h

le
s
i
on
s
li
n
k
ed

to t
h
e

t
o
m
at
o
es


c
ou
ld

lead

to li
f
e
-
e
n
d
a
n
g
e
r
i
n
g

h
e
m
o
rr
h
a
g
e,

p
a
r
tic
u
la
r
l
y

in

t
h
e

el
d
e
r
l
y

w
h
o

u
s
e

a
s
p
i
r
i
n

to
pr
e
v
e
n
t

[b
l
oo
d
cl
o
t
s
].

24

D
r
.

P
us
ztai

b
elie
v
es

t
h
at

t
h
e

d
i
g
e
s
t
i
v
e

t
r
act,

w
h
i
c
h

is

t
h
e

f
i
r
s
t

a
n
d

la
r
g
e
s
t

po
i
n
t

o
f

c
o
n
tact

w
i
t
h

f
ood
s
,

can

r
e
v
eal

v
a
r
i
o
u
s
r
eacti
o
n
s

to t
o
x
i
n
s

a
n
d

sh
ou
ld

b
e

t
h
e

f
i
r
s
t

ta
r
g
et

o
f

GM
f
oo
d

r
i
s
k

a
s
s
e
ss
m
e
n
t.

He

w
as

ala
r
m
e
d
,

h
o
w
e
v
e
r
,

to
d
i
s
c
o
v
er

t
h
at

s
t
u
d
ies

o
n
t
h
e

Fl
a
v
r
S
a
v
r

n
e
v
er

l
oo
k
ed

p
a
ss
ed

t
h
e

s
t
o
m
a
c
h

to t
h
e

i
n
te
s
ti
n
e
s
.

O
t
h
er

s
t
u
d
ies

t
h
at

d
id

l
o
o
k

f
o
un
d

prob
l
e
m
s
.


M
ice

f
ed

po
tat
o
es

e
ng
i
n
ee
r
ed

to
pr
o
d
u
ce

t
h
e

B
t
-
t
o
x
in

d
e
v
el
op
ed

a
b
n
or
m
al

a
n
d

d
a
m
a
g
ed

c
e
ll
s
,

as
w
ell

as

pro
li
f
e
r
at
i
v
e

cell
g
r
o
w
t
h

i
n
t
h
e

l
o
w
er

p
a
r
t

o
f

t
h
eir

s
m
all

i
n
te
s
t
i
n
es

(
il
e
u
m
)
.

25

R
ats

f
ed

po
tat
o
es

e
n
g
i
n
ee
r
ed

to
prod
u
ce

a
d
i
f
f
e
r
e
n
t

t
y
p
e

o
f

i
n
s
ectici
d
e

(
G
NA

lec
t
in
f
r
o
m

t
h
e

s
n
o
w
dro
p

p
la
n
t)

al
s
o

sh
o
w
ed

pro
li
f
e
r
ati
v
e

cell
g
ro
w
t
h

i
n

bo
th

t
h
e

s
t
o
m
a
c
h

a
n
d

i
n
te
s
t
i
n
al

w
a
lls

(
s
ee

p
h
o
t
o
s
)
.

26

A
l
t
h
o
u
g
h

t
h
e

g
u
t
s

o
f

r
ats

f
ed

GM

p
eas

w
e
r
e

n
o
t

e
x
a
m
i
n
ed

f
o
r

cell

g
r
o
w
t
h
,

t
h
e

i
n
te
s
ti
n
e
s

w
e
r
e

mys
t
e
r
i
o
us
l
y

h
e
a
v
ie
r
;

po
ss
i
b
l
y

a
s

a
r
e
su
lt

of
su
c
h

g
r
o
w
t
h
.

27

C
ell

pro
li
f
e
r
ati
o
n

can

b
e

a
pr
ec
u
r
s
o
r

to ca
n
cer

a
n
d

is

o
f

s
p
ecial

c
o
n
ce
r
n
.


R
a
ts

fe
d

G
M

po
t
a
t
o
e
s

sho
we
d

p
r
o
l i
fe
r
a
t
i
v
e

c
e
l l

gr
o
w
t
h

i n

t
h
e

s
t
o
m
a
ch

an
d

i
n
t
es
ti
n
es
.


St
o
m
a
ch

Li
n
i
n
g

I
n
t
es
ti
na
l

W
a
l l

















Non
-
G
M

G
M

Non
-
G
M

G
M

1

C
a
l g
e
n
e

ha
d

s
ub
m
i t
t
e
d

da
ta

o
n

t
w
o

l i
n
e
s

o
f
G
M

t
o
m
a
t
o
e
s
,

b
oth

u
s
i
n
g

t
h
e

s
a
m
e

i
ns
e
rt
e
d

g
e
n
e
.

T
h
e
y

v
o
l
un
t
a
ri ly

e
l
e
c
t
e
d

to
m
a
r
k
e
t

on
l y

t
h
e

v
a
ri
e
ty

t
ha
t

w
a
s

n
ot

as
s
o
ci
a
t
e
d

w
i th

t
h
e

l e
s
i
on
s
.

T
h
i s

w
a
s

n
ot

r
e
qu
i r
e
d

b
y

t
h
e

FDA,

w
h
i ch

d
i d

n
ot

b
l
o
c
k

app
r
o
v
a
l s
o
n

t
h
e

l
es
i
on
-
a
ss
o
c
i
a
t
e
d

v
a
r
i e
t
y
.

T
h
e

Fl
a
v
r
S
a
v
r

t
o
m
a
to

ha
s

s
i
n
ce

b
ee
n

t
ak
e
n

o
f
f

t
h
e

m
a
r
k
e
t.

A
f
t
e
r

t
h
e

Fl
a
v
rS
a
v
r,

n
o

o
t
h
e
r

b
i
o
t
e
ch
c
o
m
pan
y

ha
s

s
ub
m
i tt
e
d

s
u
ch
d
e
t
a
i l
e
d

da
ta

to

t
h
e

FDA.

5






G

M

DI
E

T

S

C
A

U
S

E

L

I
V

E

R

D

A

M

A

G

E



T
h
e

s
tate

o
f

t
h
e

l
i
v
e
r

a

m
ain

d
et
o
x
i
f
ier

f
o
r

t
h
e

bod
y

is

a
no
t
h
er

i
n
d
icat
o
r

o
f

t
o
x
i
ns
.




R
ats

f
ed

t
h
e

G
N
A

le
c
tin

po
ta
t
o
es

d
e
s
c
r
i
b
ed

a
b
o
v
e

h
ad

s
m
a
ll
er

a
n
d

p
a
r
tially

at
rop
h
ied

l
i
v
e
r
s
.
28




R
ats

f
ed

Mo
ns
a
n
t
o’
s

Mo
n

86
3

c
or
n
,

e
ng
i
n
ee
r
ed

to
pr
o
d
u
ce

B
t
-
t
o
x
i
n
,

h
ad

l
i
v
er

le
s
i
on
s

a
n
d

o
t
h
er

i
n
d
icati
on
s

o
f

t
o
x
i
c
i
t
y
.

29




R
a
bb
its

f
ed

GM

s
o
y

s
h
o
w
ed

a
lte
r
ed

e
n
z
ym
e

prod
u
cti
o
n

in

t
h
eir

li
v
e
r
s

as
w
ell

a
s

h
i
g
h
er

m
e
t
a
bo
lic

acti
v
i
t
y
.
30




T
h
e

li
v
e
r
s

o
f

r
ats

f
ed

R
ou
n
d
u
p

R
ea
d
y

ca
n
o
la

w
e
r
e

12
%

16
%

h
ea
v
ie
r
,

po
ss
i
b
l
y

d
u
e

to li
v
er
d
i
s
ea
s
e

o
r

i
n
f
l
a
m
m
ati
o
n
.

31




M
ic
ro
s
c
op
ic

a
n
a
l
y
s
i
s

o
f

t
h
e

l
i
v
e
r
s

o
f

m
ice

f
ed

R
ou
n
d
u
p

R
e
a
d
y

s
o
y
b
ea
n
s

r
e
v
ealed

alte
r
ed

g
e
n
e

e
x
pr
e
s
s
i
o
n

a
n
d

s
t
r
u
c
t
u
r
al

a
n
d
f
u
n
cti
o
n
al

c
h
a
n
g
es

(
s
ee

p
h
o
t
o
s
)
.
32

M
a
n
y

o
f

t
h
e
s
e

c
h
a
n
g
es

r
e
v
e
r
s
ed

a
f
ter

t
h
e

m
ice

d
iet
w
as

s
w
it
c
h
ed

to
n
on
-
GM

s
o
y
,

i
n
d
i
c
ati
n
g
t
h
at

GM

s
o
y

w
as

t
h
e

c
u
l
pr
it.

T
h
e

f
i
n
d
i
n
g
s
,

acc
ord
i
n
g

to

m
o
l
e
c
u
lar

g
e
n
etic
i
s
t

Mi
c
h
ael

A
n
t
o
n
i
o
u
,

P
h
D,


a
r
e

n
o
t

r
a
n
d
o
m

a
n
d

mu
s
t
r
e
f
lect

s
o
m
e


i
n
s
u
l
t


o
n

t
h
e

l
i
v
er

b
y

t
h
e

GM

s
o
y
.


A
n
t
o
n
i
o
u
,

w
h
o

do
es

h
u
m
a
n

g
e
n
e

t
h
e
r
a
p
y

r
e
s
ea
r
ch

in

K
i
n
g

s

C
o
ll
e
g
e

Lo
n
do
n,
s
aid

t
h
at

al
t
h
oug
h

t
h
e

l
o
n
g
-
te
r
m

c
o
ns
e
q
u
e
n
c
e
s

o
f

t
h
e

GM

s
o
y

d
iet

a
r
e

n
o
t

k
n
o
w
n
,

it


c
o
u
ld

lead

to li
v
er

d
a
m
a
g
e

a
n
d
c
o
ns
e
q
u
e
n
t
l
y

g
e
n
e
r
al

t
o
x
e
m
ia
.

33



R
ats

f
ed

R
ou
n
d
u
p

R
ea
d
y

s
o
y
b
ea
n
s

al
s
o

s
h
o
w
ed

s
t
r
u
c
t
u
r
al

c
h
a
ng
e
s

in

t
h
eir

l
i
v
e
r
s
.

34


T
h
e

l
i
ve
r

c
e
l
l
s

f
r
o
m

s
oy
-
fe
d

m
i
ce

s
ho
we
d

an
o
m
a
l i
e
s
.







Li
ve
r

c
e
l l

nu
cl
e
i








C
on
tr
o
l

G
M

S
o
y

F
e
d







Li
ve
r

c
e
l l

nu
cl
e
o
l
i

6


T
h
e

l i
ve
rs

o
f

s
oy
-
f
e
d

r
a
ts

s
h
o
w
e
d

un
i
qu
e

c
han
g
es
.














C
on
tr
o
l

G
M

S
o
y
-

F
ed

















G
M

F
E

D


A
N

I
M

A
L

S


H
A

D


H

I

G

H
E

R


D

E

A
T

H


R
A

T
E

S


A

N

D


O
R

G
A

N


D
A

M

A

G
E




I
n

t
h
e

Fl
a
v
r
S
a
v
r

t
o
m
ato

s
t
u
d
y
,

a

no
te

i
n t
h
e

a
pp
e
n
d
ix

i
n
d
icated

t
h
at

7

o
f

4
0
r
ats

d
ied

w
i
t
h
i
n

t
w
o

w
e
e
k
s

a
n
d

w
e
r
e

r
e
p
lace
d
.
35

I
n
a
n
o
t
h
er

s
t
u
d
y
,

c
h
ic
k
e
n
s

f
ed

t
h
e

h
e
rb
ici
d
e

t
o
le
r
a
n
t


L
i
b
e
r
t
y

L
i
nk


c
or
n

d
ied

at

t
w
ice

t
h
e

r
ate

o
f

t
h
o
s
e

f
ed

n
a
t
u
r
al

c
or
n
.
36

B
u
t

in

t
h
e
s
e
t
w
o

i
n
d
u
s
t
r
y
-
f
u
n
d
ed

s
t
u
d
i
e
s
,

t
h
e

d
eat
h
s

w
e
r
e

d
i
s
m
i
ss
ed

w
i
t
ho
u
t

a
d
e
q
u
ate

e
x
p
la
n
a
ti
o
n

o
r

f
o
ll
o
w
-
u
p
.


I
n

a
dd
iti
o
n
,

t
h
e

cells

i
n

t
h
e

p
a
n
c
r
eas

o
f

m
ice

f
ed

R
ou
n
d
u
p

R
ea
d
y

s
o
y

h
ad

pro
f
ou
n
d

c
h
a
ng
e
s

a
n
d

prod
u
ced

s
i
gn
i
f
ic
a
n
t
l
y

l
e
s
s
d
i
g
e
s
t
i
v
e

e
n
z
y
m
e
s
;

37

in

r
ats

f
ed

a GM

po
tat
o
,

t
h
e

p
a
n
c
r
eas

w
a
s

e
n
la
r
g
e
d
.
38

I
n

v
a
r
i
ou
s

a
n
a
l
ys
e
s

o
f

k
i
d
n
e
ys
,

G
M
-
f
ed

a
n
i
m
a
ls

sh
o
w
ed
le
s
i
on
s
,

t
o
x
ici
t
y
,

alte
r
ed

e
n
z
ym
e

prod
u
cti
o
n

o
r

i
n
f
l
a
mm
at i
o
n
.

39,

40

E
n
z
y
m
e

prod
u
cti
o
n

i
n

t
h
e

h
ea
r
ts

o
f

r
a
bb
its

w
as

alte
r
ed

b
y

GM
s
o
y
.

41

A
n
d

GM

po
tat
o
es

ca
us
ed

s
l
o
w
er

g
r
o
w
t
h

i
n

t
h
e

br
ain

o
f

r
at
s
.
42

A

te
a
m

o
f

i
n
d
e
p
e
n
d
e
n
t

s
c
ie
n
t
i
s
ts

r
e
-
a
n
a
l
y
zed

t
h
e

r
a
w

d
a
ta

in t
h
r
ee

Mo
ns
a
n
to

90
-
d
a
y

r
at

f
e
e
d
i
n
g

s
t
u
d
i
e
s

a
n
d

s
a
w

s
i
g
n
s

o
f

t
o
x
ici
t
y

i
n

t
h
e

l
i
v
er

a
n
d

k
i
d
n
e
y
s
,

as
w
ell

as

e
ff
e
c
ts

i
n

t
h
e

h
ea
r
t,

a
dr
e
n
al

g
la
n
d
s
,

s
p
lee
n
,

a
n
d

b
l
ood
.
43

I
n

o
n
e

o
f

t
h
e

o
n
l
y

l
on
g
-
te
r
m

f
ee
d
i
n
g

s
t
u
d
i
e
s
,

r
ats

f
ed

R
o
un
d
u
p

R
ea
d
y

c
or
n

f
o
r

t
h
r
ee

y
ea
r
s

f
o
r

2
4
m
o
n
t
h
s

(o
r

e
v
en

j
us
t

l
o
w

c
o
n
ce
n
t
r
ati
o
n
s

o
f

R
ou
n
d
u
p

in

t
h
eir

dr
i
n
k
i
n
g

w
ate
r
)

s
uf
f
e
r
ed

s
i
g
n
i
f
ic
a
n
t

d
a
m
a
g
e

to
t
h
eir

k
i
d
n
e
ys
,

li
v
e
r
s
,

a
nd
p
it
u
ita
r
y

g
l
a
n
d
s
.

T
h
e
y

al
s
o

d
ied

pr
e
m
a
t
u
r
e
l
y

a
n
d

h
ad

m
a
n
y

m
a
s
s
i
v
e

t
u
m
or
s

a
s

la
r
g
e

as

2
5
%

o
f

t
h
eir

bod
y

w
e
i
g
h
t.

44



R

E
PR

O
D
U
C
T
I
V
E

F
A

I
L

U
R

E
S


A

N

D


I

N
F

A
N

T


M
O

R

T
A

L
I

T
Y




T
h
e

te
s
ticles

o
f

bo
th

m
ice

a
n
d

r
ats

f
ed

R
ou
n
d
u
p

R
ea
d
y

s
o
y
b
e
a
n
s

s
h
o
w
ed

dr
a
m
atic

c
h
a
n
g
e
s
.

I
n

r
at
s
,

t
h
e

or
g
a
n
s

w
e
r
e

d
a
r
k

b
l
u
e

i
ns
tead

o
f

p
i
n
k

(
s
ee

p
h
o
t
o
s

o
n

n
e
x
t

p
a
g
e)
.
45

I
n
m
ice,

y
o
u
n
g

s
p
e
r
m

cells

w
e
r
e

alte
r
e
d
.
46

E
m
b
r
y
o
s

o
f

GM

s
o
y
-
f
ed

m
ice

al
s
o

s
h
o
w
ed t
e
m
p or
a
r
y

c
h
a
ng
e
s

in

t
h
eir

D
NA

f
un
c
t
i
o
n
,

c
o
m
p
a
r
ed

to t
h
o
s
e

w
h
o
s
e

p
a
r
e
n
t
s

w
e
r
e

f
ed

n
o
n
-
GM

s
o
y
.

47

F
e
m
ale

r
ats

f
ed

GM

s
o
y

sh
o
w
ed

c
h
a
ng
e
s

i
n

t
h
eir
u
te
ru
s
,

o
v
a
r
ie
s
,

a
n
d

h
o
r
m
o
n
al

b
ala
n
ce
.
48

B
y

t
h
e

t
h
i
r
d

g
e
n
e
r
ati
o
n
,

m
o
s
t

h
a
ms
te
r
s

f
ed

GM

s
o
y

w
e
r
e

un
a
b
le

to

h
a
v
e

b
a
b
ie
s
.

T
h
e

i
n
f
a
n
t

m
or
ta
l
i
t
y

w
as

4
-
5

t
i
m
e
s

g
r
eater

t
h
an

c
o
n
t
ro
l
s
,

a
n
d

m
a
n
y

o
f

t
h
e

GM
O
-
f
ed

t
h
i
r
d

g
e
n
e
r
ati
o
n

h
ad

h
a
i
r

g
r
o
w
i
ng

in t
h
e
ir
m
ou
t
h
s
.

49

7


T
h
e

t
e
s
ti c
l
e
s

o
f

r
a
t
s

fe
d

R
ou
n
du
p

R
e
ad
y

s
oyb
e
an
s

we
re

da
r
k

b
l
u
e

i
n
s
t
e
a
d
o
f

p
i
nk
,

an
d

t
h
e

s
tr
u
ct
u
re

o
f

t
h
e

c
e
l
l
s

w
e
re

s
i g
n
i
f
i
c
an
tl y

a
lt
e
r
e
d.

















C
on
tr
o
l

G
M

S
o
y
-
F
ed

















An A
us
t
r
i
a
n

g
o
v
e
rn
m
e
n
t

s
t
u
d
y

s
h
o
w
ed

t
h
at
m
ice

f
ed

GM

c
or
n

(
B
t

a
n
d

R
o
un
d
u
p

R
ea
d
y
)

h
ad

f
e
w
er

b
a
b
ies

a
n
d

s
m
aller

b
a
b
ie
s
.
50

Mor
e

dr
a
m
atic

r
e
s
u
lts

w
e
r
e

d
i
s
c
o
v
e
r
ed

b
y

a lea
d
i
n
g

s
cie
n
ti
s
t

at

t
h
e

R
u
s
s
ian

N
a
ti
o
n
al

A
ca
d
e
m
y

o
f

s
ci
e
n
ce
s
.

F
e
m
ale

r
ats

w
e
r
e

f
ed

GM

s
o
y
,

s
ta
r
t
i
n
g

t
w
o

w
e
e
k
s

b
e
f
or
e

t
h
e
y

w
e
r
e

m
ate
d
.




O
v
er

a
s
e
r
ies

o
f

t
h
r
ee

e
x
p
e
r
i
m
e
n
t
s
,

51.
6

p
e
r
ce
n
t

o
f

t
h
e

of
f
s
p
r
i
n
g

f
r
o
m

t
h
e

G
M
-
f
ed

g
ro
u
p

d
ied

w
i
t
h
in

t
h
e

f
i
r
s
t

t
h
r
ee

w
ee
k
s
,
c
o
m
p
a
r
ed

to
1
0
p
e
r
ce
n
t

f
ro
m

t
h
e

n
o
n
-
G
M

s
o
y

g
ro
u
p
,

a
n
d

8.
1

p
e
r
ce
n
t

f
o
r

n
o
n
-
s
o
y

c
o
n
t
ro
l
s
.





H
i
g
h

p
u
p

m
or
tali
t
y

w
as

c
h
a
r
acte
r
i
s
tic

o
f

e
v
e
r
y

litter
f
r
o
m

m
o
t
h
e
r
s

f
ed

t
h
e

G
M

s
o
y

f
l
o
u
r
.

51




T
h
e

a
v
e
r
a
g
e

s
ize

a
n
d

w
e
i
g
h
t

o
f

t
h
e

G
M
-
f
ed

of
f
s
pr
i
n
g

w
as

q
u
ite

a
b
it

s
m
aller

(
s
ee

p
h
o
to

o
n
n
e
x
t

p
a
g
e
)
.
52




I
n

a
pr
el
i
m
i
n
a
r
y

s
t
u
d
y
,

t
h
e

G
M
-
f
ed

o
f
f
s
pr
i
n
g

w
e
r
e

u
n
a
b
le

to
c
o
n
cei
v
e.

53


A
f
ter

t
h
e

t
h
r
ee

f
ee
d
i
n
g

t
r
ial
s
,

t
h
e

s
u
pp
lier

o
f

r
at

f
oo
d

us
ed

at

t
h
e

R
u
s
s
i
a
n

la
bor
at
or
y

b
e
g
a
n

us
i
n
g

GM

s
o
y

i
n

t
h
eir

f
o
r
mu
l
a
ti
o
n
.

Si
n
ce
all

t
h
e

r
ats

h
o
us
ed

at

t
h
e

f
ac
i
li
t
y

w
e
r
e

n
o
w

eat
i
n
g

GM
s
o
y
,

n
o
n
o
n
-
G
M

f
ed

c
o
n
t
ro
ls

w
e
r
e

a
v
aila
b
le

f
o
r

s
u
b
s
e
q
u
e
n
t

GM
f
e
e
d
i
n
g

t
r
ial
s
;

f
o
ll
o
w
-
u
p

s
t
u
d
i
e
s

w
e
r
e

ca
n
cele
d
.

A
fter

t
w
o

m
on
t
h
s

o
n t
h
e

GM

s
o
y

d
i
e
t,

ho
w
eve
r
,

t
h
e

i
n
f
an
t

m
o
r
t
a
lity

r
a
te

o
f

r
a
ts

t
h
r
ough
o
ut

t
h
e

f
a
cility

ha
d

s
ky
r
o
cketed

to

55.
3

p
e
r
ce
n
t

(
9
9

o
f

1
79
)
.
54





T
h
e

20

da
y

o
l d

sm
a
l
l
e
r

r
a
t,

bo
rn

o
f

a
m
o
t
h
e
r

fe
d

G
M

s
oy
,

i s

qu
i te

a

b
i t

sm
a
l l
e
r
t
ha
n

t
h
e

19

day
-
o
l d

r
a
t

f
r
o
m

t
h
e

c
on
tr
ol
gr
oup.

8


F
A

R
M

E
R

S


R

E
P

O
R

T


L

I
V

E

S
T

O
C

K


S
T

E
R

IL
I

T

Y


A
N

D


D
E

A
T

H
S




A
bo
u
t

t
w
o

do
zen

f
a
r
m
e
r
s

r
e
por
ted

t
h
at

t
h
eir

p
i
g
s

h
ad

r
e
pro
du
ct
i
v
e

prob
le
m
s

w
h
e
n

f
ed

ce
r
tain

v
a
r
ie
t
ies

o
f

B
t

c
or
n
.

P
i
g
s

w
e
r
e

s
te
r
ile,
h
ad

f
al
s
e

pr
e
g
n
a
n
cie
s
,

o
r

g
a
v
e

b
i
r
th

to
b
a
g
s

o
f

w
ate
r
.

C
o
w
s

a
n
d

b
u
lls

a
l
s
o

b
ec
a
m
e

s
te
r
ile.

B
t

c
or
n

w
a
s

al
s
o

i
m
p
lic
a
ted

b
y

f
a
r
m
e
r
s

in
t
h
e

d
eat
h
s

o
f

c
o
w
s
,

h
or
s
e
s
,

w
a
ter

b
u
f
f
al
o
e
s
,

a
n
d

c
h
i
c
k
e
n s
.

55


W
h
en

I
n
d
i
a
n

s
h
e
p
h
e
rd
s

let

t
h
e
ir

sh
eep

g
r
aze

c
o
n
t
i
n
u
o
us
l
y

o
n
B
t

c
o
tt
o
n

p
la
n
t
s
,

w
it
h
in

5
-
7

d
a
y
s
,

o
n
e

o
u
t

o
f

f
o
u
r

sh
eep

d
i
e
d
.

T
h
e
r
e
w
a
s

an

e
s
t
i
m
a
ted

10,0
0
0

sh
eep

d
eat
h
s

in

t
h
e

r
e
g
i
o
n

i
n

2006
,

w
i
t
h

m
or
e

r
e
por
ted

in

2007
.

P
o
s
t
m
or
t
e
m
s

o
n

t
h
e

s
h
eep

sh
o
w
ed

s
e
v
er
e
i
rr
itati
o
n

a
n
d

b
lack

p
atc
h
e
s

in
bo
th

i
n
te
s
ti
n
e
s

a
n
d

l
i
v
er

(
as well

as

e
n
la
r
g
ed

b
ile

d
u
ct
s
)
.

I
n
v
e
s
ti
g
a
t
or
s

s
aid

pr
el
i
m
i
n
a
r
y

e
v
i
d
e
n
ce

s
t
ro
ng
l
y

s
u
gg
e
s
ts

t
h
at

t
h
e

s
h
e
ep

m
or
tali
t
y

w
as

d
u
e

to a t
o
x
i
n
.

. . .
m
o
s
t

prob
a
b
l
y

B
t
-
t
o
x
i
n
.

56

I
n

a
s
m
a
ll

f
ee
d
i
n
g

s
t
u
d
y
,

100
%

of
sh
eep

f
ed

B
t

c
o
tt
o
n

d
ied

w
i
t
h
i
n

3
0
d
a
y
s
.

T
h
o
s
e

f
ed

n
at
u
r
al

p
la
n
ts

h
ad

n
o
s
y
m
p
t
o
ms
.


B
u
f
f
alo

t
h
at
g
r
azed

o
n

n
a
t
u
r
al

c
o
tt
o
n

p
la
n
ts

f
o
r

y
ea
r
s

w
i
t
h
o
u
t

i
n
ci
d
e
n
t

r
eact

to t
h
e

B
t

v
a
r
ie
t
y
.

I
n

o
n
e

v
ill
a
g
e

in A
n
d
h
r
a

P
r
a
d
e
sh
,

f
or
e
x
a
m
p
le,

1
3
b
u
f
f
alo

g
r
azed

o
n
B
t

c
o
tt
o
n

p
la
n
ts

f
o
r

a
s
i
ng
le

d
a
y
.
A
ll

d
ied

w
i
t
h
i
n

3

d
a
y
s
.

