CPS 111 Introduction to

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Nov 8, 2013 (3 years and 8 months ago)

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1

CPS 111


Introduction to
Information Communication
Technology

Lecture 2


HARDWARE, SOFTWARE, NETWORKS

Lecturer: Mr. B. SINGHATEH

2



Functions of personal computer


Hardware


Software


Networks



To research :
Multiplexer

3

Computers range from the smallest
PDAs to the largest CPU mainframes


Today’s computer systems come in a variety
of sizes shapes and computing capabilities


Super Computers


Mainframe Systems


Midrange computers


Microcomputers




4

Purchase prices for supercomputers
can range from $5M to $50M USD


The term supercomputer describes a category
of extremely powerful computers


Specifically designed for scientific, engineering and
business applications requiring extremely high speeds


Use parallel processing architectures or
interconnected microcomputers


As of November 2008, the fastest
supercomputer is the IBM Roadrunner

Super Computer

6

Mainframe use is on the rise as a
result of emerging applications such
as data mining/warehousing and
ecommerce


Mainframe
systems continue to handle the
information processing needs of major
corporations and government agencies


Used to handle high transaction processing
volume or complex computational problem
solving


Can process thousands of million instructions
per second


Have large primary storage capacity

A Mainframe Computer

Features



large
-
sized



Powerful multi
-
user computers that can

support concurrent programs.



--

Mainframe computers can be used by as many as hundreds or
thousands of users at the same time.




Large organizations may use a mainframe computer to
execute large
-
scale processes such as processing the
organization's payroll.

9

Though less powerful, midrange
systems are less costly to buy,
operate and maintain than
mainframe systems


Midrange

-

Systems are primarily high
-
end
network servers and other types of servers that
can handle the processing of many business
applications


Often used to help manage larger Internet
websites, corporate intranets and extranets and
other networks


Other applications such as data warehouse
management, data mining and online analytical
processing are becoming popular

Futures


Are mid
-
sized multi
-
processing computers.
--
Support a good number of users



In recent years the distinction between mini
-
computers and small mainframes has become
blurred.




Organizations may use a mini
-
computer for
such tasks as



-
Managing financial system or maintaining a
small database or applications

11

Microcomputers are the most
important category for
consumers


Also called PCs (personal computers)


PCs are available as hand
-
held, notebook,
laptop, portable, desktop or floor
-
standing
models


Other examples of
microcomputers

include


Workstation computers that support
applications e.g. IBM 1620


Network servers that coordinate
telecommunications and resource sharing in
small networks

A Micro Computer

13

There are several additional,
smaller, categories of
microcomputers


Network computers


Sealed and networked microcomputers with minimal
disk storage


Primarily used with the internet


Low cost to purchase, maintain, upgrade and support


Information appliances


Hand
-
held personal digital assistants (PDAs) are the most
popular IA


Computer terminals


Use keypads, touch screens, bar code scanners etc. to
capture data and interact with end users during a
transaction, while relying on other computers in the
network for further transaction processing

14

What do you look for in a new PC
system?


A large monitor? Lots of RAM? Capacious
hard drive?


Price of a new computer is only a small part
of the total cost of ownership (TCO)


Support, maintenance, upgrades etc. contribute far
more heavily to the total sum


Large corporations are more concerned with
the following:


Solid performance at a reasonable price


Operating system ready


Connectivity

15

How fast are computer systems?


Early computer operating speeds were measured in
milliseconds (thousandths of a second)


Now computers operate in the
nanosecond (billionth
of a second) range


An average person taking one step each nanosecond
would circle the earth 20 times in one second


Picoseconds (trillionth of a second)
have been achieved by
some computers


Most computers process instructions at
million
instructions per second
(MIPS)


Another measure of processing speed is
megahertz
(MHz)
, or millions or cycles per second, and
gigahertz
(GHz)
, or billions of cycles per second

16

Operating speed is only one factor
which impacts processing speed


Operating speed ratings can be misleading
indicators of effective processing (ability to
perform useful computations or data processing
during a given period of time)


Processing speed depends on several additional
factors:


Size of circulatory paths


Capacity of instruction processing registers


Use of specialized processors


Etc.

17

There are hundreds of smaller
components within a computer, but
only a few major ones


Monitor


Keyboard


Mouse


Cables


Computer tower


Processor (CPU)


Fan


Disk drive and/or floppy drive


Hard drive


RAM


Motherboard

18

Computers can be relatively easy
to Assemble


Plug computer tower and monitor to wall


Connect monitor, keyboard and mouse to
computer tower


Look for pictures on back of the tower to help guide
you to the correct connection location


Verify that outlet is on and functional


Take note of:


USB ports


Headphone connection


Network ports

19

REVIEW: What are the six major
components of a computer?


