1.Define the following terms: a.Biosphere b.Biodivesity c.Species d.Organism

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Advanced Biology

Final Exam

Review

Guide

2012
-
2013

Ch. 1 Biology in the 21
st

Century

1.

Define the following terms:

a.

Biosphere

b.

Biodivesity

c.

Species

d.

Organism

e.

Cell

f.

Metabolism

g.

DNA

2.

Define and give examples of earth’s biodiversity.

3.

Summarize the characteristics that all living things share.
4.

Define the following terms:

a.

System

b.

Ecosystem

c.

Homeostasis

d.

Evolution

e.

Adaptation
5.

S
ummarize four major unifying themes of biology.

6.

Give an example of each of the themes of biology.

7.

Define the following terms:

a.

Observation

b.

Data

c.

Hypothesis

d.

Experiment

e.

Independent variable

f.

Dependent variable

g.

Constant

h.

Theory

8.

Identify the different elements of scientific inquiry.

9.

Differentiate between theories and hypotheses.

10.

D
efine the following terms:

a.

Microscope

b.

Gene

c.

Molecular genetics

d.

Genomic
11.

Describe the usefulness of modern imaging technologies.

12.

Explain the usefulness of computer models in studying biological systems.

13.

Summarize how modern computer
-
based
technologies have advanced the study of
genetics.

14.

Define the following terms:

a.

Biotechnology

b.

Transgenic

15.

Evaluate the importance of biology in making informed decisions.

16.

Summarize the benefits and risks of the application of biotechnology
.

17.

Explain how advances in technology might affect the future of biology.

Ch. 2: Chemistry of Life

1.

Define the following terms:

a.

Atom

b.

Element

c.

Compound

d.

Ion

e.

Ionic bond

f.

Covalent Bond

g.

Molecule
2.

Identify elements common to living things.

3.

Describe how ions form.

4.

Compare ionic and covalent bonding.

5.

Define the following terms:

a.

Hydrogen bond

b.

Cohesion

c.

Adhesion

d.

Solution

e.

Solvent

f.

Solute

g.

Acid

h.

Base

i.

pH

6.

Recognize the importance of hydrogen bonding.

7.

Explain why many compounds disso
lve in water.

8.

Compare acids and bases.

9.

Define the following terms:

a.

Monomer

b.

Polymer

c.

Carbohydrte

d.

Lipid

e.

Fatty acid

f.

Protein

g.

Amino acid

h.

Nucleic acid

10.

Describe the bonding properties of carbon atoms.

11.

Compare carohydrates, lipids,
proteins, and nucleic acids.

12.

Define the following terms:

a.

Chemical reaction

b.

Reactant

c.

Product

d.

Bond energy

e.

Equilibrium

f.

Activation energy

g.

Exothermic

h.

Endothermic
13.

Describe how bonds break and reform during chemical reactions.

14.

Explain

why chemical reactions release or absorb energy.

15.

Define the following terms:

a.

Catalyst

b.

Enzyme

c.

Substrate

16.

Explain the effect of a catalyst on activation energy.

17.

Describe

how enzymes regulate chemical reactions.


Ch. 3: Cell Structure and

Function


1.

Define the following terms:

a.

Cell theory

b.

Cytoplasm

c.

Organelle

d.

Prokaryotic cell

e.

Eukaryotic cell

2.

Describe the developments that led to the cell theory.

3.

Differentiate between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.

4.

Define the
following terms:

a.

Cytoskeleton

b.

Nucleus

c.

Endoplasmic reticulum

d.

Ribosome

e.

Golgi apparatus

f.

Vesicle

g.

Mitochonddrion

h.

Vacuole

i.

Lysosome

j.

Centriole

k.

Cell wall

l.

Chloroplast

5.

Describe the internal structure of eukaryotic cells.

6.

Summarize the functions
of organelles in plant and animal cells.

7.

Define the following terms:

a.

Cell membrane

b.

Phospholipid

c.

Fluid mosaic model

d.

Selective permeability

e.

Receptor

8.

Describe the structure of the cell membrane.

9.

Summarize how chemical signals are

transmitted across the cell membrane.

10.

Define the following terms:

a.

Passive transport

b.

Diffusion

c.

Concentration gradient

d.

Osmosis

e.

Isotonic

f.

Hypertonic

g.

Hypotonic

h.

Facilitated diffusion

11.

Describe passive transport.

12.

Distinguish between
osmois, diffusion and facilitated diffusion.

13.

Define the following terms:

a.

Active transport

b.

Endocytosis

c.

Phagocytosis

d.

Exocytosis

14.

Describe active transport.