57

I
n
v
e
s
ti
g
a
t
or
s

in

t
h
e

s
tate

o
f

Ha
r
y
a
n
a,
I
n
d
ia,

r
e
por
t

t
h
at

m
o
s
t

bu
ff
alo

t
h
at

ate

GM

c
o
tt
on
s
eed

h
ad

r
e
prod
u
cti
v
e

c
o
m
p
licati
on
s

s
u
ch

as

pr
e
m
a
t
u
r
e

d
eli
v
e
r
i
e
s
,

a
bor
ti
o
ns
,
i
n
f
e
r
tili
t
y
,

a
n
d

pro
la
p
s
ed

u
te
ru
s
e
s
.

Ma
n
y

y
o
u
n
g

ca
l
v
es

a
n
d

a
d
u
lt

bu
ff
al
o
e
s

d
ie
d.





GM

C
R
OPS

T
RIGG
E
R

IMM
U
NE

R
E
ACT
I
ONS

A
N
D

MAY

CA
U
SE

ALL
E
RGIES



A
lle
r
g
ic

r
eacti
on
s

o
cc
u
r
w
h
e
n

t
h
e

i
mm
un
e

s
ys
t
e
m

i
n
te
rpr
ets

s
o
m
e
t
h
i
n
g

as
f
or
ei
g
n
,

d
i
f
f
e
r
e
n
t,

a
n
d

o
ff
e
ns
i
v
e,

a
n
d

r
eacts

a
c
c
ord
i
ng
l
y
.
A
ll GM

f
ood
s
,

b
y

d
e
f
i
n
iti
o
n
,

h
a
v
e

s
o
m
e
t
h
i
n
g

f
or
e
i
g
n

a
n
d

d
i
f
f
e
r
e
n
t.

A
n
d

s
e
v
e
r
al

s
t
u
d
i
e
s

s
h
o
w

t
h
at

t
h
e
y

pro
v
o
k
e

r
eacti
on
s
.

R
ats

f
ed
Mo
ns
a
n
t
o’
s

GM

c
or
n
,

f
o
r

e
x
a
m
p
le,

h
ad

a
s
i
gn
i
f
ic
a
n
t

i
n
c
r
ea
s
e

in

b
l
oo
d

cells

r
elated

to t
h
e

i
m
m
u
n
e

s
y
s
t
e
m
.
58

GM

po
tat
o
es

ca
us
ed

t
h
e
i
mm
u
n
e

s
y
s
t
e
m

o
f

r
ats

to
r
e
s
po
n
d

m
or
e

s
l
o
w
l
y
.

59

A
n
d

GM

p
eas

pro
v
o
k
ed

an

i
n
f
l
a
m
m
at
o
r
y

r
e
s
po
ns
e

in
m
ice,

s
u
gg
e
s
t
i
n
g

t
h
at

it

m
i
gh
t

c
a
us
e

d
ea
d
l
y

alle
r
g
ic

r
e
acti
o
n
s

i
n

p
e
op
le
.
60


I
t

m
i
g
h
t

b
e

d
i
f
f
i
c
u
lt

to i
d
e
n
t
i
f
y

w
h
e
t
h
er

GM

f
ood
s

w
e
r
e

t
r
i
g
g
e
r
i
n
g

alle
r
g
ic

r
e
s
po
ns
e
s

in

t
h
e

pop
u
lati
o
n
,

s
i
n
ce

v
e
r
y

f
e
w

c
o
un
t
r
i
e
s
c
o
n
d
u
ct

r
e
g
u
lar

s
t
u
d
ies

o
r

k
e
e
p

ca
r
e
f
u
l

r
ec
ord
s
.

O
n
e

c
o
un
t
r
y

t
h
at

do
es

h
a
v
e

an

a
n
n
u
al

e
v
a
l
u
ati
o
n

i
s

t
h
e

U
K.

S
oo
n

aft
er

G
M

s
oy
w
a
s

in
t
r
o
duced

in
t
o

t
he

B
ri
t
i
s
h

die
t
,

re
s
e
a
rchers

a
t

t
he

Y
o
rk

L
a
b
o
r
ato
ry

rep
o
r
t
ed

t
h
a
t

a
ller
g
ies

t
o
so
y

h
a
d

s
k
y
r
o
c
k
e
t
ed

by

50
%

in

a

s
in
g
le

y
e
ar
.
61

Alt
h
o
u
g
h

n
o
f
o
ll
o
w
-
u
p

s
t
u
d
ies

w
e
r
e

c
o
n
d
u
cted

to
s
ee

if

GM
s
o
y

was

t
h
e

c
a
us
e,

t
h
e
r
e

i
s

e
v
i
d
e
n
ce

sh
o
w
i
n
g

s
e
v
e
r
al

w
a
y
s

i
n
w
h
ich

it

m
i
g
h
t

h
a
v
e

c
o
n
t
r
i
b
u
ted

to t
h
e

r
i
s
i
n
g

i
n
ci
d
e
n
ce

o
f

alle
r
g
i
e
s
:




T
h
e

o
n
l
y

s
i
gn
i
f
ic
a
n
t

v
a
r
ie
t
y

o
f

GM

s
o
y

is

Mon
s
a
n
t
o’
s


R
ound
u
p

R
ea
d
y


v
a
r
ie
t
y
,

p
la
n
ted

i
n
89
%

o
f

US

s
o
y

ac
r
e
s
.

A

f
or
e
i
g
n
g
e
n
e

f
r
o
m

b
acte
r
ia

(
w
ith

p
a
r
ts

o
f

v
i
ru
s

a
n
d

p
et
u
n
ia

D
N
A
)

i
s

i
ns
e
r
te
d
,

w
h
i
c
h

all
o
w
s

t
h
e

p
l
a
n
t

to

w
it
h
s
t
a
n
d

R
ou
n
d
u
p

h
e
rb
i
ci
d
e.
T
h
e

p
r
o
tein

prod
u
ced

b
y

t
h
e

b
acte
r
ial

g
e
n
e

h
as

n
e
v
er

b
een

p
a
r
t

o
f

t
h
e

hu
m
an

f
oo
d

su
pp
l
y
.

B
eca
us
e

p
e
op
le

a
r
e
n

t

u
su
a
l
l
y
alle
r
g
i c

to a
f
oo
d

un
t
i
l

t
h
e
y

h
a
v
e

eaten

it

s
e
v
e
r
al

t
i
m
e
s
,

it

w
o
u
ld

b
e

d
i
ff
i
c
u
lt

to
k
n
o
w

i
n

a
dv
a
n
ce

if

t
h
e

pro
tein

w
as

a
n

alle
r
g
e
n
.
W
it
h
o
u
t

a
s
u
r
e
f
i
r
e

m
e
t
h
o
d

to i
d
e
n
ti
f
y

alle
r
g
e
n
ic

G
M

c
rop
s
,

t
h
e

W
or
ld

Health

O
r
g
a
n
izati
o
n

(
W
HO)

a
n
d

o
t
h
e
r
s

r
ec
o
mm
e
n
d
e
x
a
m
i
n
i
n
g

t
h
e

prop
e
r
ties

o
f

t
h
e

pro
tein

to
s
ee

if

t
h
e
y

s
h
a
r
e

c
h
a
r
acte
r
i
s
ti
c
s

w
i
t
h

k
n
o
w
n

all
e
r
g
e
n
s
.

O
n
e
m
e
t
h
o
d

is

to c
o
m
p
a
r
e

t
h
e
a
m
i
n
o

acid

s
e
q
u
e
n
ce

o
f

t
h
e

n
o
v
el

pro
tein

w
i
t
h

a
d
ata
b
a
s
e

o
f

alle
r
g
e
n
s
.

I
f

t
h
e
r
e

is

a

m
at
c
h
,

a
cc
ord
i
n
g

to t
h
e

W
HO,

t
h
e

GM c
ro
p
sh
ou
ld

eit
h
er

n
o
t

b
e

c
o
mm
e
r
c
i
alized

o
r

a
d
d
iti
o
n
al

te
s
t
i
n
g

sh
o
u
ld

b
e

do
n
e.

Secti
o
n
s

o
f

t
h
e

pro
tein

prod
u
ced

in

GM

s
o
y

a
re
i
d
e
n
tical

to
s
h
r
i
m
p

a
n
d

du
s
t
m
ite

alle
r
g
e
ns
,

62

b
u
t

t
h
e

s
o
y
b
e
a
n

w
a
s

i
n
t
rod
u
ced

b
e
f
or
e

W
HO

c
r
ite
r
ia

w
e
r
e

e
s
ta
b
l
i
sh
ed

a
n
d

t
h
e
r
ec
o
mm
e
n
d
ed

a
dd
iti
o
n
al

te
s
ts

w
e
r
e

n
o
t

c
o
n
d
u
cte
d
.

I
f

t
h
e

pro
tein

do
es

t
r
i
g
g
er

r
eacti
o
ns
,

t
h
e

d
a
ng
er

is

c
o
m
pou
n
d
ed

b
y

t
h
e
f
i
n
d
i
n
g

t
h
a
t

t
h
e

R
ou
n
d
u
p

R
e
a
d
y

g
e
n
e

t
r
a
n
s
f
e
r
s

i
n
to

t
h
e

DN
A

o
f

hu
m
a
n

gu
t

b
acte
r
ia

a
n
d

m
a
y

c
o
n
t
i
nu
o
us
l
y

prod
u
ce

t
h
e

pro
tein
f
r
o
m

w
i
t
h
i
n

o
u
r

i
n
te
s
t
i
n
e
s
.
63




I
n

a
dd
iti
o
n

to t
h
e

h
e
rb
ici
d
e

t
o
le
r
a
n
t

pro
tei
n
,

GM

s
o
y
b
ea
n
s

c
o
n
tain

a

un
i
q
u
e,

u
n
e
x
p
ected

pro
tei
n
,

w
h
i
c
h

l
i
k
e
l
y

c
a
m
e

a
bo
u
t

f
r
o
m
t
h
e

c
h
a
n
g
es

i
n
c
u
rr
ed

d
u
r
i
n
g

t
h
e

g
e
n
etic

e
n
g
i
n
ee
r
i
n
g

pro
ce
ss
.

Scie
n
t
i
s
ts

f
ou
n
d

t
h
at

t
h
i
s

n
e
w

pro
tein

w
a
s

a
b
le

to
b
i
n
d
w
i
t
h

I
g
E
a
n
ti
bod
ie
s
,

s
ug
g
e
s
t
i
n
g

t
h
a
t

it

m
a
y

pro
v
o
k
e

d
a
ng
e
rou
s

alle
rg
ic

r
eacti
o
ns
.

T
h
e

s
a
m
e

s
t
u
d
y

r
e
v
ealed

t
h
at

o
n
e
hu
m
a
n

s
u
b
j
ect
sh
o
w
ed

a
s
k
in

pr
ick

i
m
m
u
n
e

r
e
s
po
ns
e

o
n
l
y

to GM

s
o
y
,

b
u
t
no
t

to
n
at
u
ra
l

s
o
y
.
64

T
h
e
s
e

r
e
su
lts
m
u
s
t

b
e

c
o
ns
i
d
e
r
ed

pr
el
i
m
i
n
a
r
y
,

9


as

t
h
e

n
on
-
GM

s
o
y

w
as

a

w
ild
t
y
p
e

a
n
d

n
o
t

n
ec
e
ss
a
r
i
l
y

c
o
m
p
a
r
i
b
le

to t
h
e

GM

v
a
r
ie
t
y
.

A
no
t
h
er

s
t
u
d
y

s
h
o
w
ed

t
h
at

t
h
e

l
e
v
els

o
f
o
n
e

k
n
o
w
n

s
o
y

a
lle
r
g
e
n
,

call
e
d

t
r
y
p
s
i
n

i
nh
i
b
it
or
,

w
e
r
e

as
m
u
ch

as

s
e
v
e
n

t
i
m
e
s

h
i
g
h
er

in

c
o
o
k
ed

GM

s
o
y

c
o
m
p
a
r
ed

to a
n
o
n
-
GM
c
o
n
t
ro
l
.
65

T
h
is

w
a
s

Mo
ns
a
n
t
o

s

o
w
n

s
t
u
d
y
,

a
n
d

d
id

us
e

c
o
m
p
a
r
a
b
le

c
o
n
t
ro
l
s
.




GM

s
o
y

al
s
o

prod
u
ces

an
un
p
r
e
d
icted

s
i
d
e

e
ff
ect

i
n

t
h
e

p
a
n
c
r
eas

o
f

m
ic
e

t
h
e

a
m
o
un
t

o
f

d
i
g
e
s
t
i
v
e

e
n
z
ym
es

prod
u
ced

is
dr
a
m
a
t
ical
l
y

r
e
d
u
ce
d
.

66

I
f

a
sh
o
r
ta
g
e

o
f

e
n
z
y
m
es

c
a
us
ed

f
oo
d

pro
tei
n
s

to
br
ea
k
d
o
w
n

m
or
e

s
l
o
w
l
y
,

t
h
e
n

t
h
e
y

h
a
v
e

m
or
e

t
i
m
e

to
t
r
i
gg
er

alle
r
g
ic

r
eacti
o
ns
.

T
h
u
s
,

d
i
g
e
s
t
i
v
e

prob
le
m
s

f
r
o
m

G
M
s
o
y

m
i
g
h
t

pr
o
m
o
te

alle
r
g
i
e
s

t
o a

w
i
d
e

r
a
ng
e

o
f

pro
tei
n
s
,

n
o
t
j
us
t
s
o
y.




T
h
e

h
i
g
h
er

a
m
ou
n
t

o
f

R
ou
n
du
p

h
e
rb
ici
d
e

r
e
s
i
d
u
es

o
n

GM

s
o
y

m
i
g
h
t

c
r
eate

r
eacti
o
n
s

i
n

c
o
n
s
u
m
e
r
s
.

I
n

f
a
c
t,

m
a
n
y

o
f

t
h
e
s
ym
p
t
o
m
s

i
d
e
n
t
i
f
ied

i
n

t
h
e

U
K

s
o
y

alle
rg
y

s
t
u
d
y

a
r
e

a
m
o
n
g

t
h
o
s
e

r
elated

to
g
l
y
p
h
o
s
ate

e
xpo
su
r
e.

[
T
h
e

alle
r
g
y

s
t
u
d
y

i
d
e
n
t
i
f
ied
i
rr
ita
b
le

bo
w
el

s
yn
dr
o
m
e,

d
i
g
e
s
ti
o
n

prob
l
e
m
s
,

c
h
r
o
n
ic

f
a
t
i
gu
e,

h
ea
d
ac
h
e
s
,

le
t
h
a
rg
y
,

a
n
d

s
k
i
n

c
o
m
p
la
i
n
t
s
,

i
n
c
l
u
d
i
n
g

ac
n
e

a
n
d
ecz
e
m
a,

all

r
elated

to
s
o
y

c
o
n
s
u
m
p
ti
o
n
.

S
ym
p
t
o
m
s

o
f

g
l
y
p
h
o
s
ate

e
x
po
s
u
r
e

i
n
c
l
u
d
e

n
a
us
ea,

h
ea
d
ac
h
e
s
,

le
t
h
a
rg
y
,

s
k
i
n

r
a
s
h
e
s
,

a
n
d
b
u
r
n
i
n
g

o
r

itc
h
y

s
k
i
n
.

I
t

is

al
s
o

po
ss
i
b
le

t
h
at

g
l
y
p
h
o
s
ate

s

br
ea
k
d
o
w
n

prod
u
ct

a
m
i
n
o
m
e
t
h
y
l
p
h
o
s
p
h
o
n
ic

acid

(
A
M
P
A
)
,

w
h
ich
acc
u
mu
lat
e
s

i
n

GM

s
o
y
b
e
a
n
s

a
f
ter

each

s
pr
a
y
,

m
i
g
h
t

c
o
n
t
r
i
b
u
te

to alle
r
g
i
e
s
.
]


I
t

is

i
n
te
r
e
s
t
i
n
g

to
n
o
te

t
h
at

in t
h
e

f
i
v
e
y
ea
r
s

i
m
m
e
d
iate
l
y

a
f
t
er

GM

s
o
y

w
a
s

i
n
t
rod
u
ce
d
,

US

p
ea
nu
t

alle
r
g
ies

do
u
b
le
d
.

I
t

is

k
n
o
w
n

t
h
at

a
pro
tein

in
n
a
t
u
r
al

s
o
y
b
e
a
n
s

c
ro
s
s
-
r
eacts

w
i
th

p
ea
n
u
t

a
l
le
r
g
ie
s
,

i
.
e.

s
o
y

m
a
y

t
r
i
g
g
er

r
eacti
o
n
s

i
n

s
o
m
e

p
e
op
le

w
h
o

a
r
e

alle
r
g
ic

to
p
ea
nu
t
s
.

67

Gi
v
en

t
h
e

s
ta
r
tl
i
n
g

i
n
c
r
ea
s
e

in

p
ea
n
u
t

alle
r
g
i
e
s
,

s
ci
e
n
ti
s
ts

s
h
o
u
ld

i
nv
e
s
t
i
g
ate

w
h
e
t
h
er

t
h
i
s

c
ro
s
s
-
r
eacti
v
it
y

h
as

b
e
en

a
m
p
l
i
f
ied

in

GM

s
o
y
.




R
ou
n
d
u
p,

t
u
m
or
s
,

etc.



B
T
-
TOX
I
N
,

P
R
OD
U
CED

IN

G
M

C
ORN

AND

CO
T
TON
,

MAY

CAUSE

ALLE
R
GIES



F
o
r

y
ea
r
s
,

or
g
a
n
ic

f
a
r
m
e
r
s

a
n
d

o
t
h
e
r
s

h
a
v
e

s
pr
a
y
ed

c
rop
s

w
i
t
h

s
o
l
u
ti
on
s

c
o
n
ta
i
n
i
n
g

n
at
u
r
al

B
t

b
acte
r
ia

as

a
m
e
t
h
o
d

o
f

i
n
s
ect

c
o
n
t
ro
l.
T
h
e

t
o
x
in

c
r
eates

h
o
l
e
s

in

t
h
e
i
r

s
t
o
m
ach

a
n
d

k
il
l
s

t
h
e
m
.

G
e
n
etic

e
n
g
i
n
ee
r
s

t
a
k
e

t
h
e

g
e
n
e

t
h
at

prod
u
ces

t
h
e

t
o
x
i
n

in

b
acte
r
ia

a
n
d

i
ns
e
r
t

it

i
n
to

t
h
e

DN
A

o
f

c
rop
s

s
o t
h
at

t
h
e

p
l
a
n
t

do
es

t
h
e

w
o
r
k
,

n
o
t

t
h
e

f
a
r
m
e
r
.

T
h
e

f
act

t
h
at

w
e

c
on
s
u
m
e

t
h
at

t
o
x
ic

p
e
s
t
ic
i
d
e

in

e
v
e
r
y
b
ite

o
f

B
t

c
or
n

is

h
a
rd
l
y

a
pp
etizi
ng
.


B
i
o
tech

c
o
m
p
a
n
ies

cl
a
i
m

t
h
at
B
t
-
t
o
x
i
n

h
a
s

a
h
i
s
t
o
r
y

o
f

s
a
f
e
us
e,

is

q
u
ic
k
l
y

d
e
s
t
r
o
y
ed

i
n

ou
r

s
t
o
m
ac
h
,

a
n
d

w
o
u
l
dn

t

r
eact

w
i
t
h
h
u
m
a
n
s

o
r

m
a
m
m
als

i
n

a
n
y

e
v
e
n
t.

S
t
u
d
ies

v
e
r
i
f
y
,

h
o
w
e
v
e
r
,

t
h
at

n
a
t
u
r
al

B
t
-
t
o
x
i
n

is

no
t

f
u
l
l
y

d
e
s
t
r
o
y
ed

d
u
r
i
n
g

d
i
g
e
s
ti
o
n

a
n
d

do
es
r
eact

w
i
t
h

m
a
mm
a
l
s
.

Mice

f
ed

B
t
-
t
o
x
i
n
,

f
o
r

e
x
a
m
p
le,

sh
o
w
e
d

an

i
mm
u
n
e

r
e
s
pon
s
e

as

po
te
n
t

as

c
h
o
le
r
a

t
o
x
i
n
,

68,

b
eca
m
e

i
m
m
u
n
e
s
e
n
s
it
i
v
e

to
f
o
r
m
e
r
l
y

h
a
r
m
le
s
s

c
o
m
p ou
n
d
s,

69

a
n
d

h
ad

d
a
m
a
g
e
d

a
n
d

alte
r
ed

cells

in

t
h
eir

s
m
a
ll

i
n
t
e
s
t
i
n
e
s
.

70
A

200
8

I
talian
g
o
v
e
rn
m
e
n
t

s
t
u
d
y

f
ou
n
d

t
h
a
t

B
t

c
or
n

pro
v
o
k
ed

i
mm
u
n
e

r
e
s
po
ns
es

i
n
m
ice.

71

Mor
e
o
v
e
r
,

w
h
en

n
a
t
u
r
al

B
t

w
a
s

s
pr
a
y
ed

o
v
e
r

a
r
eas
a
ro
un
d

Va
n
c
ou
v
er

a
n
d

W
a
s
h
i
ng
t
o
n

State

to

f
i
g
h
t

g
y
p
s
y

m
o
t
hs
,

a
bo
u
t

50
0

p
e
op
le

r
e
p
o
r
ted

r
eacti
o
ns

m
o
s
t
l
y

alle
r
g
y

o
r

f
l
u
-
l
i
ke
s
ym
p
t
o
ms
.

72,

73

Fa
r
m

w
or
k
e
r
s

a
n
d

o
t
h
e
r
s

al
s
o

r
e
por
t

s
e
r
i
o
u
s

r
eact i
o
n
s
7 4

75

76

77

78

a
n
d

a
u
t
h
or
ities

h
a
v
e

l
o
n
g

ac
k
n
o
w
le
d
g
ed

t
h
a
t


p
e
op
le
w
i
t
h

c
o
m
pr
o
m
i
s
ed

i
mm
un
e

s
y
s
t
e
m
s

o
r

pr
ee
x
i
s
t
i
n
g

alle
r
g
ies

m
a
y

b
e

p
a
r
tic
u
la
r
l
y

s
us
ce
p
ti
b
l
e

to t
h
e

e
f
f
ects

o
f

B
t
.


79


T
h
e

B
t
-
t
o
x
in

prod
u
ced

in

GM c
rop
s

is


v
a
s
t
l
y

d
i
f
f
e
r
e
n
t

f
r
o
m

t
h
e

b
acte
r
ial

[
B
t
-
t
o
x
i
ns
]

u
s
ed

in

or
g
a
n
ic

a
n
d

t
r
a
d
iti
o
n
al

f
a
r
m
i
n
g

a
nd
f
or
e
s
t
r
y
.


80

T
h
e

p
la
n
t

prod
u
ced

v
e
r
s
i
o
n

i
s

d
e
s
i
gn
ed

to
b
e

m
or
e

t
o
x
ic

t
h
a
n

n
a
t
u
r
al

v
a
r
i et i e
s
,

81

a
n
d

is

a
bo
u
t

3,000
-
5,0
0
0

ti
m
e
s

m
or
e
c
o
n
ce
n
t
r
ated

t
h
a
n

t
h
e

s
pr
a
y

f
o
r
m
.

A
n
d

j
us
t

l
i
k
e

t
h
e

G
M

s
o
y

pro
tei
n
,

t
h
e

B
t

pro
tein

in

GM c
or
n

v
a
r
ieties

h
as

a
s
ec
t
i
o
n

o
f

its

a
m
i
n
o
acid

s
e
q
u
e
n
ce

i
d
e
n
tical

to a
k
n
o
w
n

alle
r
g
e
n

(
e
g
g

y
o
l
k
)
.

T
h
e

B
t

pro
tein

al
s
o

f
ails

o
t
h
er

alle
r
g
en

c
r
ite
r
ia

r
ec
o
mm
e
n
d
ed

b
y

t
h
e

W
HO,
i
.
e.

t
h
e

pro
tein

is

t
o
o

r
e
s
i
s
t
a
n
t

to
br
eak

do
w
n

d
u
r
i
n
g

d
i
g
e
s
ti
o
n

a
n
d

h
eat.


A

2011

s
t
u
d
y

p
u
b
l
i
sh
ed

i
n

t
h
e
J
o
u
r
n
al

of

A
pp
lied

To
x
ic
o
l
o
g
y

s
h
o
w
ed

t
h
at

w
h
en

Bt
-
t
o
x
i
n

d
e
r
i
v
ed

f
r
o
m

Mo
ns
a
n
t
o

s

c
or
n
w
as

e
x
po
s
ed

to
h
u
m
an

ce
l
l
s
,

t
h
e

t
o
x
in

d
i
s
r
u
p
ts

t
he

m
e
m
br
a
ne

i
n

j
us
t

2
4

h
o
u
r
s
,

c
a
us
i
n
g

ce
r
tain

f
l
u
id

to leak

t
h
r
o
u
g
h

t
he
cell
w
a
ll
s
.

T
he

a
u
t
h
or
s

s
p
eci
f
ica
ll
y

n
o
te,


T
h
i
s

m
a
y

b
e

d
u
e

to
por
e

f
or
m
ati
o
n

li
k
e

i
n

i
ns
ect

cel
l
s
.


I
n

o
t
h
er

w
ord
s
,

t
h
e

t
o
x
in

m
a
y

b
e

c
r
eati
n
g

s
m
a
ll

h
o
les

i
n

hu
m
an

cel
l
s

in

t
he s
a
m
e

m
a
n
n
er

t
h
at

it

k
il
l
s

i
ns
ec
t
s
.

T
h
e

r
e
s
ea
r
c
h
e
r
s


do
c
u
m
e
n
ted

t
h
at

m
od
i
f
ied

B
t

t
o
x
i
n
s

[
f
r
o
m

GM

p
la
n
t
s
]

a
r
e

n
o
t
i
n
e
r
t

o
n

hu
m
an

ce
l
l
s
,

b
u
t

can

e
x
e
r
t

t
o
x
ici
t
y
.


82


A

2011

C
a
n
a
d
i
a
n

s
t
u
d
y

c
o
n
d
u
c
ted

at

S
h
e
rbroo
k
e

H
o
s
p
ital

d
i
s
c
o
v
e
r
ed

t
h
at

10


93%

of

t
h
e

pre
gn
a
nt

w
o
m
en

t
h
e
y

t
e
s
ted

h
ad

B
t
-
t
o
x
in

f
r
o
m

M
o
ns
a
n
t
o’
s

c
or
n

in

t
h
eir

b
l
ood.

A
n
d

s
o
d
id

80%

of

t
h
eir

unbor
n

f
e
t
us
e
s
.

83


I
f

B
t
-
t
o
x
i
n

c
a
us
es

a
l
le
r
g
i
e
s
,

t
h
en

g
e
n
e

t
r
a
n
s
f
er

ca
rr
ies

s
e
r
i
o
u
s

r
a
m
i
f
icati
o
ns
.

I
f

B
t

g
e
n
es

r
el
o
c
a
te

to
h
u
m
a
n

gu
t

b
a
cte
r
i
a
,

o
u
r

i
n
te
s
ti
na
l
fl
o
r
a

m
a
y

b
e

c
o
n
ve
r
ted

i
n
to

livi
n
g

p
e
s
tici
d
e

f
a
ct
o
r
ie
s
,

po
ss
i
b
ly

p
r
odu
ci
n
g

B
t
-
t
o
x
i
n

i
n
s
i
d
e

o
f

u
s

ye
a
r

a
fter

ye
a
r
.