Input devices


Processor


Memory
(random access memory, RAM)


Output devices


Storage devices


Communication devices


Can you give an example of these hardware
components?

20

A computer is only a high powered
“processing box” without peripherals


Peripherals is a generic name given to all:


Input devices


Output devices


Secondary storage devices


Are separate from, but can be electronically
connected to and controlled by, a CPU

21

Input technologies now provide a
more natural user interface


Keyboards

are the most widely used devices for
entering text and data


The
electronic mouse

is the most popular
pointing device

used to move the cursor on the
screen


The computer interface displayed on the
computer screen is also known as the
Graphical
User Interface

(GUI)

22

There are several additional, but less
popular, pointing devices used today


Trackball

-

A roller ball with only its top exposed
outside used to move the cursor


Pointing stick



A small button
-
like device which
moves the cursor in the direction on the pressure
you place on the stick (Likened to an eraser head)


Touchpad



A small rectangular touch
-
sensitive
surface


Touch screen



Allows you to use a computer by
touching the surface of its video display screen

23

Pen
-
based computing is an input
technology often used with PDAs


Pen
-
based computing



Your handwriting or
drawing in digitalized


Uses a digitizer pen as a pointing device to draw
or write on a pressure
-
sensitive surface of the
graphic tablet


Speech recognition systems



Digitalize,
analyze and classify your speech and passes
recognized words into your application software


Often requires training your computer

24

The banking industry utilizes
many different input technologies


Optical

scanning



Read text or graphics and
convert them to digital input


Other input technologies:


Magnetic stripes


Smart cards


Digital cameras


Magnetic ink character recognition (MICR)


25

It is increasingly more common to
utilize multimedia forms of output


Video output


Video monitors


Use a cathode ray tube similar to that in
used in a TV


Liquid crystal displays (LCDs)


Used for portable
microcomputers such as laptops and PDAs


Printed output


Inkjet printers


Spray ink onto a page


Laser printers


Electronic process similar to photocopying


Audio output

26

Data / information can be stored until
needed using various storage devices

Semiconductor

Memory

Magnetic Disks

Optical Disks

Magnetic Tape

Primary Storage

(Main Memory)

Secondary Storage

27

Data are processed and stored in a
computer through binary representation


Data are processed and stored in a computer
system through the presence or absence of
electronic or magnetic signals


This is called two
-
state or
binary representation


The smallest element of data is called a
bit


A
byte

is a basic grouping of bits that the
computer operates as a single unit

28

The primary storage of your computer
consists of microelectronic
semiconductor memory chips


Semiconductor memory



Provides you with working
storage your computer needs to process applications


RAM
: Random access memory


Each memory position and
both be read (sensed)
ROM
: Read only memory


Used for
permanent storage as ROM cannot be erased or overwritten


and written (changed)

29

Magnetic and optical disks are popular
storage methods because of their portability


Magnetic disks


Floppy disks


Capacities range from 1.5MB


750MB


Hard disk drives


Enclosed in a sealed
module which allows for higher speeds and
greater data recording densities


Capacities of several terabytes


Magnetic tape


Provide low
-
cost storage to supplement magnetic
disks

30

Optical disks are a fast growing storage
media


CD
-
ROM
: Low cost way to read data files and load
software from CDs


CD
-
RW

(rewritable): Allows you to create custom
data CDs


CD
-
RW/DVD
: Can read DVD
-
ROM and CD
-
ROM
disks and can create custom CDs


DVD
-
ROM
: Allows you to view DVD video and sound


A DVD
-
ROM drive can also read CD
-
ROM disks


DVD+RW/+R with CD
-
RW
: All in one package


Can burn DVD
-
RW or DVD
-
R disks, burn CDs, and
read DVDs and CDs

31

There are two major types of
computer software


Application software



Performs information
processing tasks for end user


Application specific

programs


General purpose

application programs


System software



Manages and supports
operations of computer systems and networks


System management

programs


System development

programs

The types of software you will encounter
depend on the types of computer you use
and the tasks you want to accomplish

32

The system and application software
interface between the end users and
computer hardware

End User

Application Software

System Software

Computer


Hardware

33

Thousands of application specific
software packages are available


Application specific software packages are
available to support specific applications of
end users in business and other fields


E.g. data warehousing, accounting, marketing,
manufacturing, human resource management,
etc.