15.

Distinguish among endocytosis, phagocytosis and exocytosis.


Ch.
4: Cells and Energy

1.

Define the following terms:

a.

ATP

b.

ADP

c.

Chemosynthesis

2.

Recognize the importance of ATP as an energy
-
carrying molecule.

3.

Identify energy sources used by organisms.

4.

Define the following terms:

a.

Photosynthesis

b.

Chlorophyll

c.

Thylakoid

d.

Light
-
dependent reactions

e.

Light
-
independent
reactions
5.

Relate producers to photosynthesis.

6.

Describe the process of photosynthesis.

7.

Define the following terms:

a.

Photosystem

b.

Electron transport chain

c.

ATP
synthase

d.

Calvin Cycle
8.

Describe the light
-
dependent reactions in which energy is captured.

9.

Describe the light
-
independent reactions in which sugar is produced.

10.

Define the following terms:

a.

Cellular respiration

b.

Aerobic

c.

Glycolysis

d.

Anaerobic

e.

Krebs cycle
11.

Describe the process of cellular respiration.

12.

Compare cellular respiration to photosynthesis.

13.

Describe the process of glycolysis.

14.

Describe the details of the Krebs cycle and the electron transport chain.

15.

Define the following terms:

a.

Fermentation

b.

Lactic acid

16.

Describe the process of fermentation.

17.

Summarize the importance of fermentation.


Ch. 5: Cell Growth and Division

1.

Define the following terms:

a.

Cell cycle

b.

Mitosis

c.

Cytokinesis
2.

Describe the stages

of the cell cycle.

3.

Compare rates of division in different cell types.

4.

Identify factors that limit cell size.

5.

Define the following terms:

a.

Chromosome

b.

Histone

c.

Chromatin

d.

Chromatid

e.

Centromere

f.

Telomere

g.

Prophase

h.

Metaphase

i.

Anaphase

j.

Telophase
6.

De
scribe the structure of a chromosome.

7.

Follow chromosomes through the processes of mitosis and cytokinesis.

8.

Define the following terms:

a.

Growth factor

b.

Apoptosis

c.

Cancer

d.

Benign

e.

Malignant

f.

Metastasize

g.

Carcinogen
9.

Identify internal and external
factors that regulate cell division.

10.

Explain cancer in terms of the cell cycle.

11.

Define the following terms:

a.

Asexual reproduction

b.

Binary fission

12.

Compare and contrast binary fission and mitiosis.

13.

Describe how some eukaryotes reproduce ase
xually through mitosis.

14.

Define the following terms:

a.

Tissue

b.

Organ

c.

Organ system

d.

Cell differentiation

e.

Stem cell

15.

Describe the specialization in multicellular organisms.

16.

Identify types of stem cells.

Ch. 6: Meiosis and Mendel

1.

Define

the following terms:

a.

Somatic cell

b.

Gamete

c.

Homologous chromosome

d.

Autosome

e.

Sex chromosome

f.

Sexual reproduction

g.

Fertilization

h.

Diploid

i.

Haploid

j.

Meiosis
2.

Differentiate between body cells and gametes.

3.

Compare and contrast autosomes and sex chrom
osomes.

4.

Define the following terms:

a.

Gametogenesis

b.

Sperm

c.

Egg

d.

Polar body

5.

Compare and contrast the
2
rounds of division in meiosis.

6.

Describe how haploid cells develop into mature gametes.

7.

Define the following terms:

a.

Trait

b.

Genetics

c.

Purebred

d.

Cross

e.

Law of segregation

8.

Describe the patterns of inheritance that Mendel’s data revealed.

9.

Summarize Mendel’s law of segregation.

10.

Define the following terms:

a.

Gene

b.

Allele

c.

Homologous

d.

Heterozygous

e.

Genome

f.

Genotype

g.

Phenotype

h.

Dominant

i.

Recessive

11.

Explain how there can be many versions of one gene.

12.

Describe how genes influence the development of traits.

13.

Define the following terms:

a.

Punnett Square

b.

Monohybrid cross

c.

Testcross

d.

Dihybrid cross

e.

Law of
independent
assortment

f.

Probability

14.

Describe monohybrid and dihybrid crosses.

15.

Explain how heredity can be illustrated mathematically.

16.

Define the following terms:

a.

Crossing over

b.

Genetic linkage

17.

Describe how sexual reproduction c
reates unique gene combinations.

18.

Explain how crossing over during meiosis increases genetic diversity.


Ch. 7: Extending Mendelian Genetics
:

1.

Define the following terms:

a.

Carrier

b.

Sex
-
linked gene

c.

