EOC Vocabulary 2012-2013


Oct 23, 2013 (4 years and 8 months ago)


EOC Vocabulary


Chapter 1

Science of Biology

cience, observation, inference, hypothesis, controlled experiment, independent variable, dependent variable, control group, d
ata, theory,
bias, biology, DNA, stimulus,

xual reproducti on,
asexual reproducti on, ho
meostasi s, metaboli sm, bi osphere

Chapter 2

Chemistry of Life

atom, nucleus, electron, element, isotope, compound, ionic bond, ion, covalent bond, molecule, van der Waals forces, hydrogen

cohesion, adhesion, mixture,
solution, solute, solvent, suspension, pH scale, acid, base, buffer, monomer, polymer, carbohydrate,
monosaccharide, lipid, nucleic acid, nucleotide, protein, amino acid, chemical reaction, reactant, product, activation energy
, catalyst,
enzyme, substrate

Chapter 3


biosphere, population, community, ecology, ecosystem, biome, biotic factor, abiotic factor, autotroph, primary producer, phot
chemosynthesis, heterotroph, consumer, carnivore, herbivore, scavenger, omnivore, decomposer,

detritivore, food chain, phytoplankton,
food web, zooplankton, trophic level, ecological pyramid, biomass, biogeochemical cycle, nutrient, nitrogen fixation, denitri
fication, limiting

Chapter 4

& Communities

canopy, understory, deciduous, coniferous, humus, taiga, permafrost, photic zone, aphotic zone, benthos, plankton, wetland, e
weather, climate, microclimate, greenhouse effect, tolerance, habitat, niche, resource, competitive exclusion principle, pr
herbivory, keystone species, symbiosis, mutualism, parasitism, commensalism, ecological succession, primary succession, pione
species, secondary succession

Chapter 5


population density, age structure, immigration, emigration,
exponential growth, logistic growth, carrying capacity, limiting factor, density
dependent limiting factor, density
independent limiting factor, demography, demographic transition

Chapter 6

Humans in
the Biosphere

sustainable development, deforestation,
biodiversity, ecosystem diversity, species diversity, genetic diversity, habitat fragmentation

Chapter 7

Structure and

cell, cell theory, cell membrane, nucleus, eukaryote, prokaryote, cytoplasm, organelle, vacuole, lysosome,
cytoskeleton, centriole,
ribosome, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, chloroplast, mitochondrion, cell wall, lipid bilayer, selectively permeable
, diffusion,
facilitated diffusion, aquaporin, osmosis, isotonic, hypertonic, hypotonic, osmotic pressure,

homeostasis, tissue, organ, organ system,

Chapter 8

(8.2, 8.3)

adenosone triphosphate, ATP, heterotroph, autotroph, photosynthesis pigment, chlorophyll, thylakoid, stroma, NADP+, light
reactions, light
reactions, photosystem, electron transport chain, ATP synthase, Calvin cycle

Chapter 9 Cellular
Respiration and
calorie, cellular respiration, aerobic, anaerobic, glycolysis, NAD+, Krebs cycle, matrix, fermentation


Chapter 10

: Cell
and Division

cell division, asexual reproduction, sexual reproduction, chromosome, chromatin, cell cycle, interphase, mitosis, cytokinesis
, prophase,
centromere, chromatid, centriole, metaphase, anaphase, telophase, cyclin, growth factor, apoptosis, cancer
, tumor, embryo, differentiation,
germ line cell, totipotent, stem cell, pluripotent, multipotent

Chapter 11

Introduction to

genetics, fertilization, trait, hybrid, gene, allele, principle of dominance, segregation, gamete, probability, homozygous, h
phenotype, genotype, Punnett square, independent assortment, incomplete dominance, codominance, multiple allele, polyg
enic trait,
homologous, diploid, haploid, meiosis, tetrad, crossing
over, zygote

Chapter 12

Resources: DNA

transformation, bacteriophage, base pairing, repli
cation, DNA polymerase, telomere

Chapter 13

: RNA and
Protein Synthesis

RNA, messenger

RNA, ribosomal RNA, transfer RNA, transcription, RNA po
ymerase, promoter, intron, exon, polypeptide, genetic code,
codon, translation, anticodon, gene expression, mutation, point mutation, frameshift mutation, mutagen, polyploidy, operon, o
perator, RNA
nterference, differentiation, homeotic gene, homeobox gene, Hox gene

Chapter 14

: Human

genome, karyotype, sex chromosome, autosome, sex
linked gene, pedigree, nondisjunction, restriction enzyme, gel electrophoresis,
bioinformatics, genomics

apter 15

: Genetic

selective breeding, hybridization, inbreeding, biotechnology, polymerase chain reaction, recombinant DNA, plasmid, genetic ma
transgenic, clone, gene therapy, DNA microarray, DNA fingerprinting, forensics

Chapter 16

Theory of Evolution

evolution, fossil, artificial selection, adaptation, fitness, natural selection, biogeography, homologous structure, analogou
s structure,
vestigial structure