34

The most widely used general
purpose productivity packages come
bundled as software suites


Software suites (e.g. Microsoft Office, Lotus
SmartSuite, AppleWorks)


Word processing (e.g. MS Word)


Electronic spreadsheets (e.g. MS Excel)


Presentation graphics (e.g. MS PowerPoint)


Advantage: cheaper than purchasing
individual applications, similar GUIs, designed
to work together


Disadvantages: Large space required, may not
need all features


Software alternatives (custom software) are
also growing in popularity

35

The most important software component
for many computers today is the web
browser


Web browser are the key software interface
you use to point and click through the world
wide web and the rest of the internet,
intranet and extranet


E.g. Internet Explorer, Netscape, Firefox, Google
Chrome, etc.


Universal software platform on which end
users launch information searches, check e
-
mail, transfer files, chat, etc.

36

Electronic mail and instant
messaging are the first thing many
people do at work


Electronic mail (e
-
mail) and instant
messaging (IM) have changed the way
people work and communicate


Millions of users depend on various e
-
mail
and IM software via the internet, intranet or
extranet


Many of these software applications are free
and can be downloaded or accessed via the
WWW

37

We can group system software
into two major categories


System management programs

manage the
hardware, software, network, and data resources of
computer systems during the execution or
information processing jobs


System development programs

help the users
develop information system programs and
procedures and prepare user programs for computer
processing

38

The most important system software
package is the operating system (OS)


The OS is an integrated system of programs that
manages the operations of the CPU, controls the
input/output and storage resources and activities of
the computer system and provides various support
services as the computer executes the application
programs of users


The most indispensible component of the software
interface between users and the hardware

39

The OS controls many vital
computer software functions


Operating system controls the following:


User interface


Allows you to communicate
with the OS (command
-
driven, menu
-
driven,
GUI)


Resource management



Manage the hardware
and networking resources


File management



Control the creation,
deletion, location and access of files of data and
programs


Task management



Manage the accomplishment
of the computing tasks

40

There are a variety of operating
systems available today


Microsoft Windows


Windows NT, 2000, XP, 2007 etc. are different versions of
the Windows OS


Mac OS


Operating system offered by Apple. Has advanced GUI
and multitasking and multimedia capabilities


Linux


Is UNIX
-
like but was developed as free or open
-
share
software


UNIX


Multitasking, multiuser, network
-
managing operating
system


41

There are many other types of
important system management
software besides operating
systems


Network management: Monitors network to
keep them up and running


Application server: Shuttles data between
business apps and the web


Database manager: Provides digital
storehouse for data


Collaboration tools: Powers everything from
e
-
mail to electronic calendars


Development tools: Allows programmers to
craft software code quickly

42

To understand computer software
you should have a basic
understanding of programming
languages (sys. dev.)


A programming language allows a
programmer to develop a set of instructions
that constitute a computer program


Programming requires the use of a variety of
programming packages


Higher level languages require a compiler or
interpreter to translate the program back into
machine language


Web languages and services


HTML, XML and Java are three programming
languages that are important tools for building web
pages, websites and web
-
based applications

43

There is a wide spectrum of
telecommunication based
technologies available today


Telecommunications is the exchange of
information in any form (voice, data, text,
image, audio, video) over computer based
networks


Entertainment


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䍯浭畮楣慴楯us


E.g. High
-
definition TV


䑩獴慮捥敡牮楮朠

䍥汬畬慲C獹獴敭s

44

The networked enterprise

When computers are networked, two industries


computing and communications


converge, and
the result is vastly more than the sum of the parts.
Suddenly, computing applications become
available for business
-
to
-
business coordination and
commerce, and for small as well as large
organizations. The global Internet creates a public
place without geographic boundaries


cyberspace


where ordinary citizens can interact, publish their
ideas, and engage in the purchase of goods and
services. In short, the impact of both computing on
our society and organizational structures is greatly
magnified.

45

Businesses have become
networked enterprises


Systems which are being used to network
business processes and employees together
and connect them to their customer,
suppliers and other business stakeholders:


Internet


Web


Intranets


Extranets


46

The internet has become the largest
and most important network today


The explosive growth of the internet is a
revolutionary phenomenon in computing and
telecommunications


Thousands of business, educational, and
research networks now connect millions of
computer systems


The internet does not have a central computer
system. Instead each message sent has a unique
address code so any internet server in the
network can forward it to its destination


No headquarters
-

International advisory and
standards groups of individual and corporate
members promote use of the internet and the
development of new communications standards

47

The World Wide Web is one of the
most popular internet
applications


The most popular internet applications are
e
-
mail, instant messaging, browsing sites on
the WWW, and participating in newsgroups
and chat rooms


http://www.webopedia.com/DidYouKnow/intern
et/2002/web_vs_internet.asp



You can make online searches for
information at websites using search engines
such as Google and Yahoo!