X chromosome inactivation

2.

Relate dominant
-
r
ecessive patterns of inheritance in autosomal chromosomes to
genetic disorders.

3.

Describe patterns of inheritance in sex
-
linked traits.

4.

Define the following terms:

a.

Incomplete dominance

b.

Codominance

c.

Polygenic trait

5.

Describe different types

of allele interactions.

6.

Describe polygenic traits and effect of environmental factors on phenotype.

7.

Define the term linkage map.

8.

Describe the discovery of gene linkage.

9.

Explain how linkage maps can be used to estimate distances between genes.

10.

Define the t
erms pedigree and karyotype.

11.

Examine patterns of inheritance in humans.

12.

Describe how a pedigree is used.

13.

Identify several methods for mapping human chromosomes.

Ch. 8: From DNA to Proteins
:

1.

Define bacteriophage.

2.

Describe Griffith’s discovery of a
transforming principle.

3.

Explain how Avery identified DNA as the transforming principle.

4.

Summarize the experiments of Hershey and Chase that confirmed DNA as the
genetic material.

5.

Define the following:

a.

Nucleotide

b.

Double helix

c.

Base pairing rules

6.

Describe the interaction of the four nucleotides that make
-
up DNA

7.

Describe the 3D structure of DNA.

8.

Define replication and DNA polymerase.

9.

Summarize the process of DNA replication.

10.

Describe the role of enzymes in DNA replication.



11.

Define the f
ollowing terms:

a.

Central dogma

b.

RNA

c.

Transcription

d.

RNA polymerase

e.

Messenger RNA (mRNA)

f.

Ribosomal RNA (rRNA)

g.

Transfer RNA (tRNA)

12.

Describe the relationship between RNA and DNA.

13.

Identify the three kinds of RNA and their functions.

14.

Compare tra
nscription to replication.

15.

Define the following terms:

a.

Translation

b.

Codon

c.

Stop codon

d.

Start codon

e.

Anticodon

16.

Describe how mRNA codons are translated into amino acids.

17.

Summarize the process of protein synthesis.

18.

Define the following terms:

a.

Mutation

b.

Point mutation

c.

Frameshift mutation

d.

Mutagen

19.

Distinguish between different types of mutations.

20.

Explain why mutations may or may not affect phenotype.

21.

List some factors that cause mutations.


Ch. 9: Frontiers of Biotechnology

1.

De
fine the following terms:

a.

Restriction enzyme

b.

Gel electrophoresis

c.

Restriction map

2.

Summarize how restriction enzymes cut DNA.

3.

Explain how restriction maps show the lengths of DNA fragments.

4.

Define the following terms:

a.

Polymerase
chain reaction

b.

Primer

5.

Describe the role of polymerases in copy DNA fragments.

6.

Outline the 3
-
step process of PCR process.

7.

Define DNA fingerprint.

8.

Describe what a DNA fingerprint represents.

9.

Summarize how DNA fingerprints are used for identificati
on.


10.

Define the following terms:

a.

Clone

b.

Genetic engineering

c.

Recombinant DNA

d.

Plasmid

e.

Transgenic

f.

Gene knockout

11.

Describe how organisms are cloned.

12.

Explain how new genes can be added to an organism’s DNA.

13.

Define the following terms:

a.

Genomics

b.

Gene sequencing

c.

Human Genome Project

d.

Bioinformatics

e.

DNA microarray

f.

Proteomics

14.

Describe genomics.

15.

Identify how technology helps compare and study genes and proteins.

16.

Define the following terms:

a.

Genetic screening

b.

Gene therepy

17.

Explain how genetic screening can detect genetic disorders.

18.

Describe how gene therapy research seeks to replace faulty genes.

Ch. 10: Principles of Evolution

1.

Define the following terms:

a.

Evolution

b.

Species

c.

Fossil

d.

Catastrophism

e.

Gradualism

f.

Uniformitarianism

2.

Examine early ideas about evolution.

3.

Identify 3 geological theories that influenced scientific debate over evolution.

4.

Define variation and speciation.

5.

Describe how Darwin arrived at his idea about species variation.

6.

Recognize
how Darwin’s discoveries supported Lyell’s ancient
-
Earth theory.

7.

Define the following terms:

a.

Artificial selection

b.

Heritability

c.

Natural selection

d.

Population

e.

Fitness

8.

Compare artificial selection to natural selection.

9.

Examine the factors D
arwin considered in forming his theory of natural selection.

10.

Summarize the four principles of natural selection.


11.

Define the following terms:

a.

Biogeography

b.

Homologous structures

c.

Analogous structures

d.