T
h
e

UK

J
o
i
n
t

F
oo
d

Sa
f
e
t
y

a
n
d

Sta
n
d
a
r
d
s

G
ro
u
p

al
s
o

d
e
s
c
r
i
b
ed

g
e
n
e

t
r
a
n
s
f
er

f
r
o
m

a
d
i
ff
e
r
e
n
t

ro
u
te.

T
h
ey

w
a
r
n
ed

t
h
at

g
e
n
e
s

f
r
o
m

i
nh
a
led

po
llen

m
i
g
h
t
t
r
a
n
s
f
er

i
n
to

t
h
e

D
N
A

o
f

b
acte
r
ia

in

t
h
e

r
e
s
p
i
r
at
or
y

s
ys
t
e
m
.

84

A
l
t
h
ou
g
h

n
o
s
t
u
d
y

h
a
s

l
oo
k
ed

i
n
to

t
h
a
t

po
ss
i
b
il
it
y
,

po
llen

f
r
o
m

a
B
t
c
or
n
f
ield

a
pp
ea
r
s

to
h
a
v
e

b
een

r
e
s
pon
s
i
b
le

f
o
r

alle
r
g
i
c
-
t
y
p
e

r
eacti
on
s
.


I
n

2003
,

d
u
r
i
n
g

t
h
e

t
i
m
e

w
h
e
n

an

a
d
j
ace
n
t

B
t

c
or
n
f
ield

w
a
s

po
lli
n
ati
n
g
,

v
i
r
t
u
al
l
y

a
n

e
n
ti
r
e

Fili
p
i
n
o

v
ill
a
g
e

o
f

a
bo
u
t

10
0

p
e
op
le

w
a
s
s
t
r
ic
k
e
n

b
y

my
s
te
r
i
ou
s

s
k
i
n
,

r
e
s
p
i
r
at
or
y
,

a
n
d

i
n
te
s
ti
n
a
l

r
eacti
o
ns
.

85

T
h
e

sym
p
t
o
m
s

s
ta
r
ted

w
i
th

t
h
o
s
e

li
v
i
n
g

cl
o
s
e
s
t

to t
h
e

f
i
eld

a
n
d
s
pr
ead

to t
h
o
s
e

f
u
r
t
h
er

a
w
a
y
.

B
l
oo
d

s
a
m
p
les

f
r
o
m

3
9 i
n
d
i
v
i
d
u
als

s
h
o
w
ed

a
n
ti
bod
ies

in

r
e
s
po
ns
e

to
B
t
-
t
o
x
i
n
,

s
u
ppor
ti
n
g

b
u
t

n
o
t
pro
v
i
n
g

a

li
n
k
.

W
h
e
n

t
h
e

s
a
m
e

c
or
n

w
as

p
la
n
ted

in
f
o
u
r

o
t
h
er

v
ill
a
g
es

t
h
e

f
o
ll
o
w
i
n
g

y
ea
r
,

h
o
w
e
v
e
r
,

t
h
e

s
y
m
p
t
o
m
s

r
et
u
r
n
ed

in

all
f
o
u
r

a
r
ea
s

o
n
l
y

d
u
r
i
n
g

t
h
e

ti
m
e

o
f

po
ll i
n
a
t i
o
n
.

86


B
t
-
t
o
x
i
n

m
i
g
h
t

a
l
s
o

t
r
i
gg
er

r
e
a
cti
o
n
s

b
y

sk
i
n

c
o
n
tact.

I
n

200
5
,

a
m
e
d
ical

te
a
m

r
e
por
ted

t
h
at

h
u
n
dr
e
d
s

o
f

a
g
r
i
c
u
l
t
u
r
al

w
o
r
k
e
r
s

in

I
n
d
ia
a
r
e

d
e
v
el
op
i
n
g

alle
rg
ic

s
ym
p
t
o
m
s

w
h
en

e
x
po
s
ed

to
B
t

c
o
tt
on
,

b
u
t

n
o
t

w
h
e
n

a
x
po
s
ed

to
n
at
u
r
al

v
a
r
i
e
ti e
s
.

87

T
h
e
y

s
a
y

r
eacti
on
s

c
o
m
e

f
r
o
m

p
ic
k
i
n
g

t
h
e

c
o
tt
o
n
,

cle
a
n
i
n
g

it

i
n

f
act
or
ie
s
,

l
o
a
d
i
n
g

it

on
to

t
ru
c
ks
,

o
r

e
v
en

le
a
n
i
n
g

a
g
a
i
ns
t

it.

T
h
eir

s
ym
p
t
o
m
s

a
r
e

v
i
r
t
u
al
l
y

i
d
e
n
t
ic
a
l

to t
h
o
s
e

d
e
s
c
r
i
b
ed

b
y

t
h
e

50
0

p
e
op
le

in

Va
n
c
o
uv
er

a
n
d

W
a
sh
i
n
g
t
o
n
w
h
o

w
e
r
e

s
pr
a
y
ed

w
i
th

B
t.




G
O

V
E

R
N

M

E
N

T


E

V
A

L
U

A
T

I
O

N
S


M
I

S
S


M

O
S

T


H
E

A

L
T

H


P
R

O

B
L

EM
S




A
l
t
h
o
u
g
h

t
h
e

nu
m
b
er

o
f

s
a
f
e
t
y

s
t
u
d
ies

o
n

GM

f
ood
s

is

q
u
i
te

s
m
a
l
l,

it

h
as
v
ali
d
ated

t
h
e

c
o
n
ce
r
n
s

e
x
pr
e
s
s
ed

b
y

F
D
A

s
ci
e
n
ti
s
ts

a
n
d
o
t
h
e
r
s
.

U
n
f
or
t
u
n
ate
l
y
,

g
o
v
e
rn
m
e
n
t

s
a
f
e
t
y

a
ss
e
s
s
m
e
n
ts

w
or
l
d
w
i
d
e

a
r
e

n
o
t

c
o
m
p
ete
n
t

to e
v
en

i
d
e
n
tify

m
o
s
t

o
f

t
h
e

po
te
n
ti
al

h
eal
t
h
prob
le
m
s

d
e
s
c
r
i
b
ed

a
bo
v
e,

let

al
o
n
e

pro
tect

its

citize
n
s

f
r
o
m

t
h
e

e
f
f
ec
t
s
.

88


A

200
0

r
e
v
i
e
w

o
f

a
ppro
v
ed

G
M

c
rop
s

in

C
a
n
a
d
a

b
y

pro
f
e
ss
o
r

E
.

A
n
n

C
la
r
k
,

P
h
D,

f
o
r

e
x
a
m
p
le,

r
e
v
eals

t
h
at

70
%

(2
8

o
f

40
)


o
f

t
h
e
c
u
rr
e
n
t
l
y

a
v
a
i
la
b
le

GM

c
rop
s

. . .
h
a
v
e

n
o
t

b
een

s
u
b
j
ected

to

a
n
y

ac
t
u
al

lab
o
r

a
n
i
m
a
l

t
o
x
ic
it
y

te
s
t
i
n
g
,

ei
t
h
er

as

r
e
f
i
n
ed

o
ils

f
o
r

d
i
r
ect
h
u
m
a
n

c
o
n
s
u
m
p
ti
o
n

o
r

i
n
d
i
r
e
c
t
l
y

as
f
ee
d
s
t
u
ff
s

f
o
r

li
v
e
s
t
o
c
k
.

T
h
e

s
a
m
e

f
i
n
d
i
n
g

p
e
r
tai
n
s

to all

t
h
r
ee

GM

t
o
m
ato

d
eci
s
i
o
ns
,

t
h
e

o
n
l
y
GM

f
l
a
x
,

a
n
d

to
f
i
v
e

GM

c
or
n

c
rop
s
.


I
n

t
h
e

r
e
m
a
i
n
i
n
g

30
%

(12
)

o
f

t
h
e

o
t
h
er

c
rop
s

te
s
te
d
,

a
n
i
m
als

w
e
r
e

no
t

f
ed

t
h
e

w
ho
l
e

GM

f
ee
d
.
T
h
ey

w
e
r
e

g
i
v
e
n

j
us
t

t
h
e

i
s
o
l
a
ted

GM

pro
tein

t
h
at

t
h
e

p
l
a
n
t

w
a
s

e
n
g
i
n
ee
r
ed

to
pr
o
d
u
ce.

Bu
t

e
v
e
n

t
h
is

pro
tein

w
a
s

n
o
t

e
x
t
r
acted

f
r
o
m
t
h
e

act
u
a
l

GM

p
la
n
t.

R
a
t
h
e
r
,

it

w
as

m
a
n
u
f
ac
t
u
r
ed

in
g
e
n
e
t
ic
a
l
l
y

e
n
g
i
n
ee
r
ed

b
acte
r
ia.

T
h
is

m
e
t
h
o
d

o
f

te
s
t
i
n
g

w
o
u
ld

n
e
v
er

i
d
e
n
ti
f
y
prob
le
m
s

a
s
s
o
ciated

w
ith

c
o
l
l
ate
r
al

d
a
m
a
g
e

to GM

p
la
n
t

D
N
A
,

un
pr
e
d
icted

c
h
a
ng
e
s

in

t
h
e

GM

pro
tei
n
,

t
r
a
ns
f
er

o
f

g
e
n
e
s

to
b
acte
r
ia
o
r

h
u
m
a
n

cel
l
s
,

e
x
ce
s
s
i
v
e

h
e
r
b
ici
d
e

r
e
s
i
d
u
e
s
,

o
r

acc
u
mu
lati
o
n

o
f

t
o
x
i
n
s

in

t
h
e

f
oo
d

c
h
a
i
n
,

a
m
o
n
g

o
t
h
e
r
s
.

C
la
r
k

a
s
k
s
,


W
h
e
r
e

a
r
e

t
h
e
t
r
ials

s
h
o
w
i
n
g

la
c
k

o
f

h
a
r
m

to
f
ed

li
v
e
s
t
o
c
k
,

o
r

t
h
at
m
eat

a
n
d

m
i
l
k

f
r
o
m

l
i
v
e
s
t
o
ck

f
ed

o
n

G
M

f
ee
d
s
t
u
ff
s

a
r
e

s
a
f
e
?

89


Ep
i
d
e
m
i
o
l
o
g
i
s
t

a
n
d

GM

s
a
f
e
t
y

e
x
p
e
r
t

J
u
d
y

C
a
r
m
a
n
,

P
h
D,

M
P
H,

sh
o
w
s

t
h
a
t

a
ss
e
s
s
m
e
n
ts

b
y

F
oo
d

Sa
f
e
t
y

A
u
s
t
r
alia

N
e
w

Z
eal
a
n
d

(
F
S
A
N
Z
)

al
s
o

o
v
e
r
l
oo
k

s
e
r
i
ou
s

po
te
n
tial

prob
le
ms
,

i
n
c
l
u
d
i
n
g

ca
n
cer
,

b
i
r
t
h

d
e
f
ec
ts
,

o
r

l
o
ng
-
t
er
m

e
ff
ec
t
s

o
f

nu
t
r
iti
o
n
a
l

d
e
f
i
c
i
e
n
c
i
e
s
.

90


“A

r
e
v
i
e
w

o
f

t
w
e
l
v
e

r
e
por
ts

c
o
v
e
r
i
n
g

t
w
e
n
t
y
-
e
i
g
h
t

GM

c
rop
s

-

f
o
u
r

s
o
y
,

t
h
r
ee

c
or
n
,

ten

po
tat
o
e
s
,

ei
g
h
t

ca
n
o
la,

o
n
e

s
u
g
ar

b
eet

a
n
d
t
w
o

c
o
tt
o
n

r
e
v
ealed

n
o
f
ee
d
i
n
g

t
r
ia
l
s

o
n

p
e
op
le.

I
n

a
dd
iti
o
n
,

o
n
e

o
f

t
h
e

GM

c
or
n

v
a
r
ie
t
ies

h
ad

g
o
n
e

un
t
e
s
ted

o
n

a
n
i
m
a
l
s
.

S
o
m
e
s
e
v
e
n
te
e
n

f
ood
s

i
n
v
o
l
v
ed

te
s
t
i
n
g

w
i
th

o
n
l
y

a
s
i
n
g
le

or
al

g
a
v
a
g
e

(
a

t
y
p
e

o
f

f
or
ce
d
-
f
ee
d
i
n
g
)
,

w
i
t
h

ob
s
e
r
v
ati
o
n

f
o
r

s
e
v
en

to

f
o
u
r
te
e
n
d
a
ys
,

a
n
d

o
n
l
y

o
f

t
h
e

s
u
b
s
t
a
n
c
e

t
h
at

h
ad

b
een

g
e
n
e
t
ical
l
y

e
n
g
i
n
ee
r
ed

to a
pp
ear

[
t
h
e

GM

p
r
o
tei
n
]
,

n
o
t

t
h
e

w
ho
le

f
ood
.

S
u
ch

te
s
t
i
n
g
a
s
s
u
m
e
s

t
h
a
t

t
h
e

on
l
y

n
e
w

s
u
b
s
ta
n
ce

t
h
at
w
i
l
l

a
pp
ear

in

t
h
e

foo
d

is

t
h
e

o
n
e

g
e
n
e
tical
l
y

e
n
g
i
n
ee
r
ed

to a
pp
ea
r
,

t
h
at

t
h
e

GM
p
la
nt
-

prod
u
ced

su
b
s
ta
n
ce

w
ill

act

i
n t
h
e

s
a
m
e

m
a
n
n
er

as

t
h
e

t
e
s
ted

su
b
s
t
a
n
ce

t
h
a
t
w
as

ob
tai
n
ed

fro
m

a
n
o
t
h
er

s
o
u
r
ce

[
GM

b
acte
r
ia
]
,

a
nd
t
h
at

t
h
e

s
u
b
s
ta
n
ce

w
i
ll

c
r
eate

d
i
s
ea
s
e

w
i
t
h
in

a

f
e
w

d
a
ys
.

A
ll a
r
e

un
te
s
ted

h
y
po
t
h
e
s
es

a
n
d

m
a
k
e

a

m
o
c
k
e
r
y

o
f

GM

propo
n
e
n
t
s


c
l
a
i
ms
t
h
at

t
h
e

r
i
s
k

a
ss
e
s
s
m
e
n
t

o
f

G
M

f
ood
s

is

b
a
s
ed

o
n

s
ou
n
d

s
c
i
e
n
ce.

F
u
r
t
h
e
r
m
or
e,

w
h
e
r
e

t
h
e

w
ho
le

f
oo
d
w
a
s

g
i
v
e
n

to a
n
i
m
als

to eat,

11


s
a
m
p
le

s
iz
e
s

w
e
r
e

o
f
t
e
n

v
e
r
y

l
o
w

f
o
r

e
x
a
m
p
le,

f
i
v
e

to
s
ix

c
o
w
s

p
er

g
ro
u
p

f
o
r

R
o
un
d
u
p

R
ea
d
y

s
o
y

a
n
d

t
h
e
y

w
e
r
e

f
ed

fo
r

o
n
ly
f
o
u
r

w
e
e
ks
.

91


D
r
.

C
a
r
m
an

po
i
n
ts

o
u
t

t
h
at

G
M


e
x
p
e
r
i
m
e
n
ts

us
ed

s
o
m
e

v
e
r
y

u
n
u
su
a
l

a
n
i
m
al

m
od
e
l
s

f
o
r

h
u
m
a
n

h
ea
l
t
h
,

s
u
c
h

as

c
h
ic
k
e
n
s
,

c
o
w
s
,

a
nd
t
ro
u
t.

S
o
m
e

o
f

t
h
e

m
e
a
s
u
r
e
m
e
n
ts

t
a
k
e
n

f
r
o
m

t
h
e
s
e

a
n
i
m
a
l
s

a
r
e

al
s
o

u
n
u
s
u
al

m
ea
s
u
r
es

o
f

hu
m
a
n

h
eal
t
h
,

su
c
h

as

a
bd
o
m
i
n
al

f
at

p
ad
w
e
i
g
h
t,

t
o
tal

d
e
-
bo
n
ed

br
ea
s
t

m
eat

y
iel
d
,

a
n
d

m
i
l
k

prod
u
ct
i
o
n
.


I
n

h
er

e
x
a
m
i
n
ati
o
n

o
f

t
h
e

f
u
l
l

r
a
ng
e

o
f

s
u
b
m
i
t
tals

to
au
t
h
or
ities

i
n
A
us
t
r
alia

a
n
d

N
e
w

Z
eala
n
d
,

s
h
e

s
a
y
s

t
h
at

t
h
e
r
e

w
a
s

n
o
pro
p
er

e
v
al
u
ati
o
n

o
f


b
i
o
c
h
e
m
i
s
t
r
y
,

i
mm
u
n
o
l
og
y
,

t
i
s
s
u
e

p
at
h
o
l
o
g
y
,

a
n
d

g
u
t,
li
v
e
r
,

a
n
d

k
i
d
n
e
y

f
un
c
t
i
o
n
.

92

W
r
iti
n
g

o
n

b
e
h
a
l
f

o
f

t
h
e

P
u
b
lic

Health

A
ss
o
ciati
o
n

o
f

A
u
s
t
r
al
i
a,

D
r
.

C
a
r
m
a
n

s
a
ys
,


T
h
e

e
f
f
e
cts

o
f
f
ee
d
i
n
g

p
e
op
le

h
i
g
h

c
o
n
c
e
n
t
r
a
ti
o
n
s

o
f

t
h
e

n
e
w

pro
tein

o
v
er

te
n
s

o
f

y
ea
r
s

c
a
nn
o
t

b
e

d
ete
r
m
i
n
ed

b
y

f
ee
d
i
n
g

2
0

m
ice

a
s
i
n
g
l
e

or
al
g
a
v
a
g
e

o
f

a

g
i
v
e
n

h
i
g
h

c
o
n
c
e
n
t
r
ati
o
n

o
f

t
h
e

pro
tein

a
n
d

ta
k
i
n
g

v
e
r
y

b
a
s
ic

d
ata

f
o
r

13
-
1
4

d
a
ys
.”

93

12


T
H

E


F
DA

S


FA
K

E


S

A

F
E

T
Y


A

S
S

E

S

S
M

E
N

T
S




S
u
b
m
i
s
s
i
o
n
s

to
t
h
e

US

F
oo
d

a
n
d

D
r
u
g

A
d
m
i
n
i
s
t
r
ai
o
n

(
F
D
A
)

m
a
y

b
e

w
or
s
e

t
h
a
n

i
n

o
t
h
er

c
o
un
t
r
ie
s
,

s
i
n
ce

t
h
e

a
g
e
n
c
y

do
e
s
n

t

act
u
al
l
y

r
e
q
u
i
r
e

an
y

d
ata.

T
h
eir

po
licy

s
a
y
s

t
h
at

b
i
o
tech

c
o
mp
a
n
ies

can

d
ete
r
m
i
n
e

i
f

t
h
eir

o
w
n

f
ood
s

a
r
e

s
a
f
e.

A
n
y
t
h
i
n
g

s
u
b
m
i
t
ted

is
v
o
l
u
n
ta
r
y

a
n
d
,

acc
ord
i
n
g

to
f
o
r
m
er

E
n
v
i
ron
m
e
n
tal

P
ro
tecti
o
n

A
g
e
n
c
y

s
ci
e
n
ti
s
t

D
ou
g

G
u
r
i
a
n
-
S
h
e
r
m
a
n
,

P
h
D,


o
f
ten

la
c
k[
s
]

s
uf
f
ici
e
n
t

d
etail,

su
c
h

as
n
ece
s
s
a
r
y

s
ta
t
i
s
tical

a
n
a
l
ys
e
s

n
ee
d
e
d

f
o
r

an

a
d
e
q
u
ate

s
a
f
e
t
y

e
v
a
l
u
ati
o
n
.


U
s
i
n
g

F
r
ee
do
m

o
f

In
f
o
r
m
ati
o
n
R
e
q
u
e
s
t
s
,

D
r
.

G
u
r
i
a
n
-
S
h
e
r
m
a
n

a
n
a
l
y
zed

m
or
e

t
h
a
n

a
f
o
u
r
th

o
f

t
h
e

d
ata

s
u
mm
a
r
i
e
s

(1
4

o
f

5
3
)

o
f

GM

c
rop
s

r
e
v
i
e
w
ed

b
y

t
h
e

F
D
A
.

He
s
a
ys
,


T
h
e

F
D
A

c
on
s
u
ltati
o
n

pro
ce
s
s

do
es

n
o
t

all
o
w

t
h
e

a
g
e
n
c
y

to
r
e
q
u
i
r
e

s
u
b
m
i
ss
i
o
n

o
f

d
ata,

m
i
s
s
es

ob
v
i
ou
s

e
rror
s

in

c
o
m
p
a
n
y
-

su
b
m
itted

d
ata

s
um
m
a
r
ie
s
,

pro
v
i
d
es

i
n
s
u
f
f
ici
e
n
t

t
e
s
t
i
n
g

g
u
i
d
a
n
ce,

a
n
d

do
es

n
o
t

r
e
q
u
i
r
e

s
uff
icie
n
t
l
y

d
etailed

d
ata

to e
n
a
b
le

t
h
e

F
D
A

to a
ssu
r
e

t
h
at

GE

c
rop
s

a
r
e

s
a
f
e

to eat
.

94

S
i
m
ila
r
l
y
,

a F
r
ie
n
d
s

o
f

t
h
e

E
a
r
th

r
e
v
i
e
w

o
f

c
o
m
p
a
n
y

a
n
d

F
D
A

do
c
u
m
e
n
ts

c
o
n
c
l
uded:



I
f

i
n
du
s
t
r
y

c
h
oo
s
es

to
s
u
b
m
i
t

f
a
u
lt
y
,

un
p
u
b
li
s
h
a
b
le

s
t
u
d
ie
s
,

it

do
es

s
o

w
i
t
h
o
u
t

c
o
ns
e
q
u
e
n
c
e.

I
f

it

sh
o
u
ld

r
e
s
po
n
d

to an

a
g
e
n
c
y
r
e
q
u
e
s
t

w
i
t
h

d
e
f
ici
e
n
t

d
ata,

it

do
es

s
o

w
i
t
h
o
u
t

r
e
pr
i
m
a
n
d

o
r

f
o
ll
o
w
-
u
p
.

. . .
I
f

a c
o
m
p
a
n
y

f
i
n
d
s

it

d
i
s
a
d
v
a
n
t
a
g
e
ou
s

to c
h
a
r
acte
r
ize

its
prod
u
ct,

t
h
en

its

prop
e
r
ties

r
e
m
a
i
n

u
n
ce
r
ta
i
n

o
r

u
n
kn
o
w
n
.

I
f a c
or
p
or
ati
o
n

c
h
oo
s
es

to i
gn
o
r
e

s
cie
n
t
i
f
ical
l
y

s
o
un
d

te
s
ti
n
g

s
ta
n
d
a
rd
s

. .

. t
h
en

f
a
u
lt
y

t
e
s
ts

a
r
e

c
o
n
d
u
c
t
ed

i
ns
tea
d
,

a
n
d

t
h
e

r
e
s
u
l
t
s

a
r
e

c
o
ns
i
d
e
r
ed

le
g
it
i
m
ate.

I
n

t
h
e

a
r
ea

o
f

g
e
n
etic
a
l
l
y

e
n
g
i
n
ee
r
ed

food
r
e
gu
la
t
i
o
n
,

t
h
e


c
o
m
p
et
e
n
t


a
g
e
n
cies

r
a
r
e
l
y

i
f

e
v
er

(
kn
o
w

h
o
w

t
o
)

c
o
n
d
u
ct

i
n
d
e
p
e
n
d
e
n
t

r
e
s
ea
r
ch

to
v
e
r
i
f
y

o
r

su
pp
l
e
m
e
n
t

i
n
du
s
t
r
y
f
i
n
d
i
n
gs
.


95


A
t

t
h
e

e
n
d

o
f

t
h
e

c
on
su
l
tati
o
n
,

t
h
e

F
D
A

do
e
s
n

t

ac
t
u
al
l
y

a
ppro
v
e

t
h
e

c
rop
s
.

R
at
h
e
r
,

t
h
e
y

i
s
su
e

a letter

t
h
at

i
n
c
l
u
d
es

a
s
ta
t
e
m
e
n
t

s
u
ch
as

t
h
e

f
o
ll
o
w
i
n
g
:



B
a
s
ed

o
n

t
h
e

s
a
f
e
t
y

a
n
d

n
u
t
r
i
ti
o
n
al

a
ss
e
s
s
m
e
n
t

y
o
u

h
a
v
e

c
o
n
d
u
cte
d
,

it

is

o
u
r

un
d
e
r
s
t
a
n
d
i
n
g

t
h
at

M
o
ns
a
n
to

h
a
s

c
o
n
c
l
u
d
ed

t
h
at

c
or
n
prod
u
cts

d
e
r
i
v
ed

f
r
o
m

t
h
i
s

n
e
w

v
a
r
ie
t
y

a
r
e

n
o
t
m
ate
r
ial
l
y

d
i
f
f
e
r
e
n
t

i
n

c
o
m
po
s
iti
o
n
,

s
a
f
e
t
y
,

a
n
d

o
t
h
er

r
ele
v
a
n
t

p
a
r
a
m
ete
r
s

f
r
o
m

c
or
n
c
u
rr
e
n
t
l
y

o
n

t
h
e

m
a
r
k
et,

a
n
d

t
h
at

t
h
e

g
e
n
etical
l
y

m
od
i
f
ied

c
or
n

do
es

n
o
t

r
ai
s
e

i
s
s
u
es

t
h
at
w
o
u
ld

r
e
q
u
i
r
e

pr
e
m
a
r
k
et

r
e
v
i
e
w

o
r
a
ppr o
v
al

b
y

F
D
A
.

. . . As
y
o
u

a
r
e

a
w
a
r
e,

it

is

Mon
s
a
n
t
o

s

r
e
s
po
ns
i
b
ili
t
y

to e
n
s
u
r
e

t
h
at
f
ood
s

m
a
r
k
eted

b
y

t
h
e

f
i
r
m

a
r
e

s
a
f
e,

w
ho
le
s
o
m
e

a
n
d

in

c
o
m
p
lia
n
ce

w
i
t
h

all

a
pp
lica
b
le

le
g
al

a
n
d

r
e
gu
l
a
t
o
r
y

r
e
q
u
i
r
e
m
e
n
t
s
.

9
6



C
O

M
P

A
N

Y


R
E

S
E

A
R

C
H


I

S


S

E

C

R

E

T

,

I
N

A

D
E

Q
U

A
T

E

,

A

N

D


F
L

A

W

E
D




T
h
e

un
p
u
b
li
s
h
ed

i
n
d
us
t
r
y

s
t
u
d
ies

s
u
b
m
itted

to
r
e
g
u
lat
or
s

a
r
e

t
y
p
ical
l
y

k
e
p
t

s
ec
r
et

b
a
s
ed

o
n t
h
e

cla
i
m

t
h
at

i
t

is


c
on
f
i
d
e
n
t
i
al

b
us
i
n
e
s
s
i
n
f
o
r
m
ati
o
n
.


T
h
e

R
o
y
a
l

S
o
c
i
e
t
y

o
f

C
a
n
a
d
a

is

o
n
e

o
f

m
a
n
y

or
g
a
n
izati
o
n
s

t
h
at

c
o
n
d
e
m
n

t
h
is

pr
actice.

