ENIAC, first US Electronic Computer, 1946

clashjudiciousElectronics - Devices

Nov 8, 2013 (3 years and 5 months ago)

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ENIAC, first US Electronic
Computer, 1946

ENIAC “circuit board”

The Intel 4004 microprocessor, which was introduced in 1971.

The 4004 contained only 2300 transistors and performed

60,000 calculations per second. Courtesy: Intel.

Intel 4004, 60 kilohertz

Babbage’s Differential Engine

(1830)

In 1640, Pascal started developing a device to help

his father add sums of money.

The first operating model, the Arithmetic Machine,

was introduced in 1642, and Pascal created fifty more

devices over the next ten years. (In 1658, Pascal

created a scandal

when, under the pseudonym of Amos

Dettonville, he challenged other mathematicians to a

contest and then awarded the prize to himself!)

Pascal’s 1642 Arithmetic Engine

IBM 701

A notable first: The IBM 701






Fifty years ago
--

on April 29, 1952
---

IBM President Thomas J.
Watson, Jr., informed his company's stockholders at the annual meeting
that IBM was building "the most advanced, most flexible high
-
speed
computer in the world." Known as the Defense Calculator while in
development, the new machine emerged from the IBM Poughkeepsie
Laboratory later that year and was formally unveiled to the public on
April 7, 1953 as the IBM 701 Electronic Data Processing Machines.*




What was so special about the 701? Well, a few things. The 701 was a
landmark product because it was:


The first IBM large
-
scale electronic computer manufactured in
quantity;


IBM's first commercially available scientific computer;


The first IBM machine in which programs were stored in an internal,
addressable, electronic memory;


Developed and produced in record time
--

less than two years from
"first pencil on paper" to installation;


Key to IBM's transition from punched
-
card machines to electronic
computers; and


The first of the pioneering line of IBM 700 series computers,
including the 702, 704, 705 and 709.

Some of the early milestones in
small computers

1975 Bill Gates founded Microsoft

1976 Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak built
the first Apple I

1977 the Apple II came out for $1300

1977 Commadore and the Tandy/Radio
Shack (TRS
-
80) computers came out

1981 First IBM PC (8088 architecture)

How things change

In 1975, an IBM mainframe computer that could
perform 10,000,000 instructions per second (10
MegaHertz) cost around $10,000,000. In

1995 (only twenty years later), a computer video
game capable of performing 500,000,000 (500
MegaHertz) instructions per second was
available for approximately $500!

In 2006 a 3 GigaHertz processor (3,000,000,000
instructions per second) costs around $1200


A punch card machine, a card reader, and a card…

NASA’s fastest computer

Wed, 27 Oct 2004
-

NASA unveiled its new
supercomputer on
Tuesday, which took the
lead as the fasted
computer in the world.
Named "Columbia", to
commemorate the space
shuttle, the
supercomputer is built up
from 10,240 Itanium 2
processors, and is
capable of
42.7 teraflops
(trillion calculations per
second).

Rank Site (www.top500.org)

Computer Processors/Year/Rmax/ Rpeak

1.
DOE/NNSA/LLNL

United States BlueGene/L
-

eServer Blue Gene Solution IBM

131072

2005 280600
367,000,000,000,000


2.
IBM Thomas J. Watson Research Center

United States BGW
-

eServer Blue Gene Solution IBM

40960

2005 91290
114,688,000,000,000

3.
DOE/NNSA/LLNL

United States ASC Purple
-

eServer pSeries p5 575 1.9 GHz IBM

10240

2005 63390
77,824,000,000,000


4.
NASA/Ames Research Center/NAS

United States Columbia
-

SGI Altix 1.5 GHz, Voltaire Infiniband SGI

10160

2004 51870
60,960,000,000,000


5.
Sandia National Laboratories

United States Thunderbird
-

PowerEdge 1850, 3.6 GHz, Infiniband Dell

8000

2005 38270
64,512,000,000,000


So the DOE/NNSA/LLNL supercomputer has 131,072 processors

Was built in 2005,

and had a peak performance of
367,000,000,000,000 calculations

per second.

The fastest computers…

Lots of patents

Thomas Edison built
an “invention factory”
to turn out a new
invention every 10
days.

At one point he and
his company received
a new patent every 5
days for 4 straight
years!

Edison received 1093
patents

A patent is a legal
way of protecting your
ideas

Founder of FIRST

(For Inspiration and Recognition of Science and
Technology)

150 patents

Founded FIRST

Developed the Segway
“people transporter”

Developed a wheel chair
that could climb stairs

Developed a kidney
dialysis machine the size
of a suitcase.

Computers in Everything

Can you list some places that computers
(even if they don’t look like computers)
could be found in your home, school, or
local stores?

Computers everywhere

House


Alarm systems


Phones


Microwaves


Refrigerators


Heating/cooling systems


DVD players/iPods


Televisions


Computers


Printers


Radios


Water, gas, electric meters

Cars

Elevator controls

Traffic signal controls

Telecommunications

Mail sorting at the Post
Office

GPS (global positioning
systems)

Weather stations

Network systems