48

What business value do companies
derive fro their business
applications on the internet?


Generate new revenue from online sales


Reduce costs of doing business


Develop new web
-
based products


Increase customer loyalty and retention


Attract new customers


Develop new markets and channels

49

Many companies feel that investing
in the intranet is as fundamental as
supplying an employee with a phone


A network inside of an organization that uses internet
technologies to provide an internet
-
like environment within
the enterprise


Information sharing


Communication


Collaboration


Support of business processes


Is protected by passwords and encryption and can only be
accessed by authorized users via the internet


Business value


Collaboration and communication


Web publishing


Business operations and management

50

As companies continue to use extranets
they are able to gain many competitive
advantages along the way


Extranets are network links that use internet
technologies to interconnect the intranet of a
business with the intranets of its customers,
suppliers or other business partners


Business value


Speed and ease of access to intranet resources


Enables a company to offer new kinds of interactive web
-
based services to their customers


Improved collaboration

51

It is important to understand some
important characteristics and basic
components of telecommunications

Network Alternative

Examples of Alternatives

Networks

Internet, intranet, extranet, wide area,
local area, client/server, peer
-
to
-
peer

Media

Twisted
-
pair wire, coaxial cable, fiber
optics. Satellites, wireless, LAN

Processors

Modems, multiplexers, routers, switches,
hubs

Software

Network operating systems, web
browsers, telecommunications monitors

Channels

Analog/digital, switched/nonswitched,
bandwidth alternatives

Topology/architecture

Star, ring, and bus topologies, OSI and
TCP.IP architecture and protocols

Key telecommunications components and
alternatives

52

The basic components of a
telecommunications network

1.
Terminal

2.
Telecommunications processors

3.
Telecommunications channels

4.
Computers

5.
Telecommunications control software

PC, Other
Terminals

Processor

Processor

Computers

Software

1

1

2

2

3

4

5

2

3

4

5

53

Different types of networks serve as the
telecommunications infrastructure for
the internet, intranets, and extranet


WAN (Wide area networks): Connecting a
large geographic area such as a city


LAN (Local area network): Connect within a
limited physical area such as an office


VPN (Virtual private network): A secure
network that uses the internet to connect
participating organizations

Diagram

55

Different types of networks serve as
the telecommunications infrastructure
for the internet, intranets, and
extranet


Client/server: Client computer are interconnected
by LANs and share application processing with
network servers, which also manage the networks


Have become the predominant information architecture
of enterprise wide computing


Peer
-
to
-
peer networking: The file
-
sharing software
in the P2P network connects your PC with one of
the online users in the network

56

Telecommunications channels make
use of a variety of telecommunications
media


Twisted
-
pair wire: Ordinary telephone wire,
consisting of copper wire twisted into pairs is the
most widely used medium for telecommunications


Coaxial cable: Are use in high
-
service metropolitan
areas and many office buildings for LANs


Fiber optics: Cables consisting of one or more hair
-
this filaments of glass fiber wrapped in a protective
jacket


About 100 times greater that coaxial cables and 1,000 times
better than twisted
-
pair wire

57

Wireless telecommunications transport
digital communications without wires
between communication devices


Rely on radio wave, microwave, infrared, and visible
light pulses to transport digital communications


Terrestrial microwave:


Communications satellites


Cellular and pcs systems


Wireless LANs

58

Processors perform a variety of
support functions between computers
and other devices


Modems: Convert digital signal from a computer or
transmission terminal at one end of a
communications link to analog frequencies that can
be transmitted over telephone lines


A modem at the other end converts the transmitted data
back into digital form


Most common type of communications processor


Multiplexers:


Internetwork processors:

59

Networks are interconnected by
special
-
purpose communications
processors


Internetwork processors:


Routers:
Interconnects networks based on different
rules so a message can be routed to its destination


Switches:
Communications processor that makes a
connections between telecommunication circuits and
networks


Hubs:
Port (connection for shared access to networks
resources) switching communications processor


Gateways:
Connect networks that use different
communications architecture

60

Network management software
monitors and manages network
performance


Major network management functions:


Traffic management


Security


Network monitoring


Capacity planning