T
h
ey

w
ro
te:



I
n

t
h
e

j
u
dg
m
e
n
t

o
f

t
h
e

E
x
p
e
r
t

P
a
n
el,

t
h
e

m
or
e

r
e
g
u
lat
o
r
y

a
g
e
n
cies

l
i
m
i
t

f
r
ee

acce
s
s

to
t
h
e

d
ata

u
po
n

w
h
i
c
h

t
h
e
ir

d
eci
s
i
on
s

a
r
e
b
a
s
e
d
,

t
h
e

m
or
e

c
o
m
pr
o
m
i
s
ed

b
ec
o
m
e
s

t
h
e

cla
i
m

t
h
at

t
h
e

r
e
g
u
lat
o
r
y

pro
ce
s
s

is


s
ci
e
n
ce

b
a
s
e
d.


T
h
is

is

d
u
e

to a
s
i
m
p
le

b
u
t
w
el
l
-

un
d
e
r
s
t
oo
d

r
e
q
u
i
r
e
m
e
n
t

o
f

t
h
e

s
cie
n
t
i
f
ic

m
e
t
h
o
d

it
s
e
l
f

t
h
at

it

b
e

an

op
e
n
,

c
o
m
p
lete
l
y

t
r
a
n
s
p
a
r
e
n
t

e
n
te
rpr
i
s
e

in
w
h
i
c
h

a
n
y

a
n
d

all
a
s
p
ects

o
f

s
ci
e
n
t
i
f
ic

r
e
s
ea
r
c
h

a
r
e

op
en

to
f
u
ll

r
e
v
i
e
w

b
y

s
ci
e
n
ti
f
ic

p
ee
r
s
.

P
eer

r
e
v
i
e
w

a
n
d

i
nd
e
p
e
n
d
e
n
t

c
orro
b
or
ati
o
n

o
f

r
e
s
ea
r
ch

f
i
n
d
i
n
g
s

a
r
e

a
x
i
o
m
s

o
f

t
h
e

s
c
i
e
n
t
i
f
ic

m
et
h
od
,

a
n
d

p
a
r
t

o
f

t
h
e

v
e
r
y

m
ea
n
i
n
g

o
f

t
h
e

ob
j
ecti
v
ity

a
n
d

n
e
u
t
r
ali
t
y

o
f

s
ci e
n
ce
.


9
7


W
h
e
n
e
v
er

pr
i
v
ate

s
u
b
m
i
ss
i
o
n
s

a
r
e
m
a
d
e

p
u
b
lic

t
h
rou
g
h

l
a
w
s
u
its

o
r

F
r
ee
d
o
m

o
f

In
f
o
r
m
a
t
i
o
n

A
ct

R
e
q
u
e
s
t
s
,

it

b
ec
o
m
es

cl
e
ar
w
h
y
c
o
m
p
a
n
ies

b
e
n
e
f
i
t

f
r
o
m

s
ec
r
ec
y
.

T
h
e

q
u
ali
t
y

o
f

t
h
eir

r
e
s
ea
r
c
h

is

of
ten

m
i
s
e
r
a
b
le,

i
n
c
o
m
p
e
t
e
n
t,

a
n
d

u
n
acce
p
ta
b
le

f
o
r

p
ee
r
-
r
e
v
i
e
w
.

I
n

2000
,

f
o
r

e
x
a
m
p
le,

a
f
ter

t
h
e

po
te
n
tial
l
y

alle
r
g
e
n
ic

Sta
r
L
i
n
k

c
or
n

w
a
s

f
ou
n
d

to
h
a
v
e

c
o
n
t
a
m
i
n
ated

t
h
e

f
oo
d

su
pp
l
y
,

t
h
e

c
or
n

s
prod
u
ce
r
,

A
v
e
n
tis

C
rop
Scie
n
c
e,

pr
e
s
e
n
ted

w
h
o
l
l
y

i
n
a
d
e
q
u
a
t
e

s
a
f
e
t
y

d
ata

to t
h
e

E
P
A

s

s
c
i
e
n
t
i
f
ic

a
d
v
i
s
o
r
y

p
a
n
el.

O
n
e

f
r
u
s
t
r
ated
p
a
n
el

m
e
m
b
e
r
,

Dean

M
etca
l
f
e
,

M
D,

t
h
e

g
o
v
e
rn
m
e
n
t

s

t
o
p

alle
r
g
i
s
t

s
aid

d
u
r
i
n
g

a

h
ea
r
i
n
g
,


M
o
s
t

o
f

u
s

r
e
v
i
e
w

f
o
r

a l
o
t

of
j
o
u
r
n
al
s
.

A
n
d

if

t
h
i
s

w
e
r
e

pr
e
s
e
n
ted

f
o
r

p
u
b
licati
o
n

i
n

t
h
e

j
ou
r
n
a
l
s

t
h
at

I
r
e
v
i
e
w

f
or
,

it

w
o
u
ld

b
e

s
e
n
t

b
ack

to t
h
e

a
u
t
h
or
s

w
i
t
h

all

o
f
t
h
e
s
e

q
u
e
s
ti
on
s
.

I
t

w
o
u
ld

b
e

r
e
j
ecte
d.

98

13


U
N

S
C

I
E

N
T

I
F

I
C


A

S
S

U
M

P

T
I

O
N

S


A
R

E


T

H

E


B
A

S
I

S


O
F


A
P

P
R

O
V

A

L
S




P
ro
f
e
ss
o
r

C
la
r
k
,

w
h
o

a
n
a
l
y
zed

su
b
m
i
s
s
i
o
n
s

to
C
a
n
a
d
i
a
n

r
e
gu
lat
or
s
,

c
o
n
cl
u
d
e
d
,


Mo
s
t

o
r

all

o
f

t
h
e

c
o
n
c
l
us
i
o
n
s

o
f

f
oo
d

s
a
f
e
t
y

f
or
i
n
d
i
v
i
d
u
al

GM

c
rop
s

a
r
e

b
a
s
ed

o
n

i
n
f
e
r
e
n
ces

a
n
d

a
s
s
u
m
p
ti
o
ns
,

r
at
h
er

t
h
an

o
n

act
u
al

t
e
s
t
i
n
g
.


F
o
r

e
x
a
m
p
le,

r
at
h
er

t
h
a
n

act
u
al
l
y
te
s
t
i
n
g

to
s
ee

i
f

t
h
e

a
m
i
n
o

acid

s
e
q
u
e
n
ce

prod
u
ced

b
y

t
h
eir

i
n
s
e
r
ted

g
e
n
e

i
s

c
orr
ect,


t
h
e

s
t
a
n
d
a
r
d

pr
actice
,


acc
o
rd
i
n
g

to
r
e
s
ea
r
ch
a
n
a
l
ys
t

W
illi
a
m

F
r
ee
s
e,


i
s

to
s
e
q
u
e
n
ce

j
u
s
t

5

to
2
5 a
m
i
n
o

a
c
i
d
s
,

99

e
v
en

i
f

t
h
e

pro
tein

h
a
s

m
or
e

t
h
an

60
0

in

t
o
tal.

I
f

t
h
e

s
hor
t
s
a
m
p
le

m
at
c
h
es

w
h
at

is

e
x
p
ecte
d
,

t
h
e
y

a
s
s
u
m
e

t
h
at

t
h
e

r
e
s
t

a
r
e

al
s
o

f
i
n
e.

I
f

t
h
e
y

a
r
e

w
ron
g
,

h
o
w
e
v
e
r
,

a
r
ea
rr
a
ng
ed

pro
tein

c
o
u
ld

be
q
u
ite

d
a
ng
e
r
o
us
.


Mo
ns
a
n
t
o’
s

su
b
m
i
ss
i
o
n

to

A
u
s
t
r
alian

r
e
gu
l
a
t
or
s

o
n

t
h
eir
h
i
g
h

l
ys
i
n
e

GM

c
or
n

pro
v
i
d
es

an e
x
cell
e
n
t

e
x
a
m
p
le

o
f

o
v
e
r
l
y

op
t
i
m
i
s
t
i
c
a
s
s
u
m
p
ti
o
n
s

us
ed

in

p
lace

o
f

s
cie
n
ce.

T
h
e

g
e
n
e

i
ns
e
r
ted

i
n
to

t
h
e

c
or
n

prod
u
ces

a
pro
tein

t
h
at

is

n
a
t
u
r
al
l
y

f
o
un
d

i
n

s
o
il.

M
o
ns
a
n
to
cla
i
m
ed

t
h
a
t

s
i
n
ce

p
e
op
le

c
o
ns
u
m
e

s
m
all

r
e
s
i
d
u
e
s

o
f

s
o
il

o
n
fr
u
its

a
n
d

v
e
g
e
ta
b
le
s
,

t
h
e

pro
te
i
n

h
a
s

a
h
i
s
t
o
r
y

o
f

s
a
f
e

c
on
s
ump
ti
o
n.
B
a
s
ed

o
n

t
h
e

a
m
ou
n
t

o
f

GM

c
or
n

pro
tein

an

a
v
e
r
a
g
e

U
S

cit
i
zen

w
o
u
ld

c
o
n
s
u
m
e

(
if

a
l
l

t
h
e
i
r

c
or
n

w
e
r
e

Mo
ns
a
n
t
o’
s

v
a
r
ie
t
y
)
,

t
h
e
y
w
o
u
ld

eat

u
p to 4

t
r
illi
o
n

t
i
m
e
s

t
h
e

a
m
o
u
n
t

n
o
r
m
al
l
y

c
o
n
s
u
m
ed

t
h
roug
h

s
o
il.

I
n

o
t
h
er
w
ord
s
,


f
o
r

e
q
u
i
v
al
e
n
t

e
x
po
s
u
r
e”

o
f

t
h
e
pro
tein

f
r
o
m

s
o
il

p
e
op
le

w
ou
ld

h
a
v
e

to eat

. . .
n
ea
r
l
y

as
m
u
ch

as

10,000
k
g

[22,
0
0
0

p
o
un
d
s
,

e
v
e
r
y
]

s
ec
o
n
d

2
4
h
o
u
r
s

a
d
ay

s
e
v
en
d
a
y
s

a

w
ee
k
.

100



S
T

U
D

I
E

S


A
R

E


R
I

G
G

E
D


T

O


A
V

O
I

D


F
I

N
D

I
N

G


P
R

O
B

L

E

M
S




I
n

a
dd
iti
o
n
,

to
r
el
y
i
n
g

o
n

u
n
t
e
s
ted

a
s
s
u
m
p
ti
o
ns
,

i
n
d
u
s
t
r
y
-
f
und
ed

r
e
s
ea
r
ch

is

o
f
ten

d
e
s
i
g
n
ed

s
p
eci
f
ical
l
y

to
f
or
ce

a c
o
n
cl
u
s
i
o
n

o
f
s
a
f
e
t
y
.

I
n

t
h
e

h
i
g
h

l
ys
i
n
e

c
or
n

d
e
s
c
r
i
b
ed

a
b
o
v
e,

f
o
r

e
x
a
m
p
le,

t
h
e

le
v
e
ls

o
f

ce
r
ta
i
n

n
u
t
r
iti
o
n
al

c
o
m
po
n
e
n
t
s

(
i
.
e.

pro
tein

c
o
n
te
n
t,

t
o
tal
d
ieta
r
y

f
i
b
e
r
,

acid

d
ete
r
g
e
n
t

f
i
b
e
r
,

a
n
d

n
e
u
t
r
al

d
ete
r
g
e
n
t

f
i
b
e
r
)
w
e
r
e

f
ar

o
u
t
s
i
d
e

t
h
e

n
o
r
m
al

r
a
ng
e

f
o
r

c
or
n
.

I
ns
tead

o
f

c
o
m
p
a
r
i
n
g

t
h
eir
c
or
n

to
n
or
m
a
l

c
o
n
t
ro
l
s
,

w
h
i
c
h

w
o
u
ld

r
e
v
eal

t
h
is

d
i
s
p
a
r
i
t
y
,

Mo
ns
a
n
to

c
o
m
p
a
r
ed

it

to
ob
s
c
u
r
e

c
or
n

v
a
r
ieties

t
h
at
w
e
r
e

al
s
o
su
b
s
t
a
n
tia
ll
y

ou
t
s
i
d
e

t
h
e

n
o
r
m
al

r
a
ng
e

o
n
p
r
eci
s
ely

t
h
e
s
e

v
a
l
u
e
s
.

T
hus
,

t
h
eir

s
t
u
d
y

f
ou
n
d

n
o
s
tati
s
tical

d
i
ff
e
r
e
n
ces

b
y

d
e
s
i
gn
.


W
h
en

Mon
s
a
n
to

lea
r
n
ed

t
h
at

i
n
d
e
p
e
n
d
e
n
t

r
e
s
ea
r
c
h
e
r
s

w
e
r
e

to
p
u
b
li
s
h

a
s
t
u
d
y

i
n

J
u
l
y

199
9

sh
o
w
i
n
g

t
h
at

GM
s
o
y

c
o
n
ta
i
n
s

12
%
-
14%
le
s
s

ca
n
ce
r
-
f
i
gh
t
i
n
g

ph
y
t
o
e
s
t
r
o
g
e
ns
,

t
h
e

c
o
m
p
a
n
y

r
e
s
po
n
d
e
d

w
i
t
h

its

o
w
n

s
t
u
d
y
,

c
o
n
c
l
u
d
i
n
g

t
h
at

s
o
y

s

ph
y
t
o
e
s
t
ro
g
e
n

l
e
v
els

v
a
r
y

t
o
o
mu
c
h

to e
v
e
n

ca
r
r
y

o
u
t

a
s
tati
s
tical

a
n
a
l
ys
i
s
.

R
e
s
ea
r
c
h
e
r
s

f
ai
l
ed

to
d
i
s
cl
o
s
e,

h
o
w
e
v
e
r
,

t
h
at

t
h
e
y

h
ad

i
n
s
t
r
u
cted

t
h
e

la
bor
at
or
y

to
u
s
e

an

ob
s
o
lete

m
e
t
h
o
d

o
f

d
etecti
o
n

o
n
e

t
h
at
h
ad

b
een

pro
n
e

to
h
i
g
h
l
y

v
a
r
ia
b
le

r
e
s
u
l t
s
.

101


W
h
en

A
v
e
n
t
is

pr
e
p
a
r
ed

s
a
m
p
l
es

to
s
ee

if

t
h
e

po
te
n
tial

alle
r
g
en

in Sta
r
L
i
n
k

c
or
n

r
e
m
a
i
n
ed

i
n
tact

a
f
ter

c
oo
k
i
n
g
,

i
n
s
tead

o
f

us
i
n
g

t
h
e
s
ta
n
d
a
r
d

30
-
m
i
n
u
te

t
r
ea
t
m
e
n
t,

t
h
e
y

h
eated

c
or
n

f
o
r

t
w
o

h
o
u
r
s
.
102


T
o

sh
o
w

t
h
at

p
a
s
t
e
u
r
izati
o
n

d
e
s
t
r
o
y
ed

bo
v
i
n
e

g
r
o
w
t
h

h
o
r
m
o
n
e

in
m
i
l
k

f
r
o
m

c
o
w
s

t
r
eated

w
i
t
h

rb
GH,

s
ci
e
n
ti
s
ts

p
a
s
t
e
u
r
i
zed

t
h
e

m
i
l
k

12
0

ti
m
es

l
o
ng
er

t
h
an

n
o
r
m
al.

U
n
a
b
le

to
d
e
s
t
ro
y

m
or
e

t
h
a
n

19
%,

t
h
e
y

t
h
e
n

s
p
i
k
ed

t
h
e

m
i
lk

w
i
t
h

a
hu
g
e

a
m
o
u
n
t

o
f

t
h
e

h
or
m
o
n
e

a
n
d
r
e
p
eated

t
h
e

l
o
n
g

p
a
s
t
e
u
r
izati
o
n
,

d
e
s
t
r
o
y
i
n
g

90
%.

10
3

(
T
h
e

F
D
A

r
e
por
ted

t
h
at

p
a
s
te
u
r
izati
o
n

d
e
s
t
r
o
y
s

90
%

o
f

t
h
e

h
o
r
m
o
n
e.

104
)


T
o

d
e
m
on
s
t
r
ate

t
h
a
t

i
n
j
ecti
o
n
s

o
f

rb
GH

d
id

n
o
t

i
n
te
r
f
e
r
e

w
i
t
h

c
o
w

s

f
e
r
til
it
y
,

Mon
s
a
n
to

a
pp
a
r
e
n
t
l
y

a
dd
ed

c
o
w
s

to t
h
e

s
t
ud
y

t
hat
w
e
r
e

pr
e
g
n
a
n
t

pr
i
o
r

to
i
n
j
ect i
o
n
.

10
5


A
n
d

in

ord
er

to
p
r
o
v
e

t
h
at

t
h
e

pro
tein

f
r
o
m

t
h
eir

GM

c
rop
s

b
r
ea
k
s

d
o
w
n

q
u
i
c
k
l
y

d
u
r
i
n
g

si
m
u
lated

d
i
g
e
s
t
i
o
n
,

b
i
o
tech

c
o
m
p
a
n
i
e
s
us
ed

t
h
o
us
a
n
d
s

o
f

t
i
m
e
s

t
h
e

a
m
o
u
n
t

o
f

d
i
g
e
s
t
i
v
e

e
n
z
y
m
es

a
n
d

a

m
u
c
h

s
t
ro
ng
er

acid

c
o
m
p
a
r
ed

to t
h
at

r
ec
o
mm
e
n
d
ed

b
y

t
h
e

W
or
ld
Health

O
r
g
a
n
i z
a
ti
o
n
.

10
6


Ot
h
er

m
e
t
h
od
s

us
ed

to
h
i
d
e

prob
le
m
s

a
r
e

v
a
r
ied

a
n
d

p
le
n
t
i
fu
l.

F
o
r

e
x
a
m
p
le,

r
e
s
ea
r
c
h
e
r
s
:




U
s
e

h
i
g
h
l
y

v
a
r
ia
b
le

a
n
i
m
al

s
t
a
r
ti
n
g

w
e
i
g
h
ts

to

h
i
n
d
er

d
etect
i
o
n

o
f

f
oo
d
-
r
elated

c
h
a
ng
e
s




Keep

f
ee
d
i
n
g

s
t
u
d
ies

s
h
or
t

to
m
i
s
s

l
ong
-
te
r
m

i
m
p
acts

14




T
e
s
t

e
ff
ects

o
f

R
ou
n
d
u
p

R
ea
d
y

s
o
y
b
e
a
n
s

t
h
at

h
a
v
e

n
o
t

b
een

s
pr
a
y
ed

w
i
th

R
ou
n
d
u
p




A
v
o
id

f
ee
d
i
n
g

a
n
i
m
als

t
h
e

ac
t
u
al

GM

c
rop
,

b
u
t

g
i
v
e

t
h
e
m

i
n
s
tead

a
s
i
n
g
le

do
s
e

o
f

t
h
e

G
M

pro
tein

t
h
at
w
as

prod
u
ced

i
ns
i
d
e

GM

b
acte
r
ia




U
s
e

t
o
o

f
e
w

s
u
b
j
ects

to
d
e
r
i
v
e

s
tati
s
tic
a
l
l
y

s
i
gn
i
f
ic
a
n
t

r
e
s
u
lts




U
s
e

poo
r

s
tati
s
tical

m
e
t
h
od
s

o
r

s
i
m
p
l
y

le
a
v
e

o
u
t

e
ss
e
n
tial

m
et
h
od
s
,

d
ata,

o
r

s
tati
s
tics




U
s
e

i
rr
ele
v
a
n
t

c
o
n
t
ro
l

g
ro
u
p
s
,

a
n
d

e
m
p
l
o
y

i
ns
e
ns
i
t
i
v
e

e
v
a
l
u
ati
o
n

tec
h
n
i
q
u
e
s



R
OUNDUP

R
EADY

SOYBE
A
NS
:

C
ASE

S
TUDY

OF

FL
A
WED

RESEA
R
CH



Mo
ns
a
n
t
o’
s

199
6

J
o
u
r
na
l

o
f

N
u
t
r
iti
o
n

s
t
u
d
ies

o
n

R
ou
n
d
u
p

R
ea
d
y

s
o
y
b
ea
n
s
1 07
,

108

pro
v
i
d
e

p
le
n
ty

o
f

e
x
a
m
p
l
e
s

o
f

s
ci
e
n
t
i
f
ic
t
r
a
n
s
g
r
e
ss
i
o
ns
.

A
l
t
h
oug
h

t
h
e

s
t
u
d
y

h
as

b
een

us
ed

o
f
t
e
n

b
y

t
h
e

i
n
d
u
s
t
r
y

as
v
ali
d
ati
o
n

f
o
r

s
a
f
e
t
y

cla
i
ms
,

e
x
p
e
r
ts

w
o
r
k
i
n
g

i
n t
h
e

f
i
e
ld
w
e
r
e

n
o
t

i
m
pr
e
ss
e
d
.

F
o
r

e
x
a
mp
le,

D
r
.

A
rp
ad

P
us
ztai

w
as

c
o
m
m
i
s
s
i
o
n
ed

at

t
h
e

ti
m
e

b
y

t
h
e

UK

g
o
v
e
r
n
m
e
n
t

to lead

a
2
0

m
e
m
b
er
c
o
ns
or
ti
u
m

i
n

t
h
r
ee

i
ns
t
i
t
u
t
i
on
s

to
d
e
v
el
o
p

r
i
g
oro
u
s

te
s
t
i
n
g

p
ro
t
o
c
o
ls

o
n

GM

f
ood
s

pro
t
o
c
o
ls

t
h
at
w
e
r
e

n
e
v
er

i
m
p
l
e
m
e
n
te
d
.

D
r
.
P
us
ztai,

w
h
o

h
ad

p
u
b
l
i
sh
ed

s
e
v
e
r
al

s
t
u
d
ies

i
n

t
h
at
s
a
m
e

n
u
t
r
i
ti
o
n

j
o
u
r
n
al,

s
aid

t
h
e

M
on
s
a
n
t
o

p
a
p
er

w
as

n
o
t


u
p

to t
h
e

n
o
r
m
al

j
o
u
r
n
al
s
ta
n
d
a
rd
s
.


He

s
ai
d
,


I
t

w
a
s

ob
v
i
o
u
s

t
h
at

t
h
e

s
t
u
d
y

h
ad

b
een

d
e
s
i
gn
ed

to a
v
o
id

f
i
n
d
i
n
g

a
n
y

prob
le
m
s
.

E
v
e
r
y
bo
d
y

i
n

o
u
r

c
o
ns
or
ti
um
kn
e
w

t
h
i
s
.


S
o
m
e

o
f

t
h
e

f
l
a
w
s

i
n
cl
u
d
e:




R
e
s
ea
r
c
h
e
r
s

te
s
ted

GM

s
o
y

o
n

m
at
u
r
e

a
n
i
m
al
s
,

n
o
t
y
oun
g

on
e
s
.

Y
o
u
n
g

a
n
i
m
a
ls

us
e

pro
tein

to
b
u
ild

t
h
eir
mus
cl
e
s
,

ti
s
su
e
s
,

a
n
d
or
g
a
ns
.

P
rob
le
m
s

w
i
t
h

GM

f
o
o
d

c
o
u
ld

t
h
e
r
e
f
or
e

sh
o
w

u
p
i
n

or
g
an

a
n
d

bod
y

w
e
i
g
h
t.

B
u
t

a
d
u
lt

a
n
i
m
a
l
s

u
s
e

t
h
e

pro
tein

f
o
r

ti
ssu
e
r
e
n
e
w
al

a
n
d

e
n
e
r
g
y
.


W
i
t
h

a
n
u
t
r
iti
o
n
a
l

s
t
u
d
y

o
n
m
a
t
u
r
e

a
n
i
m
al
s
,


s
a
y
s

D
r
.

P
us
ztai,


y
o
u

w
o
u
ld

n
e
v
er

s
ee

a
n
y

d
i
f
f
e
r
e
n
c
e

in
or
g
an

w
e
i
gh
t
s

e
v
e
n

i
f

t
h
e

f
oo
d

t
u
r
n
ed

o
u
t

to
b
e

a
n
t
i
-
n
u
t
r
iti
o
n
al.

T
h
e

a
n
i
m
als

w
o
u
ld

h
a
v
e

to
b
e

e
m
aciated

o
r

po
i
s
o
n
ed

to
sh
o
w
a
n
y
t
h
i
n
g
.





I
f

t
h
e
r
e

w
e
r
e

an

or
g
a
n

d
e
v
el
op
m
e
n
t

prob
le
m
,

t
h
e

s
t
u
d
y

w
ou
l
d
n

t

h
a
v
e

p
i
c
k
ed

it

u
p
s
i
n
ce

t
h
e

r
e
s
ea
r
c
h
e
r
s

d
i
d
n

t

e
v
e
n

w
ei
g
h

t
he
or
g
a
ns
.




I
n

o
n
e

o
f

t
h
e

t
r
ial
s
,

r
e
s
ea
r
c
h
e
r
s

su
b
s
ti
t
u
ted

o
n
l
y

o
n
e

te
n
t
h

o
f

t
h
e

n
a
t
u
r
al

pro
tein

w
i
t
h

GM

s
o
y

pro
tei
n
.

I
n

t
w
o

o
t
h
e
r
s
,

t
h
e
y

d
il
u
ted
t
h
eir

GM

s
o
y

s
i
x
-

a
n
d

t
w
el
v
e
-
f
o
l
d
.

109

Scie
n
t
i
s
ts

I
an

P
r
ym
e
,

P
h
D,

o
f

N
o
r
w
a
y

a
n
d

R
o
l
f

L
e
m
b
c
k
e,

P
h
D,

o
f

De
n
m
a
r
k

w
ro
te,

t
h
e

l
e
v
el

o
f

t
h
e

GM

s
o
y

w
as

t
o
o

l
o
w
,

a
n
d

w
ou
ld

prob
a
b
ly

e
n
s
ur
e

t
h
at

a
n
y

po
ss
i
b
le

u
n
d
e
s
i
r
a
b
l
e

GM

e
ff
e
c
ts

d
id

n
o
t

o
cc
u
r.





P
r
ym
e

a
n
d

L
e
m
b
c
k
e,

w
h
o

p
u
b
li
sh
ed

a
p
a
p
er

in

N
u
t
r
i
t
i
o
n

an
d

He
a
lth

t
h
at

a
n
a
l
y
zed

all

p
u
b
l
i
sh
ed

p
ee
r
-
r
e
v
i
e
w
ed

f
ee
d
i
n
g

s
t
u
d
ies
o
n

GM

f
ood
s

(1
0

as

o
f

20
0
3)
,

al
s
o

po
i
n
ted

o
u
t

t
h
at

t
h
e

p
e
r
ce
n
ta
g
e

o
f

pro
tein

in

t
h
e

f
eed

u
s
ed

in

t
h
e

R
o
un
d
u
p

R
ea
d
y

s
t
u
d
y

w
as

a
r
t
i
f
icial
l
y

t
o
o

h
i
gh
.


T
h
is


w
o
u
ld

a
l
m
o
s
t

ce
r
ta
i
n
l
y

m
a
s
k
,

o
r

at

lea
s
t

e
ff
ec
t
i
v
e
l
y

r
e
d
u
ce,

a
n
y

po
s
s
i
b
le

e
f
f
ect

o
f

t
h
e

[
GM

s
o
y
].

T
h
ey

s
aid

it

w
a
s


h
i
g
h
l
y

l
i
k
e
l
y

t
h
at

a
l
l

GM

e
f
f
ec
t
s

w
o
u
ld

h
a
v
e

b
een

d
il
u
ted

o
u
t
.


