Ch. 9 Reinforcement, Section 4

clattergumneckBiotechnology

Oct 23, 2013 (4 years and 15 days ago)

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Copyright by McDougal Littell, a division of Houghton Mifflin Company

Biology

1

Frontiers of Biotechnology

Genetic Engineering

Reinforcement

Answer Key


1.

genetically identical copy of gene or
organism


2.

used in genetic engineering


3.

process of changing an organism's DNA


4.

produce an organism with a new trait


5.

DNA with genes from more than one
organ
ism


6.

biotechnology applications


7.

loop of DNA separate from bacterial DNA


8.

insert new genes into bacteria


9.

organism with genes from a different
organism


10.

GM crops

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Copyright by McDougal Littell, a division of Houghton Mifflin Co
mpany

Biology

2

Frontiers

of

Biotechnology

Genetic Engineering

Reinforcement

KEY CONCEPT

DNA

sequences of organisms can
be changed.

Many of today’s advances in biotechnology involve genetic engineering and
cloning. A
clone

is a genetically identical copy of a gene or of an entire organism.
Although cloning occurs in nature, and the cloning of plants has been done for
hundre
ds of years, the ability to clone mammals is a recent development.

To clone a mammal, scientists use a process called nuclear transfer. The DNA
from the organism to be cloned is inserted into an unfertilized egg cell that has
had its nucleus removed. The s
uccess rate of cloning adult mammals is very low,
and it may take several hundred attempts to produce just one clone.

Cloned, or copied, genes are inserted into the DNA of a different organism to give
the organism a new trait. This changing an organism’s D
NA is called
genetic
engineering.

Genetic engineering is based on the use of recombinant DNA.
Recombinant DNA

is DNA that contains genes from more than one organism.
Bacteria with recombinant DNA are often used in biotechnology applications. To
produce bac
teria with recombinant DNA, a gene is inserted into a
plasmid,

which
is a loop of DNA that is separate from the bacterial DNA. Bacteria with the
recombinant plasmid make the gene’s product. An organism that has a gene from
a different organism is
transgeni
c.

Although there is concern about potential long
-
term effects of some genetically
engineered organisms, transgenic plants and animals have been produced and are
used in several different ways. Many types of transgenic crop plants, also called
genetically
modified (GM) crop plants, have been engineered to resist insects,
frost, and diseases. Transgenic mice are frequently used in medical research.

Term

Definition

Example or Use

Clone

1.

2.

Genetic
engineering

3.

4.

Recombinant

DNA

5.

6.

Plasmid

7.

8.

T
ransgenic

9.

10.