Chapter 17: Evolution
of Populations

gene pool, relative frequency,
gene trait, polygenic trait, directional selection, stabilizing selection, disruptive selection, genetic drift,
bottleneck effect, founder effect, genetic equilibrium, Hardy
Weinberg principle, speciation, reproductive isolation, behavioral isolatio
geographic isolation, temporal isolation, molecular clock

Chapter 18


systematics, binomial nomenclature, genus, taxon, family, order, class, phylum, kingdom, phylogeny, clade, monophyletic group
cladogram, derived character, domain,
Bacteria, Archaea, Eukarya

Chapter 19

: History
of Life

19.3: Earth’s Early

extinct, paleontologist, relative dating, index fossil, radiometric dating, half
life, geologic time scale, era, period, plate tectonics,
macroevolution, background extinction, mass extinction, gradualism, punctuated equilibrium, adaptive radiation, conver
gent evolution,
coevolution, endosymbiotic theory

Chapter 20

: Viruses
and Prokaryotes

virus, capsid, bacteriophage, lytic infection, lysogenic infection, prophage, retrovirus, prokaryote, bacillus, coccus, spiri
llum, binary fission,
endospore, conjugati
on, pathogen, vaccine, antibiotic, emerging disease, prion

Chapter 21

: Protists
and Fungi

pseudopod, cilium, flagellum, spore, conjugation, alternation of generations, sporangium, algal bloom, food vacuole, gullet,
chitin, hypha, fruiting bod
y, mycelium, lichen, mycorrhiza

Chapter 22

alternation of generations, sporophyte, gametophyte, bryophyte, vascular tissue, archegonium, antheridium, sporangium, trache
Introduction to Plants

tracheid, xylem, phloem, seed, gymnosperm, angiosperm,

pollen grain, pollination, seed coat, ovule, pollen tube, ovary, fruit, cotyledon,
monocot, dicot, woody plant, herbaceous plant

Chapter 23

: Plant
Structure and

transpiration, guard cell, adhesion, capillary action, pressure
flow hypothesis, ep
idermis, lignin, vessel element, sieve tube element,
companion cell, parenchyma, collenchyma, sclerenchyma, meristem, apical meristem, root hair, cortex, endodermis, vascular cyl
root cap, Casparian strip, node, bud, vascular bundle, pith, primary gr
owth, secondary growth, vascular cambium, cork cambium,
heartwood, sapwood, bark, blade, petiole, mesophyll, palisade mesophyll, spongy mesophyll, stoma

Chapter 24

: Plant
Reproduction and

stamen, anther, carpel, stigma, pistil, embryo sac, doubl
e fertilization, endosperm, vegetative reproduction, grafting, dormancy,
germination, hormone, target cell, receptor, auxin, apical dominance, cytokinin, gibberellin, abscisic acid, ethylene, tropis
m, phototropism,
gravitropism, thigmotropism, photoperiod,

green revolution

Chapter 25

Introduction to Animals

invertebrate, chordate, notochord, pharyngeal pouch, vertebrate, feedback inhibition, radial symmetry, bilateral symmetry, en
mesoderm, ectoderm, coelom, pseudocoelom, zygote, blastula, protos
tome, deuterostome, cephalization

Chapter 26

: Animal
Evolution and

appendage, larva, trochophore, cartilage, tetrapod, binocular vision, anthropoid, prehensile tail, hominoid, hominine, bipeda
l, opposable

Chapter 30

: Digestive
Excretory Systems

(30.1, 30.2)

epithelial tissue, connective tissue, nervous tissue, muscle tissue, homeostasis, feedback inhibition, Calorie, carbohydrate,

fat, protein,
vitamin, mineral, mechanical digestion, chemical digestion, amylase, esophagus, peris
talsis, stomach, pepsin, chyme, small intestine,
villus, large intestine, excretion, ureter, urinary bladder, urethra, nephron, filtration, glomerulus, Bowman's capsule, reab
sorption, loop of

Chapter 3

: Nervous


peripheral nervous sy
stem, central nervous system, cell body, dendrite, axon, myelin sheath, resting potential, action potential, threshold,
synapse, neurotransmitter, reflex, cerebrum, cerebral cortex, thalamus, hypothalamus, cerebellum, brain stem, dopamine, somat
system, reflex arc, autonomic nervous system, taste bud, cochlea, semicircular canals, cornea, iris, pupil, lens, retina, rod
s, cones

Chapter 34

Endocrine and
Reproductive Systems

hormone, target cell, exocrine gland, endocrine gland, prostaglandin, pituitary gland, releasing hormone, corticosteroid, epi
norepinephrine, thyroxine, calcitonin, parathyroid hormone, puberty, testis, scrotum, seminiferous tubule, epididymis, va
s deferens, semen,
ovary, menstrual cycle, ovulation, corpus luteum, menstruation, sexually transmitted disease, zygote, blastocyst, implantatio
n, gastrulation,
neurulation, placenta, fetus

Chapter 35

: Immune
System and Disease

infectious disease, germ t
heory of disease, Koch's postulates, zoonosis, vector, inflammatory response, histamine, interferon, fever,
immune response, antigen, antibody, humoral immunity, cell
mediated immunity, vaccination, active immunity, passive immunity, allergy,