110




P
r
o
p
er

c
o
m
po
s
iti
o
n
al

s
t
u
d
i
e
s

f
ilter

o
u
t

e
f
f
ects

o
f

w
ea
t
h
er

o
r

g
e
o
g
r
a
ph
y

b
y

c
o
m
p
a
r
i
n
g

p
la
n
t
s

g
r
o
w
n

at

t
h
e

s
a
m
e

t
i
m
e

i
n

t
h
e

s
a
m
e
l
o
cati
o
n
.

Mo
ns
a
n
t
o
,

h
o
w
e
v
e
r
,

poo
led

d
ata

f
ro
m

s
e
v
e
r
al

l
o
ca
t
i
o
ns
,

w
h
ich

m
a
k
es

it

d
i
ff
i
c
u
lt

fo
r

d
i
ff
e
r
e
n
ces

to
b
e

s
tat
i
s
tical
l
y
s
i
g
n
i
f
ic
a
n
t.

N
o
n
e
t
h
ele
s
s
,

t
h
e

d
ata

r
e
v
ealed

s
i
g
n
i
f
ic
a
n
t

d
i
f
f
e
r
e
n
ces

i
n

t
h
e

a
sh
,
f
at,

a
n
d

ca
rboh
y
dr
ate

c
o
n
t
e
n
t.

R
o
un
d
u
p

R
e
a
d
y

s
o
y
m
eal

al
s
o

c
o
n
t
a
i
n
ed

27
%

m
o
r
e

t
r
y
p
s
in

i
n
h
i
b
it
or
,

a
po
te
n
tial

alle
r
g
e
n
.

A
l
s
o
,

c
o
w
s

f
ed

GM

s
o
y

prod
u
ced

m
i
l
k

w
i
t
h

a
h
i
g
h
e
r

f
at
c
o
n
te
n
t,

d
e
m
o
ns
t
r
at
i
n
g

a
n
o
t
h
e
r

d
i
s
p
a
r
ity

b
e
t
w
e
e
n

t
h
e

t
w
o

t
yp
es

o
f

s
o
y
.




O
n
e

f
ield

t
r
ial,

h
o
w
e
v
e
r
,

d
id

gr
o
w

GM

a
n
d

n
o
n
-
GM

p
la
n
t
s

n
e
x
t

to each

o
t
h
e
r
,

b
u
t

t
h
is

d
ata
w
a
s

n
o
t

i
n
cl
u
d
ed

in

t
h
e

p
a
p
e
r
.

Yea
r
s
a
f
ter

t
h
e

s
t
u
d
y

a
pp
ea
r
e
d
,

m
e
d
i
cal

w
r
iter

B
a
rb
a
r
a

Keeler

r
ec
ov
e
r
ed

t
h
e

d
ata

t
h
at
h
ad

b
een

o
m
itte
d
.

I
t

sh
o
w
ed

t
h
at

Mo
ns
a
n
t
o

s

GM

s
o
y

h
ad

s
i
g
n
i
f
ic
a
n
t
l
y

l
o
w
er

le
v
els

o
f

pro
tei
n
,

a
f
a
t
t
y

ac
i
d
,

a
n
d

p
h
e
n
y
lal
a
n
i
n
e,

an

e
ss
e
n
tial

a
m
i
n
o

aci
d
.

A
l
s
o
,

t
o
a
s
ted

GM

s
o
y

m
eal
c
o
n
ta
i
n
ed

n
ea
r
l
y

t
w
ice

t
h
e

a
m
ou
n
t

o
f

a lect
i
n

a

s
u
b
s
t
a
n
ce

t
h
at
m
a
y

i
n
te
r
f
e
r
e

w
i
t
h

t
h
e

bod
y

s

a
b
ili
t
y

to a
s
s
i
m
ilate

o
t
h
er
nu
t
r
i
e
n
t
s
.

A
n
d

t
h
e

a
m
ou
n
t

o
f

t
r
y
p
s
in

i
n
h
i
b
it
o
r

in

c
oo
k
ed

GM
s
o
y

w
as

as
m
u
ch

a
s

s
e
v
e
n

t
i
m
es

h
i
gh
er

t
h
an

i
n

a c
oo
k
ed

n
on
-
GM c
o
n
t
ro
l.

15




T
h
e

s
t
u
d
y

al
s
o

o
m
itted

m
a
n
y

d
etails

n
o
r
m
a
ll
y

r
e
q
u
i
r
ed

f
o
r

a

p
u
bl
i
sh
ed

p
a
p
e
r
.

A
cc
ord
i
n
g

t
o
P
r
y
m
e

a
n
d

L
e
m
b
c
k
e,


No

d
ata
w
e
r
e
g
i
v
e
n

f
o
r

m
o
s
t

o
f

t
h
e

p
a
r
a
m
e
t
e
r
s
.





A
n
d

w
h
e
n

r
e
s
ea
r
c
h
e
r
s

t
e
s
ted

t
h
e

e
f
f
ec
t
s

o
f

R
o
un
d
u
p

R
ea
d
y

pro
tein

o
n

a
n
i
m
al
s
,

t
h
e
y

d
i
dn’
t

e
x
t
r
act

t
h
e

pro
tein

f
r
o
m

t
h
e

s
o
y
b
ea
n
s
.

I
ns
tea
d
,

t
h
e
y

d
e
r
i
v
e
d

it

f
r
o
m

GM

b
acte
r
ia,

cla
i
m
i
n
g

t
h
e

t
w
o

f
o
r
m
s

o
f

pro
tein

w
e
r
e

e
q
u
i
v
al
e
n
t.

T
h
e
r
e

a
r
e

n
u
m
e
r
o
u
s

w
a
ys
,

h
o
w
e
v
e
r
,

in
w
h
i
c
h

t
h
e

pro
tein

in

t
h
e

s
o
y

m
a
y

b
e

d
i
ff
e
r
e
n
t.

I
n

f
a
c
t,

n
i
n
e
y
ea
r
s

a
f
ter

t
h
i
s

s
t
u
d
y

w
as

p
u
b
l
is
h
e
d
,

a
n
o
t
h
er

s
t
u
d
y
sh
o
w
ed

t
h
at

t
h
e

g
e
n
e

i
ns
e
r
ted

i
n
to

t
h
e

s
o
y
b
ea
n
s

prod
u
ced

u
n
i
n
t
e
n
d
ed

a
b
e
rr
a
n
t

R
N
A

s
t
r
a
n
d
s
,

m
e
a
n
i
n
g

t
h
at

t
h
e

pro
tein

m
a
y

b
e
q
u
ite

d
i
f
f
e
r
e
n
t

t
h
a
n

w
h
a
t

w
as

i
n
te
n
d
e
d
.

111


I
n

P
r
ym
e

a
n
d

L
e
m
b
c
k
e

s

a
n
a
l
ys
i
s
,

it

c
a
m
e

a
s

n
o
s
u
rpr
i
s
e

t
h
a
t

t
h
is

M
o
ns
a
n
to

s
t
u
d
y
,

al
on
g

w
i
t
h

t
h
e

o
t
h
er

f
o
u
r

p
ee
r
-
r
e
v
i
e
w
ed

a
n
i
m
al
f
ee
d
i
n
g

s
t
u
d
ies

t
h
at
w
e
r
e


p
e
rfor
m
ed

m
or
e

o
r

le
s
s

i
n

c
o
lla
bor
ati
o
n

w
i
t
h

pr
i
v
ate

c
o
m
p
a
n
ie
s
,


r
e
por
t
e
d

n
o
n
e
g
at
i
v
e

e
f
f
ec
t
s

o
f

t
h
e

G
M
d
iet.


On

t
h
e

o
t
h
er
h
a
n
d,


t
h
e
y

w
ro
te,


a
d
v
e
r
s
e

e
f
f
ects

w
e
r
e

r
e
por
t
e
d

(b
u
t

n
o
t

e
x
p
lai
n
e
d
)

in

[
t
h
e
f
i
v
e]

i
n
d
e
p
e
n
d
e
n
t

s
t
u
d
i
e
s
.


T
h
ey
a
dd
e
d
,


I
t

is

r
e
m
a
r
k
a
b
le

t
h
at

t
h
e
s
e

e
ff
e
c
ts

h
a
v
e

all

b
een

ob
s
e
r
v
ed

a
f
ter

f
ee
d
i
n
g

f
o
r

o
n
l
y

10

1
4

d
a
y
s
.

112



T
O

X
I

C

G
M

F
O

O

D

S

C
O

U
L

D

H
A

V

E

B

E
E

N

A
P

P
R

O

V
E

D



T
w
o

GM

f
ood
s

w
h
o
s
e

c
o
mm
e
r
cializat i
o
n

w
as

s
t
opp
ed

b
eca
us
e

o
f

n
e
g
at
i
v
e

te
s
t

r
e
s
u
l
t
s

g
i
v
e a c
h
ill
i
n
g

e
x
a
m
p
le

o
f

w
h
at

m
a
y

b
e
g
ett
i
n
g

t
h
roug
h
.

R
ats

f
ed

GM
po
tat
o
es

h
ad

po
te
n
tial
l
y

pr
eca
n
ce
ro
u
s

cell
g
r
o
w
th

i
n

t
h
e

s
t
o
m
ach

a
n
d

i
n
t
e
s
t
i
n
e
s
,

l
e
s
s

d
e
v
e
l
op
ed

b
r
ai
ns
, li
v
e
r
s
,

a
n
d

t
e
s
ticle
s
,

p
a
r
tial

at
r
oph
y

o
f

t
h
e

li
v
e
r
,

a
n
d

d
a
m
a
g
e
d

i
mm
un
e

s
ys
t
e
ms
.

113

GM

p
eas

pro
v
o
k
ed

an

i
n
f
l
a
mm
a
t
o
r
y

r
e
s
po
ns
e

in
m
ice,

s
u
g
g
e
s
ti
n
g

t
h
at

t
h
e

p
eas

m
i
gh
t

t
r
i
g
g
er

a
d
ea
d
ly

a
n
a
ph
y
l
actic

sh
o
c
k

in

alle
r
g
ic

hu
m
a
n
s
.
114

B
o
th

o
f

t
h
e
s
e

d
a
ng
e
rou
s

c
rop
s
,
h
o
w
e
v
e
r
,

c
o
u
ld

ea
s
i
l
y

h
a
v
e

b
e
en

a
ppro
v
e
d
.

T
h
e

pr
o
b
le
m
s

we
r
e

o
n
l
y

d
i
s
c
o
v
e
r
ed

b
eca
us
e

t
h
e

r
e
s
ea
r
c
h
e
r
s

u
s
ed

a
d
v
a
n
ced

t
e
s
ts

t
h
at
w
e
r
e

n
e
v
er

a
pp
lied

to GM

c
r
o
p
s

al
r
ea
d
y

o
n

t
h
e

m
a
r
k
et.

B
o
th
w
ou
ld

h
a
v
e

p
a
s
s
ed

t
h
e

n
o
r
m
a
l

te
s
ts

t
h
at

c
o
m
p
a
n
ies

t
y
p
ical
l
y

u
s
e

to

g
et t
h
eir

prod
u
cts

a
ppro
v
e
d.


Iro
n
ical
l
y
,

w
h
e
n

Mon
s
a
n
to

w
a
s

a
sk
ed

to c
o
mm
e
n
t

o
n

t
h
e

p
ea
s
t
u
d
y
,

t
h
eir

s
po
k
e
s
p
e
r
s
o
n

s
aid

it

d
e
m
o
ns
t
r
ated

t
h
at

t
h
e

r
e
gu
l
at
or
y
s
ys
t
e
m

w
o
r
ks
.

He

f
a
iled

to
d
i
s
cl
o
s
e

t
h
at
n
o
n
e

o
f
h
is

c
o
m
p
a
n
y

s

GM

c
rop
s

h
ad

b
een

p
u
t

t
h
ro
u
g
h

s
u
ch

r
i
g
oro
u
s

te
s
t
s
.



R
A

M

P
A

N

T

,

U

N

R
E

L
E

N
T

I
N

G

I
N

D
U

S
T

R
Y

B
I

A

S



I
n
d
us
t
r
y
-
fu
n
d
ed

r
e
s
ea
r
ch

t
h
at
f
a
v
or
s

t
h
e

f
u
n
d
e
r
s

is

n
o
t

n
e
w
.

B
ias

h
as

b
een

i
d
e
n
t
i
f
ied

ac
ro
s
s

s
e
v
e
r
al

i
n
du
s
t
r
ie
s
.

I
n

p
h
a
r
m
a
ce
u
tica
l
s
,
f
o
r

e
x
a
m
p
le,

po
s
it
i
v
e

r
e
s
u
lts

a
r
e

f
o
u
r

t
i
m
e
s

m
or
e

l
i
k
e
l
y

if

t
h
e

dr
ug

s

m
a
nu
f
act
u
r
er

fu
n
d
s

t
h
e

s
t
u
d
y
.

115

W
h
en

c
o
m
p
a
n
i
e
s

p
a
y

f
o
r

t
he
ec
o
n
o
m
ic

a
n
a
l
ys
es

o
f

t
h
eir

o
wn

ca
n
cer

dr
u
g
s
,

t
h
e

r
e
s
u
l
t
s

a
r
e

ei
g
h
t

t
i
m
es

m
or
e

l
i
k
e
l
y

to
b
e

f
a
v
or
a
b
le
.
116

C
o
m
p
a
r
ed

to
dr
u
g

r
e
s
ea
r
c
h
,
t
h
e

po
te
n
tial

f
o
r

i
n
du
s
t
r
y

m
a
n
i
p
u
lati
o
n

i
n

GM

c
ro
p

s
t
u
d
ies

i
s

c
o
ns
i
d
e
r
a
b
l
y

h
i
g
h
e
r
.

U
n
l
i
k
e

p
h
a
r
m
ac
e
u
tical

t
e
s
t
i
ng
,

GM

r
e
s
ea
r
ch

h
as
n
o
s
ta
n
d
a
rd
ized

pro
ce
d
u
r
es

d
i
ctated

b
y

r
e
g
u
lat
or
s
.

GM

s
t
u
d
i
es

a
r
e

n
o
t

u
s
u
al
l
y

p
u
b
li
s
h
ed

in
p
eer
-
r
e
v
i
e
w
ed

j
o
u
r
n
als

a
n
d

a
r
e

t
y
p
ical
l
y
k
e
p
t

s
ec
r
et

b
y

c
o
m
p
a
n
ies

a
n
d

g
o
v
e
rn
m
e
n
t
s
.

T
h
e
r
e

is

lit
t
le

m
o
n
e
y

a
v
a
ila
b
le

f
o
r

r
i
g
oro
u
s

i
nd
e
p
e
n
d
e
n
t

r
e
s
ea
r
c
h
,

s
o c
o
m
p
a
n
y

e
v
i
d
e
n
ce

u
s
u
al
l
y

g
o
es

u
n
c
h
all
e
n
g
ed

a
n
d

u
n
v
e
r
i
f
ie
d
.

M
o
s
t

i
m
por
ta
n
t
l
y
,

w
h
e
r
eas

dr
u
g
s

c
a
n

sh
o
w

s
e
r
i
o
u
s

s
i
d
e
-
e
ff
e
c
ts

a
n
d

s
till

b
e

a
ppro
v
e
d
,

GM

f
oo
d

ca
nn
o
t.

T
h
e
r
e

is

n
o t
o
le
r
a
n
ce

f
o
r

a
d
v
e
r
s
e

r
eacti
on
s
;

f
ee
d
i
n
g

t
r
i
a
ls

m
u
s
t

sh
o
w

n
o
prob
l
e
ms
.


T
hus
,

w
h
e
n

i
n
d
us
t
r
y

s
t
u
d
ies

s
h
o
w

prob
l
e
m
s

(
in

s
p
ite

o
f

t
h
e
i
r

e
ff
or
ts

to a
v
o
id

t
h
e
m
)
,

s
e
r
i
ou
s

a
d
v
e
r
s
e

r
eacti
o
n
s

a
n
d

e
v
e
n

d
eat
h
s

a
m
on
g

G
M
-
f
ed

a
n
i
m
als

a
r
e

i
g
n
or
ed

o
r

d
i
s
m
i
ss
ed

as

n
o
t

b
i
o
l
o
g
ical
l
y

s
i
g
n
i
f
ic
a
n
t”

o
r

d
u
e

to

n
a
t
u
r
al

v
a
r
iati
o
n
s
.


I
n

t
h
e

c
r
i
tical

a
r
e
n
a

o
f

f
oo
d

s
a
f
e
t
y

r
e
s
ea
r
c
h
,

t
h
e

b
i
o
tech

i
n
du
s
t
r
y

i
s

w
i
t
h
o
u
t

acc
o
un
ta
b
i
l
i
t
y
,

s
ta
n
d
a
rd
s
,

o
r

p
ee
r
-
r
e
v
i
e
w
.

T
h
e
y

v
e

g
o
t

b
ad

s
cie
n
c
e

do
w
n

to a

s
cie
n
ce.

16


P
R

O
M

O
T

I
N

G

A

N

D

R
E

G
U

L
A

T

I

N
G

D
O

N



T

M
I

X



W
h
ile

s
u
ch

s
e
l
f
-
s
e
r
v
i
n
g

b
e
h
a
v
i
o
r

m
a
y

b
e

e
x
p
ected

f
r
o
m

c
orpor
ati
o
ns
,

h
o
w

c
o
m
e

g
o
v
e
rnm
e
n
t

bod
ies

let

su
c
h

b
lata
n
t

s
ci
e
n
t
i
f
ic
c
o
n
t
or
ti
o
n
s

p
a
s
s

w
i
t
h
o
u
t

c
o
mm
e
n
t?

O
n
e

r
ea
s
o
n

is

t
h
at

s
e
v
e
r
al

r
e
gu
lat
o
r
y

a
g
e
n
cies

a
r
e

al
s
o

c
h
a
r
g
ed

w
i
t
h

pro
m
o
t
i
n
g

t
h
e

i
n
te
r
e
s
t
s

o
f
b
i
o
tec
hn
o
l
og
y
.

T
h
is

is

t
h
e

of
f
i
cial

po
s
iti
o
n

o
f

t
h
e

F
D
A

a
n
d

o
t
h
er

US

g
o
v
e
rn
m
e
n
t

bod
ie
s
,

fo
r

e
x
a
m
p
le.

S
u
z
a
n
n
e

W
u
e
r
t
h
e
le,

P
h
D,

a
US

E
P
A

t
o
x
ic
o
l
og
i
s
t,

s
a
ys
,


T
h
is

te
c
h
n
o
l
og
y

i
s

b
ei
n
g

pr
o
m
o
te
d
,

in

t
h
e

f
ace

o
f

c
o
n
ce
rn
s

b
y

r
e
s
p
ecta
b
le

s
cie
n
t
i
s
ts

a
n
d

in

t
h
e

f
ace

o
f
d
ata

to t
h
e

c
o
n
t
r
a
r
y
,

b
y

t
h
e

v
e
r
y

a
g
e
n
cies

w
h
i
c
h

a
r
e

su
ppo
s
e
d

to
b
e

pro
tecti
n
g

hu
m
an

h
eal
t
h

a
n
d

t
h
e

e
n
v
i
ron
m
e
n
t.

T
h
e

b
o
tt
o
m

l
i
n
e in

m
y

v
i
e
w

is

t
h
at
w
e

a
r
e

c
onfro
n
ted

w
i
t
h

t
h
e

m
o
s
t

p
o
w
e
rf
u
l

tec
hn
o
l
og
y

t
h
e

w
or
ld

h
as

e
v
e
r

kn
o
w
n
,

a
n
d

it

is

b
ei
n
g

r
a
p
i
d
ly

d
e
p
l
o
y
ed
w
i
t
h

a
l
m
o
s
t

n
o t
h
oug
h
t

w
h
at
s
o
e
v
er

to its

c
o
ns
e
q
u
e
n
ce
s
.

117


C
a
n
a
d
i
a
n

r
e
g
u
lat
or
s

a
r
e

s
i
m
il
a
r
l
y

c
o
n
f
licte
d
.

T
h
e

R
o
y
al

S
o
c
i
e
t
y

o
f

C
a
n
a
d
a

r
e
por
ted

t
h
at,


I
n

m
ee
t
i
n
g
s

w
i
th

s
e
n
i
o
r

m
a
n
a
g
e
r
s

f
r
o
m
t
h
e

v
a
r
i
o
u
s

C
a
n
a
d
i
a
n

r
e
g
u
lat
or
y

d
e
p
a
r
t
m
e
n
t
s

. . . t
h
eir

r
e
s
p
ons
e
s

u
n
i
f
o
r
m
l
y

s
t
r
e
s
s
ed

t
h
e

i
mpor
ta
n
ce

o
f

m
a
i
n
ta
i
n
i
n
g

a
f
a
v
o
r
a
b
le
cl
i
m
ate

f
o
r

t
h
e

b
i
o
tec
h
n
o
l
og
y

i
n
du
s
t
r
y

to
d
e
v
el
o
p

n
e
w

prod
u
cts

a
n
d

s
u
b
m
it

t
h
e
m

f
o
r

a
ppr
ov
al

o
n

t
h
e

C
a
n
a
d
ian

m
a
r
k
et.

. .

.

T
h
e
c
o
n
f
li
c
t

o
f

i
n
te
r
e
s
t

i
nv
o
l
v
ed

in
bo
th

pro
m
o
ti
n
g

a
n
d

r
e
gu
la
t
i
n
g

an

i
n
du
s
t
r
y

o
r

tec
h
n
o
l
og
y

. .

. is

al
s
o

a
f
act
o
r

in

t
h
e

is
s
u
e

o
f
m
a
i
n
ta
i
n
i
n
g

t
h
e

t
r
a
n
s
p
a
r
e
n
c
y
,

a
n
d

t
h
e
r
e
f
or
e

t
h
e

s
ci
e
n
t
i
f
ic

i
n
t
e
g
r
i
t
y
,

o
f

t
h
e

r
e
g
u
lat
o
r
y

pro
ce
ss
.

I
n

e
ff
ect,

t
h
e

p
u
b
lic

i
n
te
r
e
s
t

in

a
r
e
gu
lat
o
r
y

s
ys
t
e
m

t
h
a
t

is


s
ci
e
n
ce

b
a
s
e
d

.

. . is

s
i
g
n
i
f
ic
a
n
t
l
y

c
o
m
pr
o
m
i
s
ed

w
h
e
n

t
h
at

op
e
n
n
e
s
s

is

n
e
g
o
tiated

a
w
a
y

b
y

r
e
g
u
lat
or
s

in
e
x
c
h
a
n
g
e

f
o
r

c
ord
ial

a
n
d

su
ppor
ti
v
e

r
elati
o
n
s
h
i
p
s

w
i
t
h

t
h
e

i
nd
us
t
r
ies

b
e
i
n
g

r
e
g
u
late
d.

118


M
a
n
y

s
ci
e
n
ti
s
t
s

o
n

t
h
e

E
u
rop
ean

F
oo
d

Sa
f
e
t
y

A
u
t
h
or
i
t
y

(E
FS
A
)

GMO

P
a
n
el

a
r
e

p
e
r
s
o
n
ally

ali
g
n
ed

w
i
t
h

b
i
o
tech

i
n
te
r
e
s
t
s.

A
cc
ord
i
n
g

to F
r
ie
n
d
s

o
f

t
h
e

E
a
r
th

(
FO
E)
,


O
n
e

m
e
m
b
er

h
a
s

d
i
r
ect

f
i
n
a
n
cial

l
i
n
k
s

w
i
t
h

t
h
e

b
i
o
tech

i
n
du
s
t
r
y

a
n
d

o
t
h
e
r
s

h
a
v
e

i
n
d
i
r
ect

li
n
ks
,

s
u
c
h

as

cl
o
s
e

i
nv
o
l
v
e
m
e
n
t

w
i
t
h

m
a
j
o
r

c
o
n
f
e
r
e
n
c
e
s

org
a
n
ized

b
y

t
h
e

b
i
o
tech

i
n
du
s
t
r
y
.

T
w
o
m
e
m
b
e
r
s

h
a
v
e

e
v
e
n

a
pp
ea
r
ed

in

pro
m
o
ti
o
n
al

v
i
d
e
o
s

prod
u
ced

b
y

t
h
e

b
i
o
tech

i
n
du
s
t
r
y
.

. . . Se
v
e
r
al

m
e
m
b
e
r
s

o
f

t
h
e

P
a
n
el,

i
n
cl
u
d
i
n
g

t
h
e

c
h
air

P
ro
f
e
ss
o
r

K
u
i
p
e
r
,

h
a
v
e

b
een

i
n
v
o
l
v
ed

w
i
t
h

t
h
e

E
U
-
fu
n
d
ed

E
N
T
R
A
NS
F
OOD

pro
j
e
c
t.

T
h
e

aim

o
f

t
h
i
s

pro
j
ect

w
as

t
o a
g
r
ee

[
t
o
]

s
a
f
e
t
y

a
s
s
e
s
s
m
e
n
t,

r
i
s
k

m
a
n
a
g
e
m
e
n
t,

a
n
d

r
i
s
k

c
o
mm
u
n
icati
o
n

pro
ce
d
u
r
es

t
h
at
w
o
u
l
d

‘f
acil
i
tate

m
a
r
k
et

i
n
t
rod
u
cti
o
n

o
f

G
M
O
s

in

E
u
rop
e,

a
n
d

t
h
e
r
e
f
or
e

br
i
n
g

t
h
e

E
u
rop
ean

i
n
d
u
s
t
r
y

i
n

a

c
o
m
p
e
tit
i
v
e

po
s
iti
o
n
.


P
ro
f
e
ss
o
r

K
u
i
p
e
r
,

w
h
o

c
oord
i
n
ated

t
h
e

E
N
T
R
A
N
S
FOOD

pro
j
ect,

s
at

o
n

a

w
or
k
i
ng

g
ro
u
p

t
h
at

a
l
s
o

i
n
c
l
u
d
ed

s
ta
f
f

fro
m

M
o
ns
a
n
t
o
,

B
a
y
er

C
rop
Scie
n
ce,

a
n
d

S
y
n
g
e
n
ta
.


I
n

a
s
ta
t
e
m
e
n
t

r
e
m
i
n
i
s
c
e
n
t

o
f

t
h
e

d
ec
e
p
ti
v
e

po
licy

s
tat
e
m
e
n
t

b
y

t
h
e

F
D
A
,

t
h
e

FOE

r
e
por
t

c
o
n
cl
u
d
es

t
h
at
E
F
S
A

is


b
e
i
n
g

us
ed

to c
r
eate

a
f
al
s
e

i
m
pr
e
ss
i
o
n

o
f

s
ci
e
n
t
i
f
ic
a
g
r
e
e
m
e
n
t

w
h
en

t
h
e

r
eal

s
i
t
u
a
t
i
o
n

is

o
n
e

o
f

i
n
t
e
ns
e

a
n
d

c
o
n
t
i
nu
i
n
g

d
e
b
ate

a
n
d

un
ce
r
t
a
i
n
t
y
.

119


T
h
e

p
r
o
-
GM

E
u
rop
ean

C
o
m
m
i
ss
i
o
n

r
e
p
eats

t
h
e

s
a
m
e

ru
s
e.

