Lecture 2 Digital Data Representation (1)

clashjudiciousElectronics - Devices

Nov 8, 2013 (3 years and 11 months ago)

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FALL
2012

Dr. Ghada Drahem



Facult
y of Engineering

Computer Engineering Department

I
nstructor
:

Dr.
Ghada

Drahem


Office Hours:



Wednesday:
10.30
to
11.30

Email address:



ghdrahem@yahoo.com
















COURSE MATERIALS


Recommended Textbooks


Understanding Computers: Today and Tomorrow

Deborah Morley, and Charles S. Parker.




Credit


These lectures are based on the slides provided by Prentice
Hall, the publisher of the textbook
.

METHOD OF ASSESSMENT


Year Work :
10
%


Assignments and Projects :
30
%.


Exams:
20
%


Final Exam:
40
%


COURSE OUTLINE


Introduction to the World of Computer.


Numbering Systems and Digital Data Representation.


Computer System Architecture.


Software systems: Operating Systems and Utility
Programs.


Application Software.


Word processing


Spreadsheet


Database


Presentation graphics


An overview of networks and the Internet


COURSE OBJECTIVES


Explain why it is essential to learn about
computers today and discuss several ways
computers are integrated into our business and
personal lives.


Define a computer and describe its primary
operations.


Identify the major parts of a personal computer,
Define software and understand how it is used to
instruct the computer what to do.


Explain the binary numbering system and how
the digital data is represented.




COURSE OBJECTIVES


Discuss some of software application.


Detail some concepts and commands that many software programs
have in common.


Discuss word processing and explain what kinds of documents are
created using this type of program.


Explain the purpose of spreadsheet software and the kinds of
documents created using this type of program.


Identify some of the vocabulary used with database software and
discuss the benefits of using this type of program.


Describe what presentation graphics and electronic slide shows are
and when they might be used.


Give an overview about computer networks and internet: data
communication, transmission modes, transmission media, computer
networks, internet protocol, and internet services.






INTENDED LEARNING OUTCOMES


This lecture covers:


Why learn about computers?


What computers do and how they are used


Computer system (hardware
-
software)


The basic types of computers in use today


An overview of networks and the Internet


WHY LEARN ABOUT
COMPUTERS?


Computer is an essential skill today for everyone


At home


In education


At work


On the go


COMPUTERS IN THE HOME


Computers used for

a variety of tasks:


Looking up information

and news


Exchange e
-
mail


Shopping and paying bills


Downloading music and


movies


Organizing digital

photographs


Playing games

12

COMPUTERS IN EDUCATION


Colleges and universities are even
more integrated


Classrooms, computer labs,
libraries



Internet assignments


Teachers


Prepare handouts, exams, and
class presentations


Maintain course Web pages


Distance learning


Students participate from
locations other than the
traditional classroom setting
using computers and Internet
access

COMPUTERS IN THE WORKPLACE

COMPUTERS ON THE GO


Computers are encountered
in nearly every aspect of
daily life


Portable PCs and handheld
computers


Internet cafes


ATM machines and retail
stores


Self
-
checkout systems


M
-
commerce systems


GPS systems

WHAT IS A COMPUTER AND WHAT DOES IT DO?


Computer
: A programmable, electronic device that accepts data,
performs operations on that data, and stores the data or results as
needed


Computers follow instructions, called programs, which determine the
tasks the computer will perform


Basic operations


Input:

Entering data into the computer


Processing:

Performing operations on the data


Output:

Presenting the results


Storage:

Saving data, programs, or output for future use


Communications
: Sending or receiving data


WHAT IS A COMPUTER AND WHAT DOES IT DO?

DATA VS. INFORMATION


Data


Raw, unorganized facts


Can be in the form of text, graphics, audio, or video


Information


Data that has been processed into a meaningful form


Information processing


Converting data into information

A COMPUTER SYSTEM


Mainly consists of two parts:



Hardware


Software

HARDWARE


Hardware
: The physical parts of a computer


Internal hardware


Located inside the main box (system unit) of the computer


External hardware


Located outside the system unit and plug into ports located on the
exterior of the system unit

HARDWARE

HARDWARE


Input devices


Used to input data into the computer


Keyboards, mice, scanners, cameras, microphones, joysticks,
etc.


Processing devices


Perform calculations and control computer’s operation


Central processing unit (CPU) and memory


Output devices


Present results to the user


Monitors, printers, speakers, projectors, etc.

HARDWARE


Storage devices


Used to store data on or access data from storage media


Hard drives, DVD disks and drives, USB flash drives, etc.


Communications devices


Allow users to communicate with others and to electronically
access information


Modems, network adapters, etc.

HARDWARE

SOFTWARE


Software:

The programs or instructions used to tell the
computer hardware what to do


System software
: Operating system allows a computer to
operate


Boots the computer and launches programs at the user’s direction


Most use a GUI to interact with the user via windows, icons, menus,
buttons, etc.


Windows, Mac OS, Linux, etc.

APPLICATION SOFTWARE


Application software:

Performs specific tasks or applications


Creating letters, budgets, etc.


Managing inventory and customer databases


Editing photographs


Scheduling appointments


Viewing Web pages


Sending and receiving e
-
mail


Recording / playing CDs


Designing homes


Playing games

APPLICATION SOFTWARE

COMPUTERS TO FIT EVERY NEED


Categories of computers


Mobile device

:

a very small device with some type of
built
-
in computing or Internet capability


Personal computer

:

a
computer

system

is

designed

to

be

used

by

one

person

at a time


Midrange server:

a medium
-
sized computer is used to host
programs and data for a small network


Mainframe computer
: powerful computer is used by several
large organizations to manage large amounts of centralized
data


Supercomputer:
fastest, most expensive, most powerful type
of computer

COMPUTER NETWORKS AND THE INTERNET


Computer network:

A collection of hardware and other devices that
are connected together.


Users can share hardware, software, and data


Users can communicate with each other


Network servers:

Manage resources on a network


Clients:

Access resources through the network server


Computer networks exist in many sizes and types


Home networks


School and small business networks


Large corporate


Public wireless networks


The Internet

COMPUTER NETWORKS AND THE INTERNET

WHAT ARE THE INTERNET AND THE

WORLD WIDE WEB?


Internet:

The largest and most well
-
known computer network
in the world


World Wide Web:

One resource (a vast collection of Web
pages) available through the Internet


Web sites

contain
Web pages

stored on
Web servers


Web pages viewed using a
Web browser

(Internet Explorer,
Safari, Firefox, Opera, etc).


A wide variety of information is available through the Web