Vestigial structures

12.

Recognize the
major sources of evidence of evolution.

13.

Examine the pattern of features that reveal the history of species.

14.

Define paleontology

15.

Summarize different types of evidence that support evolution.

16.

Recognize the importance of evolution in unifying all branches of
biological study.

Ch. 11: The Evolution of Populations

1.

Define gene pool and allele frequency

2.

Describe the significance of genetic variation within a population.

3.

Identify sources of genetic variation.

4.

Define the following terms:

a.

Normal distribution

b.

Microevolution

c.

Directional selection

d.

Stabilizing selection

e.

Disruptive selection

5.

Describe how natural selection acts on the distribution of traits in a population.

6.

Explain three ways natural selection can change the distribution of a trait in a
population.

7.

Define the following terms:

a.

Gene flow

b.

Genetic drift

c.

Bottleneck effect

d.

Founder effect

e.

Sexual selection

8.

Explain how gene flow, genetic drift, and sexual selection can lead to the evolution
of populations.

9.

Define the following
terms:

a.

Reproductive isolation

b.

Speciation

c.

Behavioral isolation

d.

Geographical isolation

e.

Temporal isolation

10.

Explain how isolation of populations can lead to speciation.

11.

Describe how populations can become isolated.

12.

Define the following term
s:

a.

Convergent evolution

b.

Divergent evolution

c.

Coevolution

d.

Extinction

e.

Punctuated equilibrium

f.

Adaptive radiation

13.

Describe different types and rates of evolution.

14.

Compare different types and rates of extinction.

Ch. 13: Principles of Ecology

1.

Define the following terms:

a.

Ecology

b.

Community

c.

Ecosystem

d.

Biome

2.

Summarize the levels of organization that ecologists study.

3.

Describe research methods ecologists use to study the environment.

4.

Define the following terms:

a.

Biotic

b.

Ab
iotic

c.

Biodiversity

d.

Keystone species

5.

Identify biotic and abiotic factors in an ecosystem.

6.

Describe how a change in one factor in an ecosystem can affect others.

7.

Define the following terms:

a.

Producer

b.

Autotroph

c.

Consumer

d.

Heterotroph

e.

Chemosynthesis

8.

Describe the role of producers and consumers in ecosystems.

9.

Compare photosynthesis to chemosynthesis.

10.

Define the following terms:

a.

Food chain

b.

Carnivore

c.

Detritivore

d.

Specialist

e.

Trophic level

f.

Herbivore

g.

Omnivore

h.

Decomposer

i.

Gen
eralist

j.

Food web

11.

Describe the structure of a food chain.

12.

Explain how food chains and trophic levels are related.

13.

Analyze feeding relationships in a food web.

14.

Define the following terms:

a.

Hydrologic cycle

b.

Biogeochemical cycle

c.

Nitrogen fix
ation

15.

Summarize Earth’s hydrologic and biogeochemical cycles.

16.

Relate cycling of matter to ecosystems.

17.

Define biomass and energy pyramid.

18.

Trace the flow of energy through an ecosystem, using an energy pyramid.

19.

Relate energy pyramids to food chains and trophic.

20.

Compare and contrast biomass pyramid and a pyramid of numbers.

Ch. 14: Interactions in Ecosystems

1.

Define the following terms:

a.

Habitat

b.

Ecological niche

c.

Competitive exclusion

d.

Ecological equivalent

2.

Differentiate between

habitat and niche.

3.

Differentiate between competitive exclusion and ecological equivalents.

4.

Define the following terms:

a.

Competition

b.

Predation

c.

Symbiosis

d.

Mutualism

e.

Commensalism

f.

Parasitism

5.

Compare and contrast interspecific and intraspecific competition.

6.

Describe three types of symbiosis.

7.

Describe the following terms:

a.

Population density

b.

Population dispersion

c.

Survivorship curve

8.

Consider density and geographic dispersal as
characteristics of populations.

9.

Describe the three basic types of survivorship curves in relation to reproductive
strategies.

10.

Define the following terms:

a.

Immigration

b.

Emigration

c.

Exponential growth

d.

Logistic growth

e.

Carrying capacity

f.

Population crash

g.

Limiting factor

h.

Density
-
dependent limiting
factor

i.

Density
-
independent
limiting factor

11.

Describe four factors that affect population size.

12.

Compare exponential and logistic population growth.

13.

Identify factors that limit population growth.

14.

Define th
e following terms:

a.

Succession

b.

Primary succession

c.

Pioneer species

d.

Secondary species

15.

Describe the process of primary succession.

16.

Explain the difference between primary and secondary succession
.