A
cc
ord
i
n
g

to lea
k
ed

do
c
u
m
e
n
ts

ob
tai
n
ed

b
y

FO
E
,

w
h
ile

t
h
e
y

pr
i
v
ate
l
y
a
ppr
eciate


t
h
e

u
n
ce
r
ta
i
n
ti
e
s

a
n
d

g
a
p
s

i
n

k
n
o
w
le
d
g
e

t
h
at

e
x
i
s
t

in

r
elati
o
n

to t
h
e

s
a
f
e
t
y

o
f

G
M

c
rop
s,

. .

. t
h
e

C
o
mm
i
s
s
i
o
n

n
o
r
m
al
l
y
k
ee
p
s

t
h
is

un
ce
r
ta
i
n
t
y

c
o
n
cea
l
ed

f
ro
m

t
h
e

p
u
b
lic

w
h
i
l
s
t

pr
e
s
e
n
t
i
n
g

i
t
s

d
eci
s
i
on
s

a
bo
u
t

t
h
e

s
a
f
e
t
y

o
f

GM

c
rop
s

a
n
d

f
ood
s

as

b
ei
ng
ce
r
tain

a
n
d

s
ci
e
n
t
i
f
ical
l
y

b
a
s
e
d.


F
o
r

e
x
a
m
p
le,

t
h
e

C
o
mm
i
s
s
i
o
n

pr
i
v
ate
l
y

c
o
n
d
e
mn
ed

t
h
e

s
u
b
m
i
ss
i
o
n

i
n
f
o
r
m
a
t
i
o
n

f
o
r

o
n
e

c
ro
p

as

m
i
x
e
d
,

s
ca
r
ce,

d
eli
v
e
r
ed

c
o
ns
ec
u
t
i
v
e
l
y

a
l
l

o
v
er
y
ea
r
s
,

a
n
d

no
t

c
o
nv
i
n
c
i
n
g
.


T
h
e
y

s
aid

t
h
e
r
e

is


No

s
uf
f
icie
n
t

e
x
p
e
r
i
m
e
n
t
al

e
v
i
d
e
n
ce
to a
ss
e
s
s

t
h
e

s
a
f
e
t
y
.


120


W
ith

an

a
g
e
n
d
a

to
pro
m
o
te

G
M

f
ood
s
,

r
e
gu
lat
or
s

r
e
g
u
la
r
l
y

v
i
o
late

t
h
e
ir

o
w
n

l
a
w
s
.

I
n

E
u
r
op
e,

t
h
e

l
a
w

r
e
q
u
i
r
es

t
h
at
w
h
e
n

E
F
S
A

a
nd
m
e
m
b
er

s
t
a
tes

h
a
v
e

d
i
ff
e
r
e
n
t

op
i
n
i
o
ns
,

t
h
e
y


a
r
e

ob
li
g
ed

to c
o
-
op
e
r
ate

w
i
t
h

a
v
i
e
w

to ei
t
h
er

r
e
s
o
l
v
i
n
g

t
h
e

d
i
v
e
r
g
e
n
ce

o
r

pr
e
p
a
r
i
n
g

a
j
o
i
n
t

do
c
u
m
e
n
t

cla
r
i
f
y
i
n
g

t
h
e

c
o
n
te
n
ti
o
u
s

s
c
ie
n
t
i
f
ic

i
s
s
u
es

a
n
d

i
d
e
n
t
i
f
y
i
n
g

t
h
e

r
ele
v
a
n
t

u
n
c
e
r
tai
n
ties

i
n

t
h
e

d
ata
.

121

A
cc
or
d
i
n
g

to
FO
E
,

in

t
h
e

ca
s
e

o
f

a
ll

GM

c
r
o
p

r
e
v
i
e
w
s
,

n
o
n
e

o
f

t
h
e
s
e

l
e
g
a
l

ob
li
g
ati
o
n
s

w
e
r
e

f
o
ll
o
w
e
d
.
122

T
h
e

d
ecla
r
ati
o
n

o
f

G
R
A
S

s
tat
u
s

b
y

t
h
e
F
D
A

al
s
o

d
e
v
iated

f
r
o
m

t
h
e

F
oo
d

a
n
d

C
o
s
m
etic

A
ct

a
n
d

y
e
a
r
s

o
f

le
g
al

pr
ece
d
e
n
t.

S
o
m
e

v
i
o
lati
o
n
s

a
r
e

m
or
e

b
lata
n
t.

I
n

I
n
d
ia,

o
n
e
o
ff
ici
a
l

t
a
m
p
e
r
ed

w
ith

t
h
e

r
e
por
t

o
n

B
t

c
o
tt
o
n

to i
n
c
r
ea
s
e

t
h
e

y
ield

f
i
g
u
r
es

to
f
a
v
o
r

Mo
ns
a
n
t
o
.

123

I
n

M
e
x
ic
o
,

a
s
e
n
i
o
r

g
o
v
e
r
n
m
e
nt
o
ff
ici
a
l

alle
g
e
d
l
y

t
h
r
eate
n
ed

a U
n
i
v
e
r
s
i
t
y

o
f

C
al
i
f
or
n
ia

pro
f
e
ss
or
,

i
m
p
l
y
i
n
g


W
e

k
n
o
w

w
h
e
r
e

y
o
u
r

c
h
il
dr
en

g
o to
s
c
h
oo
l
,


t
r
y
i
n
g

to
g
et

h
i
m

n
o
t

to
p
u
b
li
s
h

i
n
c
r
i
m
i
n
at
i
n
g

e
v
i
d
e
n
ce

t
h
at
w
ou
ld

d
el
a
y

GM

a
ppro
v
al
s
.

124

I
n

I
n
do
n
e
s
i
a,

Mo
ns
a
n
to

g
a
v
e

br
i
b
es

a
nd
q
u
e
s
ti
o
n
a
b
le

p
a
ym
e
n
ts

to at

l
e
a
s
t

14
0

o
ff
icial
s
,

att
e
m
p
t
i
n
g

to

g
et

t
h
eir
g
e
n
e
tical
l
y

m
od
i
f
ied

(
G
M
)

c
o
tt
o
n

a
pp
r
o
v
e
d
.
125

17


M
A

N
I

P

U
L

A
T

I
O

N


O
F


P

U
B

L
I

C


O

P

I
N

I

O
N




W
h
en

g
o
v
e
rn
m
e
n
ts

f
ail

i
n

t
h
e
i
r

d
u
t
y

to
k
eep

c
orpor
ati
o
n
s

in

c
h
ec
k
,

t
h
e


pro
tect
or


ro
le

shou
ld

s
h
i
f
t

to
t
h
e

m
e
d
ia,

w
h
i
c
h

acts

as

a
w
at
c
h
do
g

to e
x
po
s
e

p
u
b
lic

d
a
ng
e
r
s

a
n
d

g
o
v
e
rn
m
e
n
tal

s
h
or
tc
o
m
i
n
gs
.

B
u
t
m
a
i
n
s
t
r
e
a
m

m
e
d
ia

a
ro
un
d

t
h
e

w
or
ld

h
as

la
r
g
e
l
y

o
v
e
r
l
oo
k
ed

t
h
e

s
e
r
i
o
u
s

prob
le
m
s

a
ss
o
ciated

w
i
t
h

GM

c
rop
s

a
n
d

t
h
eir

r
e
g
u
lati
o
n
.

T
h
e

r
ea
s
o
n

f
o
r

t
h
i
s

o
v
e
r
s
i
g
h
t

is

v
a
r
ied

a
n
d

i
n
c
l
u
d
es
c
o
n
t
r
i
b
u
ti
on
s

f
r
o
m

a
n

a
gg
r
e
s
s
i
v
e

p
u
b
lic

r
elati
on
s

a
n
d

d
i
s
i
n
f
o
r
m
ati
o
n

c
a
m
p
ai
g
n

b
y

t
h
e

b
i
o
tech

i
n
d
us
t
r
y
,

le
g
al

t
h
r
eats

b
y

b
i
o
tech
c
o
m
p
a
n
ie
s
,

a
n
d

in

s
o
m
e

ca
s
e
s
,

t
h
e

f
ear

o
f

l
o
s
i
n
g

a
d
v
e
r
ti
s
i
n
g

acc
o
un
t
s
.

T
h
is

la
s
t

r
ea
s
o
n

i
s

p
a
r
tic
u
la
r
l
y

pr
e
v
al
e
n
t

a
m
on
g

t
h
e

f
a
r
m
pr
e
ss
,

w
h
i
c
h

r
ecei
v
es

m
u
ch

o
f

its

i
n
c
o
m
e

f
r
o
m

t
h
e

b
i
o
tech

i
nd
us
t
r
y
.


T
h
r
eate
n
i
n
g

lette
r
s

f
r
o
m

Mon
s
a
n
t
o’
s

att
or
n
e
y
s

h
a
v
e

r
e
s
u
lted

in

t
h
e

c
a
n
cella
t
i
o
n

o
f

a

f
i
v
e
-
p
a
r
t

n
e
w
s

s
e
r
i
e
s

o
n

t
h
e
ir

g
e
n
eti
c
al
l
y
e
ng
i
n
ee
r
ed

bo
v
i
n
e

g
r
o
w
t
h

h
or
m
o
n
e

s
c
h
e
du
led

f
o
r

a F
o
x

T
V

s
tati
o
n

i
n

Fl
or
i
da
,

as
w
ell

as

t
h
e

ca
n
cellati
o
n

o
f

a
boo
k

c
r
itical

o
f
Mo
ns
a
n
t
o’
s

G
M
O

prod
u
ct
s
.

A
pr
i
n
ter

al
s
o

sh
r
e
dd
ed

14
,
00
0

c
op
ies

o
f

t
h
e

E
c
o
l
og
i
s
t

m
a
g
az
i
n
e

i
s
su
e

e
n
titled


T
h
e

Mo
ns
a
n
to

File
s
,

d
u
e

to
f
ear

o
f

a
Mo
ns
a
n
to

l
a
w
su
it.

(
See

t
h
e

c
h
a
p
ter


Mu
s
cl
i
n
g

t
h
e

M
e
d
ia”

in

S
ee
d
s

o
f

De
c
e
p
ti
o
n
126

f
o
r

m
or
e

e
x
a
m
p
le
s
.
)


T
h
e

m
e
t
h
od
s

t
h
a
t

b
i
o
tech

a
dvo
cates

us
e

to

m
a
n
i
p
u
late

p
u
b
l
i
c

op
i
n
i
o
n

r
e
s
ea
r
ch

h
a
s

b
ec
o
m
e

an

a
r
t

f
o
r
m
.

C
o
n
s
u
m
er

su
r
v
e
y
s

b
y

t
he
I
n
te
r
n
ati
o
n
al

F
oo
d

I
n
f
o
r
m
a
t
i
o
n

C
ou
n
cil

(I
F
I
C
)
,

f
o
r

e
x
a
m
p
le
,
w
ho
s
e

s
u
ppor
te
r
s

i
n
cl
u
d
e

t
h
e

m
a
j
o
r

b
i
o
tech

s
eed

c
o
m
p
a
n
i
e
s
,

o
ff
e
r
s
c
o
n
cl
u
s
i
on
s

su
c
h

as “A

g
r
o
w
i
n
g

m
a
j
or
i
t
y

o
f

A
m
e
r
ica
n
s

s
u
ppor
t

t
h
e

b
e
n
e
f
i
t
s

o
f

f
oo
d

b
i
o
tec
hn
o
l
og
y

as
w
e
ll

as

t
h
e

US

F
o
o
d

a
n
d

D
r
ug
A
d
m
i
n
i
s
t
r
ati
o
n

s

(
F
D
A
)

la
b
el
i
n
g

po
li
c
y
.


B
u
t

c
o
mm
u
n
icati
o
n
s

pro
f
e
s
s
o
r

J
a
m
e
s

B
e
n
i
g
e
r
,

w
h
o

w
a
s

p
a
s
t

pr
e
s
i
d
e
n
t

o
f

t
h
e

A
m
e
r
ican
A
ss
o
ciati
o
n

f
o
r

P
u
b
lic

O
p
i
n
i
o
n

R
e
s
ea
r
c
h
,

d
e
s
c
r
i
b
ed

t
h
e

su
r
v
e
y
s

as “
s
o

b
ia
s
ed

w
i
t
h

lea
d
i
n
g

q
u
e
s
ti
on
s

f
a
v
or
i
n
g

po
s
it
i
v
e

r
e
s
po
ns
es

t
h
at

a
n
y

r
e
s
u
l
t
s

a
r
e

m
ea
n
i
n
g
l
e
ss
.

12
7

T
h
e

2
0
0
3

su
r
v
e
y
,

f
o
r

e
x
a
m
p
le,

i
n
c
l
u
d
ed

g
e
m
s

s
u
c
h

a
s
:



A
ll

t
h
i
n
g
s

b
ei
n
g

e
q
u
al,

h
o
w

l
i
k
e
l
y

w
o
u
ld

y
o
u

b
e

to
bu
y

a
v
a
r
ie
t
y

o
f

prod
u
ce,

li
k
e

t
o
m
at
o
es

o
r

po
tat
o
e
s
,

if

it

h
ad

b
een

m
od
i
f
ied

by
b
i
o
tec
hn
o
l
og
y

to ta
s
te

b
etter

o
r

f
r
e
sh
e
r
?


a
n
d



B
i
o
tec
h
n
o
l
og
y

h
a
s

al
s
o

b
een

us
ed

to e
n
h
a
n
ce

p
l
a
n
ts

t
h
at
y
i
e
ld

f
ood
s

li
k
e

c
oo
k
i
n
g

o
il
s
.

I
f

c
oo
k
i
n
g

o
il

w
i
th

r
e
d
u
ced

s
a
t
u
r
a
ted

f
at
m
a
d
e

f
r
o
m

t
h
e
s
e

n
e
w

p
la
n
ts

was

a
v
aila
b
le,

w
h
at

e
f
f
ect

w
o
u
l
d

t
h
e

us
e

o
f

b
i
o
tec
hn
o
l
og
y

h
a
v
e

o
n
y
o
u
r

d
eci
s
i
o
n

to
bu
y

t
h
i
s

c
oo
k
i
ng
o
il
?

12
8


A

si
m
ilar

tactic

w
as

us
ed

at

a Dec
e
m
b
er

11
,

2
0
0
7

f
o
c
u
s

g
ro
u
p

in

C
o
l
u
m
b
u
s
,

O
h
io

d
e
s
i
g
n
e
d


to
sh
o
w

t
h
at

c
on
s
u
m
e
r
s

wa
n
ted

to
m
a
k
e

i
t

ill
e
g
al

f
o
r

d
ai
r
ies

to la
b
el

t
h
eir
m
i
l
k

as
f
r
ee

f
r
o
m

M
o
ns
a
n
t
o’
s

g
e
n
etica
ll
y

e
n
g
i
n
ee
r
e
d

bo
v
i
n
e

h
o
r
m
o
n
e

r
B
S
T
.

T
h
e

f
acilitat
o
r
s
ai
d
,


A
ll
m
i
l
k

c
o
n
t
a
i
n
s

h
o
r
m
o
n
e
s
.

T
h
e
r
e

is

n
o
su
c
h

t
h
i
n
g

a
s

h
o
r
m
o
n
e
-
f
r
ee

m
il
k
.

T
h
e

c
o
m
po
s
iti
o
n

o
f

bo
th

t
y
p
e
s

o
f

m
ilk

is

t
h
e

s
a
m
e
in

all

a
s
p
ect
s
.

N
o
w

w
h
at

d
o

y
o
u

t
h
i
n
k

o
f

a la
b
el

t
h
at

s
a
y
s

‘n
o

a
dd
e
d

h
or
m
o
n
e
s
?


D
on

t

y
o
u

t
h
i
n
k

it

is

d
ece
i
v
i
n
g

a
n
d

i
n
a
ppr
o
pr
iate

to
p
u
t


r
B
S
T
-
f
r
e
e


o
n

la
b
el
s
?


N
o
t

o
n
l
y

w
as

t
h
e

f
acilitat
o
r

“le
a
d
i
n
g

t
h
e

w
i
t
n
e
s
s
,


h
e

pr
e
s
e
n
t
e
d

f
al
s
e

i
n
f
o
r
m
a
ti
o
n
.

M
i
l
k

f
r
o
m

c
o
w
s
t
r
eat ed

w
i
t
h

r
B
ST

h
as

su
b
s
t
a
n
t
ial
l
y

h
i
g
h
er

l
e
v
els

o
f

I
n
s
u
l
i
n
-
l
i
k
e

G
r
o
w
t
h

Fact
o
r
-
1
,
129

w
h
i
c
h

h
a
s

b
een

li
n
k
ed

to
h
i
gh
er

r
i
s
k

o
f
ca
n
ce
r
,
130

a
n
d

h
i
g
h
er

i
n
ci
d
e
n
ce

o
f

f
r
ate
r
n
al

t
w
i
ns
.

131

I
t

al
s
o

h
as

h
i
gh
er

l
e
v
els

o
f

bo
v
i
n
e

g
r
o
w
t
h

hor
m
o
n
e,

p
us
,

a
n
d

i
n

s
o
m
e

c
a
s
e
s,
a
n
ti
b
i
o
tic
s
.


A
n
o
t
h
er

e
x
a
m
p
le

o
f

m
a
n
i
p
u
l
a
t
ed

c
o
ns
u
m
er

op
i
n
i
o
n

w
as

f
oun
d

in

a
200
4

a
r
ticle

in

t
h
e

B
r
i
t
i
s
h

Fo
o
d

J
ou
rn
a
l
,

a
u
t
h
or
ed

b
y

fo
u
r
a
d
v
o
cates

o
f

g
e
n
etica
ll
y

m
od
i
f
ied

(
G
M
)

f
ood
s
.
132

A
cc
ord
i
n
g

t
o t
h
e

p
ee
r
-
r
e
v
i
e
w
ed

p
a
p
e
r
,

w
h
en

s
h
opp
e
r
s

in

a
C
a
n
a
d
i
a
n

f
a
r
m

s
t
or
e
w
e
r
e

c
on
f
ro
n
ted

w
i
t
h

an

i
n
f
or
m
ed

a
n
d

u
n
b
ia
s
ed

c
h
o
ice

b
e
t
ween

GM

c
or
n

a
n
d

n
o
n
-
GM

c
or
n
,

m
o
s
t

p
u
r
c
h
a
s
ed

t
h
e

GM

v
a
r
ie
t
y
.

T
h
is
f
i
n
d
i
n
g

f
l
e
w

in

t
h
e

f
ace

o
f

w
o
r
l
d
w
i
d
e

c
o
n
s
u
m
er

r
e
s
i
s
t
a
n
ce

to

GM

f
ood
s
,

w
h
ich

h
ad

s
hu
t
m
a
r
k
ets

i
n

E
u
rop
e,

J
a
p
a
n
,

a
n
d

el
s
e
w
h
e
r
e.

I
t
al
s
o

c
h
all
e
ng
ed

s
t
u
d
ies

t
h
at

s
h
o
w
ed

t
h
at

t
h
e

m
or
e

i
n
f
o
r
m
ati
o
n

o
n

g
e
n
etica
ll
y

m
od
i
f
ied

or
g
a
n
i
s
m
s

(
G
M
O
s
)

c
o
n
s
u
m
e
r
s

h
a
v
e,

t
h
e

le
s
s
t
h
e
y

t
r
us
t

t
h
e
m
.

133

T
h
e

s
t
u
d
y
,

w
h
ich

w
as

f
un
d
ed

b
y

t
h
e

b
i
o
tec
h
-
i
n
d
u
s
t
r
y

f
ro
n
t

g
ro
u
p
,

C
o
un
c
i
l

f
o
r

B
i
o
tec
hn
o
l
og
y

I
n
f
o
r
m
ati
o
n

a
n
d

t
h
e
i
n
du
s
t
r
y

s

t
r
a
d
e

a
ss
o
cia
t
i
o
n
,

t
h
e

C
ro
p

P
ro
tecti
o
n

I
ns
ti
t
u
te

o
f

C
a
n
a
d
a

(
n
o
w

C
rop
l
i
f
e

C
a
n
a
d
a
)
,

w
as

g
i
v
e
n

t
h
e

J
o
u
r
n
a
l

s

pr
e
s
ti
g
i
ous
A
w
a
r
d

f
o
r

E
x
cell
e
n
ce

f
o
r

t
h
e

M
o
s
t

O
u
t
s
ta
n
d
i
n
g

P
a
p
er

o
f

2
0
0
4

a
n
d

h
as

b
een

cited

o
f
ten

b
y
b
i
o
tech

a
d
v
o
cate
s
.


St
u
a
r
t

L
ai
d
l
a
w
,

a
r
e
por
ter

f
r
o
m

C
a
n
a
d
a

s

T
o
r
on
to

S
t
a
r
,

v
i
s
i
ted

t
h
e

f
a
r
m

s
t
or
e

s
e
v
e
r
al

t
i
m
e
s

d
u
r
i
n
g

t
h
e

s
t
u
d
y

a
n
d

d
e
s
c
r
i
b
ed

t
h
e
s
ce
n
a
r
io

in
h
is

boo
k

S
ec
r
et

Ing
r
e
d
ie
n
t
s
.

Far

f
r
o
m

of
f
e
r
i
n
g

u
n
b
ia
s
ed

c
h
o
ice
s
,

k
e
y

el
e
m
e
n
ts

a
pp
ea
r
ed

r
i
gg
ed

to
f
a
v
o
r

GM c
or
n
p
u
r
c
h
a
s
e
s
.

T
h
e

c
o
ns
u
m
er

e
d
u
c
ati
o
n

f
act
sh
ee
t
s

w
e
r
e

e
n
ti
r
e
l
y

pro
-
G
M
O,

a
n
d

D
o
u
g

P
o
w
e
ll,

t
h
e

lead

r
e
s
ea
r
c
h
e
r
,

e
n
t
h
u
s
ia
s
ti
cal
l
y
d
e
m
o
ns
t
r
ated

to
L
a
i
d
l
a
w

h
o
w

h
e

c
o
u
ld

c
o
n
v
i
n
ce

sh
opp
e
r
s

to
bu
y

t
h
e

GM

v
a
r
ieti
e
s
.

He

c
on
f
ro
n
ted

a
f
a
r
m
er

w
h
o

h
ad

al
r
e
a
d
y

18


p
u
r
c
h
a
s
ed

n
o
n
-
GM

c
or
n
.

A
f
t
e
r

p
itc
h
i
n
g

h
i
s

ca
s
e
f
o
r

G
M
O
s
,

P
o
w
e
l
l

pro
u
d
l
y

h
ad

t
h
e

f
a
r
m
er

tell

L
ai
d
l
a
w

t
h
at

h
e

h
ad

c
h
a
n
g
ed

h
is
op
i
n
i
o
n

a
n
d

w
o
u
ld

bu
y

GM

c
or
n

in

h
i
s

n
e
x
t

s
h
opp
i
n
g

t
r
i
p.


P
o
w
e
l
l

s

i
n
te
r
f
e
r
e
n
ce

w
i
th

sh
o
pp
e
r
s



un
b
i
a
s
e
d


c
h
o
ices

w
a
s

n
o
t
h
i
n
g

c
o
m
p
a
r
ed

to t
h
e

e
f
f
e
c
t

o
f

t
h
e

s
i
g
n
s

p
laced

o
v
er

t
h
e

c
or
n

b
i
ns
.
T
h
e

s
i
g
n

a
bo
v
e

t
h
e

n
o
n
-
GM

c
or
n

r
ea
d
,


W
o
u
ld

y
o
u

eat

w
o
r
m
y

s
w
eet

c
or
n
?


I
t

f
u
r
t
h
er

li
s
t
ed

t
h
e

c
h
e
m
icals

t
h
at
w
e
r
e

s
p
ra
y
ed

d
u
r
i
n
g
t
h
e

s
ea
s
o
n
.

B
y

c
o
n
t
r
a
s
t,

t
h
e

s
i
g
n

a
bo
v
e

t
h
e

GM

c
or
n

s
tate
d
,


He
r
e

s

W
h
at

W
e
n
t

i
n
to

P
r
odu
ci
n
g

Q
u
ali
t
y

S
w
eet

C
or
n
.


I
t

is

n
o

w
o
n
d
er

t
h
at

60
%

o
f

s
h
opp
e
r
s

a
v
o
i
d
ed

t
h
e


w
o
r
m
y

c
or
n
.


I
n
f
act,

it

m
a
y

b
e

a te
s
t
a
m
e
n
t

to
p
e
op
le

s

d
i
s
t
ru
s
t

o
f

GM
O
s

t
h
at
40
%

s
till
w
e
n
t

f
o
r

t
h
e


w
o
r
m
y


op
ti
o
n
.


Po
w
ell

an
d

h
is

c
o
lle
a
g
u
es

d
id

no
t

me
n
ti
o
n

t
h
e

c
on
t
r
o
ve
rs
i
a
l

s
i
gnag
e

in t
h
eir

s
t
ud
y.

T
h
ey

c
l
a
i
m
ed

t
h
at

t
h
e

c
or
n

b
i
n
s

in

t
h
e

f
a
r
m

s
t
or
e
w
e
r
e


f
u
l
l
y

la
b
elle
d


ei
t
h
er


g
e
n
e
t
ical
l
y

e
n
g
i
n
ee
r
ed

B
t

s
w
eet

c
or
n


o
r


R
e
g
u
lar

s
w
e
e
t

c
or
n
.


W
h
en

L
a
i
d
l
a
w

s

boo
k

c
a
m
e

o
u
t,
h
o
w
e
v
e
r
,

P
o
w
el
l

s


w
o
r
my


s
i
g
n

w
as

f
eat
u
r
ed

in

a
p
h
o
t
o
g
r
a
p
h
,
134

e
x
po
s
i
n
g

w
h
at

w
as

l
a
ter

d
e
s
c
r
i
b
ed

b
y

C
a
m
br
i
d
g
e

U
n
i
v
e
r
s
i
t
y

s

D
r
.

R
ic
h
a
r
d

J
e
nn
i
n
g
s

as “
f
l
a
g
r
a
n
t

f
r
a
u
d.


J
e
nn
i
n
g
s
,

w
h
o

is

a

lea
d
i
n
g

r
e
s
ea
r
c
h
er

o
n

s
ci
e
n
t
i
f
i
c

et
h
ic
s
,

s
a
ys
,


I
t

w
as

a

s
in

o
f

o
m
i
s
s
i
o
n
b
y

f
ail
i
n
g

to
d
i
v
u
l
g
e

i
n
f
o
r
m
at
i
o
n

w
h
i
c
h

q
u
ite

clea
r
l
y

s
h
o
u
ld

h
a
v
e

b
een

d
i
s
cl
o
s
e
d.

135


I
n

h
i
s

d
e
f
e
n
ce,

P
o
w
e
l
l

cla
i
m
e
d

t
h
at

h
i
s

s
i
g
n
s

m
e
r
e
l
y

u
s
ed

t
h
e

la
n
g
u
a
g
e

o
f

c
o
n
s
u
m
e
r
s

a
n
d

w
a
s


n
o
t

i
n
te
n
d
ed

to

m
a
n
i
p
u
l
a
te

c
o
ns
u
m
er
p
u
r
c
h
a
s
i
n
g

p
atte
r
ns
.


He

a
l
s
o

cla
i
m
ed

t
h
a
t

t
h
e


w
o
r
my


c
or
n

s
i
g
n

w
a
s

o
n
l
y

t
h
e
r
e

f
o
r

t
h
e

f
i
r
s
t
w
e
e
k

o
f

t
h
e

t
r
ial

a
n
d

w
a
s

t
h
en

r
e
p
laced
b
y

o
t
h
er

e
d
u
cati
o
n
al

m
e
s
s
a
g
e
s
.

B
u
t

e
y
e
w
i
t
n
e
ss
e
s

a
n
d

p
h
o
t
o
g
r
a
p
h
s

d
e
m
o
ns
t
r
ate

t
h
e

pr
e
s
e
n
ce

o
f

t
h
e

s
i
g
n

l
on
g

a
f
ter

P
o
w
e
l
l

s
s
u
gg
e
s
t ed

d
ate

o
f

r
e
p
lac
e
m
e
n
t
.
136


Se
v
e
r
al

s
ci
e
n
t
i
s
ts

a
n
d

o
u
t
r
a
g
e
d

citize
n
s

s
a
y

t
h
e

p
a
p
er

sh
o
u
ld

b
e

w
it
h
dr
a
w
n
,

b
u
t

t
h
e

J
o
u
r
n
al

r
e
f
us
e
d
.

I
n
f
act,

t
h
e

J
o
u
r
n
a
l

s

e
d
it
o
r

h
as
n
o
t

e
v
e
n

a
g
r
eed

to
r
ec
o
ns
i
d
er

its A
w
a
r
d

f
o
r

E
x
cell
e
n
ce.

A

b
lata
n
t

prop
a
g
a
n
d
a

e
x
e
r
ci
s
e

s
till
s
ta
n
d
s

v
ali
d
ated

as

e
x
e
m
p
la
r
y

s
cie
n
ce.



C
R
I

T
I

C
S


A

N

D


I
N

D
E

P
E

N
D

E
N

T


S
C

I

E
N

T
I

S
T

S


A
R

E


A
T

T
A

C
K

E
D




O
n
e

o
f

t
h
e

m
o
s
t

t
ro
u
b
li
n
g

a
s
p
ects

o
f

t
h
e

b
i
o
te
c
h

d
e
b
ate

is

t
h
e

attack

s
t
r
at
e
g
y

us
ed

o
n

G
M
O

c
r
itics

a
n
d

i
n
d
e
p
e
n
d
e
n
t

s
ci
e
n
ti
s
t
s
.

N
o
t
o
n
l
y

a
r
e

a
d
v
e
r
s
e

f
i
n
d
i
n
g
s

b
y

i
n
d
e
p
e
n
d
e
n
t

s
c
ie
n
t
i
s
t
s

o
f
t
e
n

s
uppr
e
ss
e
d
,

i
gn
or
e
d
,

o
r

d
e
n
ie
d
,

r
e
s
ea
r
c
h
e
r
s

t
h
at

d
i
s
c
o
v
er

prob
l
e
m
s

f
r
o
m
GM

f
ood
s

h
a
v
e

b
e
e
n

f
i
r
e
d
,

s
t
r
i
pp
ed

o
f

r
e
s
po
ns
i
b
ilitie
s
,

d
e
pr
i
v
ed

o
f

te
n
u
r
e,

a
n
d

e
v
e
n

t
h
r
ea
t
e
n
e
d
.

C
o
n
s
i
d
er

D
r
.

P
us
ztai,

t
h
e

w
or
l
d

s
lea
d
i
n
g

s
cie
n
ti
s
t

i
n

h
is
f
iel
d
,

w
h
o

i
n
a
d
v
e
r
t
e
n
t
l
y

d
i
s
c
o
v
e
r
ed

in
199
8

t
h
at

un
pr
e
d
icta
b
le

c
h
a
n
g
es

i
n

GM

c
rop
s

ca
us
ed

m
a
ss
i
v
e

d
a
m
a
g
e
in

r
at
s
.

He

w
e
n
t

p
u
b
lic

w
i
t
h

h
i
s

c
o
n
ce
r
ns
,

w
a
s

a
h
e
r
o

at

h
i
s

pr
e
s
ti
g
i
o
u
s

i
ns
t
i
t
u
te

f
o
r

t
w
o

d
a
ys
,

a
n
d

t
h
e
n
,

a
f
ter

t
h
e

d
i
r
ect
o
r

r
ecei
v
ed
t
w
o

p
h
o
n
e

calls

all
e
g
e
d
l
y

f
ro
m

t
h
e

U
K

P
r
i
m
e

M
i
n
i
s
te
r

s

of
f
ice,

w
as

f
i
r
ed

a
f
ter

3
5
y
ea
r
s

a
n
d

s
il
e
n
ced

w
i
th

t
h
r
eats

o
f

a l
a
w
s
u
i
t.

Fal
s
e
s
tat
e
m
e
n
t
s

w
e
r
e

ci
r
c
u
lated

to
t
r
a
s
h

h
is

r
e
p
u
tati
o
n
,

w
h
i
c
h

a
r
e

r
ecited

b
y

GMO

a
d
v
o
cat
e
s

t
od
a
y
.


A
f
ter

U
n
i
v
e
r
s
i
t
y

o
f

C
al
i
f
or
n
ia

P
ro
f
e
ss
o
r

I
gn
acio

C
h
a
p
ela,

P
h
D,

p
u
b
li
sh
ed

e
v
i
d
e
n
ce

t
h
at

G
M

c
or
n

c
o
n
t
a
m
i
n
ated

M
e
x
i c
o ’
s
i
n
d
i
g
e
n
ou
s

v
a
r
ieti
e
s
,

t
w
o

f
ic
t
i
t
i
o
u
s

i
n
te
r
n
et

c
h
a
r
acte
r
s

c
r
eat
e
d

b
y

Mon
s
a
n
t
o

s

P
R
f
i
r
m
,

t
h
e

B
i
v
i
n
g
s

G
ro
u
p
,

i
n
itiated

a
br
u
t
al

i
n
te
r
n
e
t
s
m
ear

c
a
m
p
a
i
g
n
,

l
y
i
n
g

a
bo
u
t

D
r
.

Ch
a
p
ela

a
n
d

h
i
s

r
e
s
ea
r
c
h
.


Ir
i
n
a

E
r
m
a
k
o
v
a,

P
h
D,

a lea
d
i
n
g

s
ci
e
n
ti
s
t

at

t
h
e

R
u
ss
i
a
n

Nat
i
o
n
al

A
ca
d
e
m
y

o
f

Sci
e
n
ce
s
,

f
e
d

f
e
m
ale

r
ats

GM
s
o
y

a
n
d

w
a
s

s
t
u
nn
ed

to
d
i
s
c
o
v
er

t
h
at
m
or
e

t
h
a
n

h
a
l
f

t
h
eir

o
ff
s
pr
i
n
g

d
ied

w
i
t
h
in

t
h
r
ee

w
e
e
k
s

c
o
m
p
a
r
ed

to
o
n
l
y

10
%

f
r
o
m

m
o
t
h
e
r
s

f
ed

n
o
n
-
GM

s
o
y.
W
it
h
o
u
t

f
u
n
d
i
n
g

to e
x
te
n
d

h
er

a
n
a
l
ys
i
s
,

s
h
e

la
b
eled

h
er

w
o
r
k


pr
el
i
m
i
n
a
r
y
,


p
u
b
li
s
h
ed

it

in a
R
u
ss
i
a
n

j
o
u
r
n
al,

a
n
d

i
m
p
l
or
e
d

t
h
e
s
cie
n
t
i
f
ic

c
o
m
m
u
n
i
t
y

to
r
e
p
eat

t
h
e

s
t
u
d
y
.

T
w
o
y
ea
r
s

late
r
,

n
o

o
n
e

h
as

r
e
p
eated

it,

b
u
t

a
d
v
o
cates

u
s
e

f
a
l
s
e

o
r

i
rr
ele
v
a
n
t

a
rgu
m
e
n
t
s

to
d
i
v
e
r
t

atte
n
ti
o
n

f
r
o
m

t
h
e

sh
o
c
k
i
n
g

r
e
s
u
l
t
s

a
n
d

h
a
v
e

t
r
ied

to
v
il
i
f
y

D
r
.

Er
m
a
k
o
v
a.


A

N
e
w

Z
eal
a
n
d

M
P

te
s
ti
f
ied

at

t
h
e

200
1

R
o
y
al

C
o
mm
i
ss
i
o
n

o
f

I
n
q
u
i
r
y

o
n

Ge
n
e
tic

Mod
i
f
i
c
ati
o
n
,


I

h
a
v
e

b
een

c
o
n
tacted

b
y
tele
p
h
o
n
e

a
n
d

e
-
m
ail

b
y

a
nu
m
b
er

o
f

s
ci
e
n
ti
s
t
s

w
h
o

h
a
v
e

s
e
r
i
o
u
s

c
o
n
ce
rn
s

. . .
b
u
t
w
h
o

a
r
e

c
o
nv
i
n
ced

t
h
at

i
f

t
h
e
y

e
x
pr
e
s
s

t
h
e
s
e

f
ea
r
s
p
u
b
lic
l
y
.

. .
o
r

e
v
en

if

t
h
e
y

a
s
k
ed

t
h
e

a
w
k
w
a
r
d

a
n
d

d
i
f
f
ic
u
lt

q
u
e
s
ti
on
s
,

t
h
e
y

w
ill

b
e

ea
s
ed

o
u
t

o
f

t
h
eir

i
n
s
ti
t
u
ti
o
n
.


I
n
d
eed

in

2007
,
a
f
ter

P
ro
f
e
ss
o
r

Ch
r
i
s
ti
a
n

Vel
o
t
,

P
h
D,

r
ai
s
ed

t
h
e

d
i
f
f
ic
u
lt

q
u
e
s
ti
o
n
s

o
n

G
M
Os

at

p
u
b
lic

c
onf
e
r
e
n
ce
s
,

h
i
s

200
8

r
e
s
ea
r
ch

f
und
s

w
e
r
e
c
o
n
f
i
s
cate
d
,

h
is
s
t
u
d
e
n
t

a
s
s
i
s
t
a
n
ts

w
e
r
e

r
e
-
a
ss
i
g
n
e
d
,

a
n
d

h
is

p
o
s
iti
o
n

at

t
h
e

U
n
i
v
e
r
s
it
y

o
f

P
a
r
is
-
S
u
d

f
ac
e
s

ea
r
l
y

te
r
m
i
n
ati
o
n
.

19


W

E



R
E


T
H

E


G
U

I

N
E

A


P
I

G
S




Si
n
ce

GM
f
ood
s

a
r
e

n
o
t

prop
e
r
l
y

te
s
ted

b
e
f
or
e

t
h
e
y

e
n
ter

t
h
e

m
a
r
k
et,

c
on
s
u
m
e
r
s

a
r
e

t
h
e

g
u
i
n
ea

p
i
gs
.

B
u
t

t
h
i
s

do
e
s
n

t

e
v
e
n

q
u
ali
f
y

as
an

e
x
p
e
r
i
m
e
n
t.

T
h
e
r
e

a
r
e

n
o c
o
n
t
ro
ls

a
n
d

n
o

m
o
n
it
or
i
n
g
.

G
i
v
en

t
h
e

m
o
u
n
t
i
n
g

o
f

e
v
i
d
e
n
ce

o
f

h
a
r
m
,

it

i
s

l
i
k
e
l
y

t
h
at

GM
food
s

a
r
e
c
o
n
t
r
i
b
u
t
i
n
g

to
t
h
e

d
ete
r
i
or
ati
o
n

o
f

h
e
a
lth

i
n

t
h
e

U
n
ited

Stat
e
s
,

C
a
n
a
d
a,

a
n
d

o
t
h
er

c
ou
n
t
r
ies

w
h
e
r
e

it

is

c
on
s
u
m
e
d
.

B
u
t
w
i
t
h
o
u
t

po
s
t
-

m
a
r
k
e
t
i
n
g

s
u
r
v
e
i
lla
n
ce,

t
h
e

c
h
a
n
ces

o
f

t
r
ac
i
n
g

h
eal
t
h

prob
le
m
s

to GM
f
oo
d

a
r
e

l
o
w
.

T
h
e

i
n
ci
d
e
n
ce

o
f

a
d
i
s
e
a
s
e

w
o
u
ld

h
a
v
e

to
i
n
c
r
ea
s
e

dr
a
m
atica
ll
y

b
e
f
or
e

it

w
as

n
o
tice
d
,

m
e
a
n
i
n
g

t
h
at
m
i
l
li
o
n
s

m
a
y

h
a
v
e

to
g
et

s
i
c
k

b
e
for
e

a c
h
a
ng
e

is

i
n
v
e
s
t
i
g
ate
d
.

T
r
ac
k
i
n
g

t
h
e
i
m
p
act

o
f

GM
f
ood
s

is

e
v
e
n

m
or
e

d
i
ff
ic
u
lt

in

N
or
t
h

A
m
e
r
ic
a
,

w
h
e
r
e

t
h
e

f
ood
s

a
r
e

n
o
t

la
b
e
l
e
d
.


R
e
g
u
lat
or
s

at

Heal
t
h

C
a
n
a
d
a

a
nn
o
un
ced

i
n

200
2

t
h
at

t
h
e
y

w
o
u
ld

m
o
n
it
o
r

C
a
n
a
d
ia
n
s

f
o
r

h
e
alth

prob
l
e
m
s

f
r
o
m

eat
i
n
g

GM
f
ood
s
.

A
s
po
k
e
s
p
e
r
s
o
n

s
ai
d
,


I

t
h
i
n
k

i
t

s

j
us
t

pr
u
d
e
n
t

a
n
d

w
h
at

t
h
e

pub
lic

e
x
p
ect
s
,

t
h
at
w
e

w
i
ll

k
eep a ca
r
e
f
u
l

e
y
e

o
n

t
h
e

h
eal
t
h

o
f

C
a
n
a
d
i
a
ns
.

B
u
t

acc
ord
i
n
g

to
C
B
C

T
V

n
e
w
s
,

He
a
lth

C
a
n
a
d
a


a
b
a
n
do
n
e
d

t
h
at

r
e
s
ea
r
ch

le
s
s

t
h
a
n

a

y
ear

later

s
a
y
i
n
g

it

w
a
s


t
o
o

d
i
ff
i
c
u
lt

to
p
u
t

an
e
ff
e
c
ti
v
e

su
r
v
eill
a
n
ce

s
ys
t
e
m

i
n

p
lace
.



T
h
e

n
e
w
s

a
n
c
h
o
r

a
d
d
e
d
,


So

at

t
h
is

po
i
n
t,

t
h
e
r
e

is

little

r
e
s
ea
r
ch

i
n
to

t
h
e

h
eal
t
h

e
f
f
ects

o
f
g
e
n
e
t
ical
l
y

m
od
i
f
ied

f
ood
.

So

w
i
l
l
w
e

e
v
er

k
n
o
w

f
o
r

su
r
e

if

i
t

s

s
a
f
e
?


137


N
o
t
w
i
t
h

t
h
e

b
i
o
tech

c
o
m
p
a
n
i
es

in

c
h
a
r
g
e.

C
o
ns
i
d
er

t
h
e

f
o
l
l
o
w
i
n
g

s
tat
e
m
e
n
t

in

a
r
e
por
t

s
ub
m
itted

to c
o
un
t
y

of
f
icia
l
s

in
C
al
i
f
or
n
ia
b
y

pro
-
GM

m
e
m
b
e
r
s

o
f

a ta
s
k

f
or
ce.


[I
t

i
s
]

g
e
n
e
r
al
l
y

a
g
r
e
e
d

t
h
at

l
o
n
g
-
te
r
m

m
o
n
it
or
i
n
g

o
f

t
h
e

hu
m
an

h
eal
t
h

r
i
s
k
s

o
f

GM
f
oo
d
t
h
rou
g
h

e
p
i
d
e
m
i
o
l
o
g
ical

s
t
u
d
i
es

is

n
o
t
n
ece
s
s
a
r
y

b
eca
u
s
e

t
h
e
r
e

is

n
o
s
cie
n
ti
f
ic

e
v
i
d
e
n
ce

s
u
gg
e
s
t
i
n
g

a
n
y

l
on
g
-
te
r
m

h
a
r
m

fro
m

t
h
e
s
e
f
ood
s
.

138

N
o
te

t
h
e

ci
r
c
u
lar

l
og
i
c
:

B
eca
us
e

n
o l
ong
-
te
r
m

e
p
i
d
e
m
i
o
l
o
g
ical

s
t
u
d
ies

a
r
e

in

p
lac
e
,

w
e

h
a
v
e

n
o e
v
i
d
e
n
ce

s
h
o
w
i
n
g

l
on
g
-

te
r
m

h
a
r
m
.

A
n
d

s
i
n
ce

w
e

don’
t

h
a
v
e

a
n
y

e
v
i
d
e
n
ce

o
f

l
on
g
-
t
er
m

h
a
r
m
,

w
e

don

t

n
eed

s
t
u
d
i
e
s

to l
oo
k

f
o
r

it.


W
h
at

a
r
e

t
h
e
s
e

p
e
op
le

t
h
i
nk
i
n
g
?

I
ns
i
g
h
t

i
n
to

t
h
e

pro
-
GM

m
i
n
d
s
et

w
as

pro
v
i
d
ed

b
y

Dan

G
l
ic
k
m
a
n
,

t
h
e

US

Sec
r
eta
r
y

o
f

A
g
r
ic
u
l
t
u
r
e
un
d
er

P
r
e
s
i
d
e
n
t

C
l
i
n
t
o
n.



W
h
at

I
s
a
w

g
e
n
e
r
ica
ll
y

o
n

t
h
e

pro
-
b
i
o
tech

s
i
d
e
w
as

t
h
e

att
it
u
d
e

t
h
at

t
h
e

tec
h
n
o
l
og
y

w
as

good
,

a
n
d

t
h
at

it

w
as

a
l
m
o
s
t

i
m
m
or
al

to
s
a
y

t
h
at

it

w
a
s
n

t

g
ood
,

b
eca
us
e

it

w
a
s

g
o
i
n
g

to
s
o
l
v
e

t
h
e

prob
l
e
m
s

o
f

t
h
e

hu
m
a
n

r
ace

a
n
d

f
eed

t
h
e

h
un
g
r
y

a
n
d

cl
o
t
h
e

t
h
e

n
a
k
e
d
.

. . . A
n
d

t
h
e
r
e

w
as

a l
o
t

o
f

m
o
n
e
y

t
h
at

h
ad

b
een

i
n
v
e
s
ted

i
n

t
h
i
s
,

a
n
d

if
y
o
u

r
e

a
g
a
i
ns
t

it,

y
o
u

r
e

L
u
dd
ite
s
,

y
o
u

r
e

s
t
u
p
i
d
.

T
h
at,

f
r
a
n
k
l
y
,
w
a
s

t
h
e

s
i
d
e

o
u
r

g
o
v
e
r
n
m
e
n
t

w
a
s

o
n
.

W
it
h
ou
t

t
h
i
n
k
i
ng
,

w
e

h
ad

b
a
s
ical
l
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t
a
k
e
n

t
h
i
s

i
s
su
e

as

a t
r
a
d
e

i
ssu
e

a
n
d

t
h
e
y
,

w
h
o
e
v
er


t
h
e
y’
w
e
r
e,

w
a
n
ted

to
k
eep

o
u
r

pro
du
ct

o
u
t

o
f

t
h
eir
m
a
r
k
et.

A
n
d

t
h
e
y

w
e
r
e

f
oo
li
s
h
,

o
r

s
t
u
p
i
d
,

a
n
d

d
i
d
n

t

h
a
v
e

a
n

e
f
f
ect
i
v
e

r
e
g
u
l
at
or
y
s
ys
t
e
m
.

T
h
e
r
e

w
a
s

r
h
et
or
ic

l
i
k
e

t
h
at

e
v
e
n

h
e
r
e

i
n

t
h
is

d
e
p
a
r
t
m
e
n
t.

Y
o
u

f
e
lt

l
i
k
e
y
o
u

w
e
r
e

a
l
m
o
s
t

a
n

ali
e
n
,

d
i
s
l
o
y
al,

b
y

t
r
y
i
n
g

to
pr
e
s
e
n
t

an

op
e
n
-
m
i
n
d
ed

v
i
e
w

o
n

s
o
m
e

o
f

t
h
e

i
ss
u
es

b
ei
n
g

r
a
i
s
e
d
.

So I
pr
etty

mu
c
h

s
po
u
ted

t
h
e

r
h
et
or
ic

t
h
at

e
v
e
r
y
bo
d
y

e
l
s
e

a
ro
un
d
h
e
r
e

s
po
u
te
d
;

it

w
as

w
r
itt
e
n

i
n
to

m
y

s
p
ee
c
h
e
s
.


139


F
or
t
un
at
e
l
y
,

n
o
t

e
v
e
r
y
o
n
e

f
ee
l
s

t
h
at

q
u
e
s
ti
on
i
n
g

GM
f
ood
s

is

d
i
s
l
o
y
al.

O
n

t
h
e

c
o
n
t
r
a
r
y
,

m
i
lli
o
n
s

o
f

p
e
op
le

a
ro
un
d

t
h
e

w
o
r
ld

a
r
e
u
n
w
ill
i
n
g

to
p
a
r
tici
p
ate

in

t
h
i
s

un
c
o
n
t
ro
lled

e
x
p
e
r
i
m
e
n
t.

T
h
ey

r
e
f
us
e

to eat

GM

f
ood
s
.

M
a
n
u
f
ac
t
u
r
e
r
s

in

E
u
rop
e

a
n
d

J
a
p
an

h
a
ve
c
o
mm
i
tted

to a
v
o
id

us
i
n
g

GM i
ng
r
e
d
i
e
n
t
s
.

A
n
d

t
h
e

US

n
a
t
u
r
al

f
ood
s

i
n
du
s
t
r
y
,

n
o
t
w
a
iti
n
g

f
o
r

t
h
e

g
o
v
e
rn
m
e
n
t

to te
s
t

o
r

l
ab
el
GMO
s
,

is

n
o
w

e
n
g
a
g
ed

i
n

r
e
m
o
v
i
n
g

all

r
e
m
a
i
n
i
n
g

GM

i
n
g
r
e
d
ie
n
ts

f
r
o
m

t
h
eir

s
ect
o
r

us
i
n
g

a t
h
i
r
d

p
a
r
ty

v
e
r
i
f
icati
o
n

s
ys
t
e
m
.

T
he
C
a
m
p
a
i
g
n

f
o
r

Heal
t
h
ier

E
ati
n
g

in A
m
e
r
ica

w
i
l
l

ci
r
c
u
late

n
o
n
-
G
M
O

s
h
opp
i
n
g

g
u
i
d
es

in
s
t
or
es

n
ati
on
w
i
d
e

s
o
t
h
at

c
o
n
s
u
m
e
r
s

h
a
v
e
clea
r
,

h
ealt
h
y

n
o
n
-
G
M
O

c
h
o
i
c
e
s
.

W
ith

n
o
g
o
v
e
rn
m
e
n
tal

r
e
g
u
lati
o
n

o
f

b
i
o
tech

c
orpor
ati
o
ns
,

it

is

l
e
f
t

to c
o
n
s
u
m
e
r
s

to
pr
o
tect
o
u
r
s
el
v
e
s
.


F
o
r

a
gu
i
d
e

to a
v
o
i
d
i
n
g

GM
O
s
,

g
o to

w
w
w
.
N
o
n
G
M
O
S
h
opp
i
n
g
G
u
i
d
e
.
c
o
m
.




I
n
t
e
r
na
ti
ona
l

b
es
t
s
e
l li
n
g

au
t
h
or

an
d

i
nd
e
p
e
nd
e
n
t

f
i l
mm
ak
e
r

Je
f
f
r
ey

M.

S
m
i th

i s

t
h
e

E
x
e
c
u
ti
v
e

Di
r
e
ct
o
r

o
f

t
h
e

I
n
s
ti t
u
te

f
o
r
R
es
p
o
ns
i
b
l e

T
e
c
hn
ol
o
gy

an
d

a l
e
ad
i
n
g

s
p
o
k
es
p
e
r
s
o
n

o
n

t
h
e

h
e
a
l th

dan
g
e
rs

o
f

G
MO
s
.

H
i
s

f
i r
s
t

b
o
ok
,

Seed
s

o
f

D
ece
p
ti
on
,

i s

t
h
e
w
o
rl
d’
s

b
e
s
t
s
e
l l i
n
g

b
o
o
k

o
n

t
h
e

s
ub
j
e
ct.

H
i
s

s
e
c
ond
,

G
enet
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ou
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e

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ocumen
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d

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e
a
lth

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s
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o
f

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enet
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F
ood
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r
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k
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w

sup
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to

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mo
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o
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em
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m
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a
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or

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w
w
w
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e
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Non
G
MOS
hopp
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u
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20


Endn
o
t
es




1

J
e
f
f
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y

M
.

S
m
it
h
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G
e
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H
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Ris
k
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G
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E
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Food
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Y
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a
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IA

U
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20
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o
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Food
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r
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to

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2
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Bi
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Food
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r
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4

D
a
n

Q
u
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l
e
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in

t
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e
I
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d
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a
n

T
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R
oo
m

o
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t
h
e Old

E
xecu
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e Of
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u
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,

M
a
y

26
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1
9
92.

5

Fo
r

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lli
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Bi
o
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I
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ww
w
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rg

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n

M
.

D
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o
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t
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up
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9
9
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t
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w
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d

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t

a
l,


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ss
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t
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e s
u
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v
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tr
a
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DNA in

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ech
no
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y

2
2

(
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00
4
):

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.

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v
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a
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o
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ts to

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on
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of

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F
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up
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ve
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e
r

1
,

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9
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,

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c
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p
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t
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f
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NV
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24
:
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,

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in

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.

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to

Dr.

L
i
n
d
a K
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h
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lav
r

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avr
T
o
m
a
t
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a
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f

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w
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lli
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rity

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9
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tt
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:
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2
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M

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l
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ts & Risk

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e
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m
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2
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tt
p
:
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.

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17
,

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tt
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:
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w
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s
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h
tt
p
:
//
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2
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tt
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:
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.
p
df

22



5
1

I
.
V
.
Er
m
ak
ov
a
,


G
e
n
e
ti
ca
l
l
y

Mod
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f
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m
s
a
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is
k
s
,

P
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f

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ti
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l

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st
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R
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C
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n
f
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e
(
IDRC)
D
av
o
s,

S
w
it
ze
rl
a
n
d

A
u
g
u
st

27
th



S
e
p
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e
m
b
e
r

1
st,

2
0
06
:

1
6
8

1
72
.

h
tt
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:
//
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o
-
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a Er
m
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P
r
e
l
i
m
i
n
a
r
y
st
ud
i
e
s
,
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c
o
s
i
n
f
o
rm

1

(
20
0
6
):

4

9.

5
3

Iri
n
a Er
m
ak
o
va
,


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x
p
e
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me
n
t
a
l

E
v
i
d
e
n
c
e
o
f

G
M
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s
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e
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n
t
a
ti
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n

a
t

S
c
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e
n
tists
f
o
r

a
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M

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r
e
e

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u
r
op
e
,

EU

P
a
rli
a
m
e
n
t,

Br
u
s
se
ls,

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un
e

12
,

2
0
07

5
4

I
.
V
.
Er
m
ak
ov
a

G
M
O:

L
i
f
e its
e
l
f

i
n
t
e
r
ve
n
e
d

i
n
to

t
h
e
ex
p
e
ri
m
e
n
ts
,

L
e
tt
e
r,

E
c
o
sI
n
f
o
r
m

N2

(
2
0
06
):

3

4.

5
5

J
e
f
f
r
e
y

M
.

S
m
it
h
,

G
e
n
e
tic R
ou
l
e
tt
e
:

T
h
e D
o
c
u
m
e
n
t
e
d

H
ea
lth

Ris
k
s
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f

G
e
n
e
ti
ca
l
l
y

E
n
g
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n
ee
r
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d

Food
s
,

Y
e
s!

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oo
k
s,

F
a
ir
f
i
e
l
d
,

IA

U
S
A
20
0
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5
6


Mo
rt
a
lity

in

S
h
ee
p

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l
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ck
s
a
f
t
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r

G
r
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g

o
n

Bt

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t
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l
d
s

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a
r
a
n
ga
l

Distri
c
t,

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ndh
ra

P
r
a
d
e
s
h


R
e
po
rt

o
f

t
h
e

P
r
e
li
m
i
n
a
ry

A
s
s
e
s
s
me
n
t,
A
p
ril

20
0
6
,

h
t
t
p
://
gm
w
a
t
c
h.o
r
g
/l
a
t
e
st
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listi
n
g
/
1
-
n
e
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it
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h
-
2
9
4
2
0
0
6

5
7

P
e
rs
on
a
l

c
o
mm
un
i
ca
ti
o
n

an
d

v
isit

b
y

J
e
f
f
r
e
y

S
m
ith

w
ith

v
ill
a
g
e

m
e
m
b
e
rs,

n
ea
r

W
a
r
a
ng
a
l,

A
ndh
ra

P
r
a
d
e
s
h
,

J
a
nu
a
ry

20
0
9
.

5
8

J
o
h
n

M
.

B
u
r
n
s,

“1
3
-
W
ee
k

Di
e
t
a
r
y

Sub
c
h
r
on
ic
C
o
m
p
a
ris
o
n

S
t
ud
y

w
ith

M
ON
8
6
3

C
o
r
n

i
n

R
a
ts

P
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e
c
e
d
e
d

b
y

a
1
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ee
k

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a
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li
n
e
Fo
o
d
C
on
s
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m
p
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n

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e
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m
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ti
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n

w
ith

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M
I

C
e
rti
f
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d

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o
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t

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t

#
5
0
0
2,
” D
ec
e
m
b
e
r

17
,

2
0
02

h
tt
p
:
//ww
w
.
m
on
s
a
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t
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/
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llr
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ud
y
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f
,

s
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e
a
lso

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t
é
ph
an
e
Fou
ca
rt,


C
on
t
r
o
ve
r
s
y

Su
rr
o
u
n
d
s a
G
M
O
,

L
e
Mond
e
,

1
4

D
ece
m
b
e
r

200
4
;

a
n
d

J
e
ff
r
e
y

M
.

S
m
it
h
,


G
e
n
e
ti
ca
l
l
y

M
o
d
i
f
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e
d

C
o
rn

S
t
ud
y

R
ev
e
a
ls H
e
a
lth

D
a
m
a
g
e
a
n
d

C
o
ve
r
-
up,

S
p
il
l
i
n
g

t
he
B
ea
n
s,

J
un
e
2
0
0
5
,

h
t
t
p
://
w
w
w
.
s
ee
d
s
o
f
d
ece
p
ti
o
n
.
c
o
m
/
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u
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c
/N
e
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e
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e
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un
e
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M
C
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ea
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h
D
a
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rE
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d
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n
d
ex
.
c
fm

5
9

A
r
p
a
d

Pu
s
z
t
a
i,


C
a
n

s
c
i
e
n
c
e
g
i
v
e

u
s t
h
e

t
o
o
ls
f
o
r

r
ec
o
g
n
i
z
i
n
g

p
o
ss
i
b
le
h
ea
lth

ris
k
s
o
f

G
M

f
ood,
” N
u
t
riti
o
n

a
n
d

H
ea
lt
h
,

2
0
0
2
,

V
o
l

1
6

P
p

7
3
-
84

6
0

V
.

E.

P
r
e
s
c
o
tt,

e
t

a
l,


T
r
a
n
s
ge
n
ic

E
x
p
r
e
ssi
o
n

o
f

B
ea
n

r
-
A
m
y
l
a
s
e I
nh
i
b
i
t
o
r

i
n

P
ea
s R
e
s
u
lts
i
n

A
lt
e
r
e
d

S
tr
u
c
t
u
re
a
nd

I
m
m
uno
ge
n
i
c
i
t
y
,
” J
ou
r
n
a
l

o
f

A
g
r
i
c
u
lt
u
r
a
l

F
o
o
d

C
h
e
m
ist
r
y

(
2005
):

53.

6
1

Y
ea
r
l
y

f
oo
d

s
e
n
si
t
i
v
ity

a
s
s
e
s
s
m
e
n
t

o
f

Y
o
rk

L
a
bo
r
a
t
o
r
y
,

a
s r
e
po
rt
e
d

in

M
a
rk

T
o
w
n
s
e
nd
,


W
h
y

s
o
y
a

is a
h
i
d
d
e
n

d
e
str
o
y
e
r
,
” D
a
i
l
y

E
x
p
r
e
ss,
M
a
r
c
h

1
2
,

1
9
9
9.

6
2

G
.

A
.

Kl
e
t
e
r

a
n
d

A
.

A
.

C.

M
.

P
e
i
jn
e
n
b
u
r
g
,


S
c
r
ee
n
i
n
g

o
f

tr
a
n
s
ge
n
i
c
p
r
o
t
e
i
n
s
ex
p
r
e
ss
e
d

in

tr
a
n
s
ge
n
ic

f
oo
d

c
r
o
p
s
f
o
r

t
h
e

p
r
e
s
e
n
c
e
o
f

s
ho
rt

a
m
i
no
ac
id

s
e
qu
e
n
ce
s i
n
d
e
n
ti
ca
l

t
o

p
o
t
e
n
ti
a
l,

I
g
E
-
b
i
n
d
i
n
g

l
i
n
ea
r

e
p
it
o
p
e
s

o
f

a
ll
e
r
ge
n
s
,
” B
M
C

S
tr
u
c
t
u
r
a
l

B
i
o
l
o
g
y

2

(
2
0
02
):

8

1
9
.

6
3

N
e
t
h
e
r
w
oo
d

e
t

a
l,


A
s
se
ssi
n
g

t
h
e s
u
r
v
i
va
l

o
f

tr
a
n
s
ge
n
ic
p
l
a
n
t

DNA in

t
h
e
h
u
m
a
n

ga
str
o
i
n
t
e
sti
n
a
l

tr
ac
t
,
” N
a
t
u
re Bi
o
t
ech
no
l
o
g
y

2
2

(
2
00
4
):

2
.

6
4

H
ye
-
Y
un
g

Y
u
m
,

Soo
-
Y
o
u
n
g

L
e
e
,

K
y
un
g
-
E
u
n

L
ee
,

M
y
un
g
-
H
y
u
n

So
h
n
,

K
y
u
-
E
a
rn

Ki
m
,


G
e
n
e
ti
ca
l
l
y

Mod
i
f
i
e
d

a
n
d

W
ild

S
o
y
b
ea
n
s:

A
n
i
m
m
uno
l
o
g
ic
c
o
m
p
a
ris
on,

A
ll
e
r
g
y

a
n
d

A
st
h
m
a
P
r
o
cee
d
i
n
g
s
2
6
,

n
o
.

3

(
M
a
y

J
un
e
2
0
0
5
):

2
10
-
2
1
6
(
7
).

6
5

S
t
e
ph
e
n

R.

P
a
d
ge
tte
e
t

a
l,


T
h
e C
o
m
po
siti
o
n

o
f

G
l
y
pho
s
a
t
e
-
T
o
l
e
r
a
n
t

So
y
b
ea
n

S
ee
d
s Is
E
qu
i
va
l
e
n
t

t
o

T
h
a
t

o
f

C
on
ve
n
t
i
on
a
l

So
y
b
ea
n
s
,

T
he

J
ou
r
n
a
l

o
f

N
u
trit
i
o
n

1
2
6
,

n
o
.

4
,

(
A
p
ril

19
9
6
);

i
n
c
l
u
d
i
n
g

d
a
ta in

t
h
e

j
ou
r
n
a
l

a
r
c
h
i
ve
s
f
r
o
m

t
h
e s
a
m
e st
ud
y
;

s
e
e
a
lso

A
.

P
u
s
z
t
a
i

a
n
d

S
.

B
a
r
do
cz
,

G
M
O in

a
n
i
m
a
l

nu
triti
o
n
:

po
t
en
t
i
a
l

b
e
n
e
f
its
a
n
d

ris
k
s
,
” C
h
a
p
t
e
r

1
7
,

Bi
o
l
o
g
y

o
f

N
u
triti
o
n

i
n

G
r
o
w
i
n
g

A
n
i
m
a
ls (Els
ev
i
e
r,

2005
)
.

6
6

M
a
nu
e
la
M
a
l
a
t
e
st
a
,

e
t

a
l,


Ultr
a
str
u
c
t
u
r
a
l

A
n
a
l
y
sis
o
f

P
a
n
c
r
ea
tic A
c
i
n
a
r

C
e
lls
f
r
o
m

M
i
c
e
F
e
d

o
n

G
e
n
e
ti
ca
lly

m
od
i
f
i
e
d

So
y
b
ea
n,
” J
ou
r
n
a
l

o
f

A
n
a
t
o
m
y

201
,

no
.

5

(
N
o
ve
m
b
e
r

200
2
):

4
0
9
;

s
e
e
a
lso

M
.

M
a
l
a
t
e
st
a
,

M
.

Bi
gg
i
o
ge
r
a
,

E.

M
an
u
a
li,

M
.

B.

L
.

R
o
cc
h
i,

B.

B
a
l
d
e
lli,

G
.

G
az
za
n
e
lli,


F
i
n
e

S
tr
u
c
t
u
r
a
l

A
n
a
l
y
s
e
s
o
f

P
a
n
c
r
ea
tic
A
c
i
n
a
r

C
e
ll

N
u
c
l
e
i

f
r
o
m

M
i
c
e
F
e
d

o
n

G
M

So
y
b
ea
n,
” E
u
r

J His
t
o
c
h
e
m

4
7

(
2
0
03
)
:

3
8
5

3
8
8.

6
7

S
e
e
f
o
r

ex
a
m
p
l
e
,

S
c
o
tt

H.

S
i
c
h
e
r
e
r

e
t

a
l
.
,


P
r
eva
l
e
n
c
e
o
f

p
ea
nu
t

an
d

tr
e
e
n
u
t

a
ll
e
r
g
y

in

t
h
e U
n
it
e
d

S
t
a
t
e
s
d
e
t
e
r
m
i
n
e
d

b
y

m
ea
n
s
o
f

a r
a
ndo
m

d
i
g
it
d
i
a
l

t
e
l
ep
h
o
n
e s
u
r
v
e
y
:

A

5
-
y
e
a
r

f
o
ll
o
w
-
u
p

s
t
ud
y
,
” J
ou
r
n
a
l

o
f

a
ll
e
r
g
y

a
n
d

c
li
n
i
ca
l

i
mm
uno
l
o
g
y
,

M
a
r
c
h

2
0
0
3
,

v
o
l
.

1
1
2
,

n

6
,

1
2
0
3
-
1
2
0
7
)
;

a
n
d

Ri
ck
i
H
e
l
m

e
t

a
l
.
,


H
y
po
a
ll
e
r
ge
n
ic
Fo
o
d
s

So
y
b
ea
n
s
a
n
d

P
ean
u
ts
,
” I
n
f
o
r
ma
ti
o
n

S
y
st
e
m
s

f
o
r

Bi
o
t
ec
h
n
o
l
o
g
y

N
e
ws R
e
po
rt,

O
c
t
o
b
e
r

1
,

2
0
02.

6
8

V
az
qu
e
z
e
t

a
l,

"
I
n
tr
aga
stric
a
n
d

i
n
tr
a
p
e
rit
o
n
ea
l

a
d
m
i
n
istr
a
ti
o
n

o
f

Cr
y
1
A
c
p
r
o
t
o
x
in

f
r
o
m

B
ac
ill
u
s t
h
u
ri
n
g
i
e
n
sis i
n
du
ce
s s
y
st
e
m
i
c
a
n
d

m
u
c
o
s
al
a
n
ti
b
od
y

r
e
s
pon
s
e
s in

m
i
ce
,
"

L
i
fe

S
c
i
e
n
ce
s,

6
4
,

n
o
.

2
1

(
1
9
9
9
):

1
8
9
7

1
9
1
2
;

V
azq
u
e
z
e
t

a
l,


C
h
a
r
ac
t
e
ri
za
ti
o
n

o
f

t
h
e
m
u
c
o
s
a
l

a
n
d

s
y
st
e
m
ic
i
m
m
un
e
r
e
s
pon
se i
n
du
ce
d

b
y

C
r
y
1
Ac
p
r
o
t
e
in

f
r
o
m

B
a
c
ill
u
s t
h
u
ri
n
g
i
e
n
sis
H
D
7
3

i
n

m
i
ce
,
” Br
az
ili
a
n

J
ou
r
n
a
l

o
f

M
e
d
i
ca
l

a
n
d

B
i
o
l
o
g
i
ca
l

R
e
s
ea
r
c
h

3
3

(
2
0
0
0
):

14
7

1
5
5.

6
9

R.

I.

V
áz
qu
ez
,

L
.

M
o
r
en
o
-
F
i
e
rr
o
s,

L
.

N
e
r
i
-
B
azá
n
,

e
t

a
l
.
,


B
a
c
il
l
u
s

t
hu
r
i
n
g
i
e
n
sis
Cr
y
1
Ac
P
r
o
t
o
x
in

Is

a
Po
t
en
t

S
y
st
e
m
ic
a
n
d

Mu
c
o
s
a
l

A
d
j
u
va
n
t
,

S
c
a
n
d
i
n
a
v
i
a
n

Jo
u
r
n
a
l

o
f

Imm
u
n
o
l
og
y
4
9

(
1
9
99
):

5
7
8

8
4
.

S
e
e
a
lso

V
az
qu
ez
-
P
a
d
r
on
,

RI.

E
t

a
l.

(
2
0
0
0
b
)

C
h
a
r
ac
t
e
ri
za
ti
o
n

o
f

t
h
e
m
u
c
o
s
a
l

a
nd
s
y
st
e
m
ic
i
m
m
un
e r
e
s
pon
se i
n
d
u
ce
d

b
y

C
r
y
1
Ac
p
r
o
t
e
in

f
r
o
m

B
a
c
il
l
u
s t
h
u
ri
n
g
i
e
n
sis
HD
7
3

i
n

m
i
ce
.

Br
a
zili
a
n

Jo
u
r
n
a
l

o
f

Me
d
i
c
a
l

a
n
d

B
i
o
l
o
g
i
c
al
R
e
s
e
a
r
c
h

33
,

1
47
-
1
5
5.

7
0

N
ag
u
i

H.

F
a
r
e
s,

A
d
e
l

K.

E
l
-
S
a
y
e
d
,


F
i
n
e
S
t
r
u
c
t
u
r
a
l

C
h
a
n
ge
s in

t
h
e Il
e
u
m

o
f

M
i
c
e
F
e
d

o
n

E
n
do
t
o
x
in

T
r
ea
t
e
d

P
o
t
a
t
o
e
s
a
n
d

T
r
a
n
s
ge
n
ic

Po
t
a
t
o
e
s
,
” N
a
t
u
r
a
l

T
o
x
i
n
s

6
,

n
o
.

6

(
1
9
98
):

2
1
9

2
33.

7
1

A
l
b
e
rto

F
i
n
a
m
o
r
e
,

e
t

a
l,


I
n
t
e
st
i
na
l

a
n
d

P
e
r
i
ph
e
r
a
l

I
m
m
un
e R
e
s
po
n
se to

M
ON
8
1
0

M
a
i
z
e I
n
ge
sti
o
n

i
n

W
ea
n
i
n
g

a
n
d

O
l
d

M
i
ce
,
” J.

A
g
ri
c
.

F
o
od

C
h
e
m
.
,

20
0
8
,

5
6

(
23
)
,

p
p

1
1
5
3
3

11
5
3
9
,

N
o
ve
m
b
e
r

14
,

2
0
08

7
2

W
a
s
h
i
n
g
t
o
n

S
t
a
te D
e
p
a
rt
m
e
n
t

o
f

H
ea
lt
h
,


R
e
po
rt

o
f

h
ea
lth

s
u
r
ve
il
l
a
n
c
e
ac
ti
v
iti
e
s:

A
si
a
n

g
y
p
s
y

m
o
th

c
on
t
r
o
l

p
r
o
g
r
a
m
,
” (O
l
y
m
p
i
a
,

W
A
:
W
a
s
h
i
n
g
t
o
n

S
t
a
te D
e
p
t
.

o
f

H
ea
lt
h
,

1
9
9
3
).

7
3

M
.

G
r
ee
n
,

e
t

a
l
.
,


Pub
lic

h
ea
lth

i
m
p
li
ca
ti
on
s
o
f

t
h
e
m
i
c
r
ob
i
a
l

p
e
st
i
c
i
d
e B
ac
ill
u
s t
h
u
r
i
n
g
i
e
n
sis:

A
n

e
p
i
d
e
m
i
o
l
o
g
i
ca
l

st
ud
y
,

Or
eg
on
,

1
98
5
-
8
6,


A
me
r.

J.

Pub
l
ic H
ea
lth

8
0
,

n
o
.

7
(
19
9
0
):

8
4
8

8
5
2.

23



7
4

M.
A
.

N
ob
l
e
,

P.
D.

R
i
b
e
n
,

a
n
d

G
.

J.

C
oo
k
,


M
i
c
r
ob
i
o
l
o
g
i
ca
l

an
d

e
p
i
d
e
m
i
o
l
o
g
i
ca
l

s
u
r
ve
ill
a
n
c
e
p
r
o
g
r
a
m

to

m
on
it
o
r

t
h
e

h
ea
lth

e
ff
e
c
ts
o
f

Fo
r
a
y

48
B

B
T
K s
p
r
a
y
” (
V
a
n
c
ou
ve
r,

B
.
C
.
:

M
i
n
istry

o
f

Fo
r
e
sts,

P
r
o
v
i
n
c
e

o
f

British

C
o
l
u
m
b
i,

S
e
p
.

3
0
,

1
9
9
2
).

7
5

A
.

E
d
a
m
u
r
a
,

M
D,


Af
f
i
d
a
v
it

o
f

t
h
e
F
e
d
e
r
a
l

C
o
u
rt

o
f

C
a
n
a
d
a
,

T
ri
a
l

Di
v
isi
on
.

D
a
le
E
d
w
a
r
d
s
a
n
d

Cit
i
ze
n
s A
ga
i
n
st

A
e
ri
a
l

Sp
r
a
y
i
n
g

v
s.

H
e
r
M
a
j
e
s
t
y

t
h
e Q
u
ee
n
,

R
e
p
r
e
s
e
n
t
e
d

b
y

t
h
e
M
i
n
ist
e
r

o
f

A
g
ri
c
u
lt
u
r
e
,
” (
M
a
y

6
,

19
9
3
);

a
s r
ep
o
rt
e
d

i
n

C
a
r
r
ie
S
w
a
d
e
n
e
r,


B
ac
ill
u
s t
hu
r
i
n
g
i
en
sis (B
.
t
.
)
,

J
ou
r
n
a
l

o
f

P
e
sti
c
i
d
e R
e
f
o
r
m
,

14
,

no
,

3

(
F
a
ll

1
9
9
4
).

7
6

J.

R.

S
a
m
p
l
e
s,

a
n
d

H.

B
u
e
t
t
n
e
r,


O
c
u
l
a
r

i
n
f
ec
ti
o
n

ca
u
s
e
d

b
y

a
b
i
o
l
o
g
i
ca
l

i
n
s
ec
ti
c
i
d
e
,
” J.

I
n
f
ec
ti
ou
s

Dis.

1
4
8
,

n
o
.

3

(
1
9
8
3
):

6
1
4
;

a
s r
e
po
rt
e
d

in

C
a
rrie
S
w
a
d
e
n
e
r,


B
ac
ill
u
s t
hu
r
i
ng
i
e
n
sis (B
.
t
.
)

,

J
o
u
r
n
a
l

o
f

P
e
sti
c
i
d
e R
e
f
o
r
m

14
,

n
o
.

3

(
F
a
ll

1
9
94)

7
7

M
.

G
r
ee
n
,

e
t

a
l
.
,


Pub
lic

h
ea
lth

i
m
p
li
ca
ti
on
s
o
f

t
h
e
m
i
c
r
ob
i
a
l

p
e
st
i
c
i
d
e B
ac
ill
u
s t
h
u
r
i
n
g
i
e
n
sis:

A
n

e
p
i
d
e
m
i
o
l
o
g
i
ca
l

st
ud
y
,

Or
eg
on
,

1
98
5
-
8
6,

A
me
r.

J.

Pub
l
ic H
ea
lt
h
,

80
,

n
o
.

7

(
1
9
90
):

8
4
8

8
5
2.

7
8

A
.

E
d
a
m
u
r
a
,

M
D,


Af
f
i
d
a
v
it

o
f

t
h
e
F
e
d
e
r
a
l

C
o
u
rt

o
f

C
a
n
a
d
a
,

T
ri
a
l

Di
v
isi
on
.

D
a
le
E
d
w
a
r
d
s
a
n
d

Cit
i
ze
n
s A
ga
i
n
st

A
e
ri
a
l

Sp
r
a
y
i
n
g

v
s.

H
e
r

M
a
j
e
s
t
y

t
h
e Q
u
ee
n
,

R
e
p
r
e
s
e
n
t
e
d

b
y

t
h
e
M
i
n
ist
e
r

o
f

A
g
ri
c
u
lt
u
r
e
,
” (
M
a
y

6
,

19
9
3
);

a
s r
ep
o
rt
e
d

i
n

C
a
r
r
ie
S
w
a
d
e
n
e
r,


B
ac
ill
u
s t
hu
r
i
n
g
i
en
sis (B
.
t
.
)
,

J
ou
r
n
a
l

o
f

P
e
sti
c
i
d
e R
e
f
o
r
m
,

14
,

no
,

3

(
F
a
ll

1
9
9
4
).

7
9

C
a
rrie
S
w
a
d
e
n
e
r,


B
ac
ill
u
s t
hu
r
i
n
g
i
e
n
sis (B
.
t
.
)
,

J
ou
r
n
a
l

o
f

P
e
sti
c
i
d
e R
e
f
o
r
m

14
,

no
.

3

(
F
a
ll

1
9
9
4
).

8
0

T
e
rje

T
r
a
a
v
ik

a
n
d

J
ac
k

H
e
i
n
e
m
a
nn
,


G
e
n
e
tic E
n
g
i
n
ee
ri
n
g

an
d

O
m
itt
e
d

H
ea
lth

R
e
s
ea
r
c
h
:

S
t
i
ll

No

A
n
s
w
e
rs to

A
ge
i
n
g

Q
u
e
sti
on
s,

2
0
0
6
.

Cit
e
d

in
t
h
e
ir

q
uo
te
w
a
s:

G
.

S
t
o
t
z
k
y
,


R
e
l
ea
s
e
,

p
e
rsist
e
n
ce
,

a
n
d

b
i
o
l
o
g
i
ca
l

a
c
ti
v
i
t
y

in

s
o
il

o
f

i
n
s
ec
ti
c
i
d
a
l

p
r
o
t
e
i
n
s
f
r
o
m

B
ac
ill
u
s t
hu
ri
n
g
i
e
n
sis
,

f
ou
n
d

i
n
D
e
bo
r
a
h

K.

L
e
t
ou
r
n
ea
u

an
d

B
e
th

E.

B
u
r
r
o
w
s,

G
e
n
e
ti
ca
l
l
y

E
n
g
i
n
ee
r
e
d

Or
ga
n
is
m
s.

A
s
s
e
ssi
n
g

E
n
v
ir
on
me
n
t
a
l

a
n
d

H
u
m
a
n

H
ea
lth

E
ff
ec
t
s

(
c
B
o
ca
R
a
t
on
,

F
L
:

CRC

P
r
e
ss
LL
C,

200
2
),

1
8
7

2
22.

8
1

S
e
e
f
o
r

ex
a
m
p
l
e
,

A
.

D
u
tt
o
n
,

H.

Kl
e
i
n
,

J.

R
o
m
e
is,

a
n
d

F
.

Bi
g
l
e
r,


U
p
t
ak
e
o
f

B
t
-
t
o
x
in

b
y

h
e
r
b
i
v
o
r
e
s

f
e
e
d
i
n
g

o
n

tr
a
n
s
ge
n
ic
m
a
i
z
e
a
nd
c
on
s
e
qu
e
n
ce
s
f
o
r

t
h
e

p
r
e
d
a
t
o
r

C
h
r
y
s
op
e
rla
ca
r
n
ea
,
” E
c
o
l
o
g
i
ca
l

E
n
t
o
m
o
l
og
y

2
7

(
2
0
0
2
):

4
4
1

7
;

an
d

J.

R
o
m
e
is,

A
.

D
u
tt
o
n
,

an
d

F
.

Bi
g
l
e
r,


B
ac
ill
u
s
t
hu
r
i
n
g
i
e
n
sis t
o
x
i
n

(Cr
y
1
A
b
)

h
a
s
n
o

d
ir
ec
t

e
f
f
ec
t

o
n

l
a
r
va
e
o
f

t
h
e
g
r
ee
n

l
ac
e
w
i
n
g

C
h
r
y
s
op
e
rla
ca
r
n
e
a (
S
t
e
ph
e
n
s)

(N
e
u
r
o
p
t
e
r
a
:

C
h
r
y
s
op
i
d
ae
)
,

J
ou
r
n
a
l

o
f

I
n
s
ec
t

P
h
y
si
o
l
o
g
y

50
,

no
.

2

3

(
2
0
04
):

1
7
5

1
83.

82 M
e
s
n
ag
e R,

Cl
a
ir

E,

G
r
e
ss
S
,

T
h
en

C,

S
zékács

A
,

S
é
r
a
li
n
i,

G
E.

(
2
01
2
).

C
y
t
o
t
o
x
i
c
i
ty

on hu
m
a
n

ce
lls
of

Cr
y
1
A
b

a
nd
Cr
y
1
A
c Bt

i
n
s
ec
ti
c
i
d
a
l

t
o
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9
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.nz

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1

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a
rc
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a
pp
é
a
n
d

Bri
t
t

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a
il
e
y
,


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S
A

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e
s
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e
,
” J
un
e
2
5
,

1
9
9
9
,

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2

Bill

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r
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e
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rth

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ly

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10
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r
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re H.

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ilk

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f
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10
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S
.

R.

P
a
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e
,

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B
.
T
a
y
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D.

L.

Ni
d
a
,

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.

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B
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il
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y
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ac
D
on
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s,


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o
m
po
siti
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ti
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n
a
l

s
o
y
b
ea
n
s
,
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N
u
tr.

1
2
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9
9
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7
1
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10
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m
ond
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,

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.

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.

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D.

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.

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ng

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b
ea
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d

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ts,

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h
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t
f
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iry

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ttle is
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d

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tic i
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ce
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N
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1
26
(
1
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7.

10
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A
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d

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.

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M
O

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m
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l

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tr
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ti
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l

b
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f
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d

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k
s
,
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h
a
p
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e
r

1
7
,

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f

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triti
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r
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g

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d

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l
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n

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a
t
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ls
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d

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lth

17
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e
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l
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M

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re
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u
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n
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2
0
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M
O in

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k
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h
a
p
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r

1
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,

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u
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o
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n
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M
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11
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r
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25



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