Civil Rights Movement

clashjudiciousElectronics - Devices

Nov 8, 2013 (3 years and 10 months ago)

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Post WW2,1950s
America, and the
Civil Rights
Movement

US History AP

Chapters 36 and 37

Economics after WW2


People worry about return to depression


Initial years after WW2


GNP slumped


Price controls relaxed


prices skyrocket,
inflation


Epidemic of strikes


Government reinstitutes controls


Unions lose power


Taft
-
Hartley Act


Outlaws closed shops


Union membership begins to decline


Economics after WW2


Economy recovers


why?


Cheap energy


low cost of petroleum


Productivity



cold war spending,
marshall

plan


1950
-
1970 long economic boom


National income doubles in 1950s and again
in 1960s


Middle class doubles


Agribusiness
-

mechanization


GI Bill of 1944



15 million returning veterans


Encourage veterans to get an
education


Unemployment benefits


Loans for homes, farms, businesses

Elections


1948


Truman

v. Dewey v. Thurmond


Truman
--

Whistlestop campaign


country wide
train campaign against “do nothing congress”


Thurmond


Dixiecrat (anti
-
civil rights, pro
states’rights)


Thomas Dewey


Republican (gov. of NY)


1952
-

Eisenhower

(R) v. Stevenson (D)


Eisenhower


middle of the road approach


Pledged to personally go to Korea to end war


Nixon’s checker’s speech

Eisenhower


TV


commercialized campaign


Modern Republicanism


middle road


Conservative with money


Liberal with people


Raised minimum wage, extended Soc.
Sec., public housing, etc.


Video Clips


I Like Ike!


http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=va5Btg
4kkUE



Checkers Speech (start at 3 min)


http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=S4UEv
_jjPL0



Prosperity of 1950s/1960s


Result of colossal military budget, govt
funded high tech industry, and R and D


Cheap energy


US controlled oil


Highways, air conditioners, etc.


Higher productivity


better educated and
better equipped


Increased standard of living


Agribusiness


mechanized farming


More workers shift to industry/white collar


Middle Class doubles to 60% of pop’n


Own cars, TVs, washing machines

Suburban Living


FHA/VA low interest loans


Tax deductions for mortgage payers


1956 Interstate Highway Act


By 1960, 25% of Americans live in suburbs


By 2000, the percentage goes up to 50%


White Flight




Middle Class white Americans left the cities


Moved to the suburbs


Cities lose income


Poor suffers


education, police, fire


Suburban Living


The American Dream


1949


坩W汩慭a䱥癩瑴

灲潤畣敤‱㔰 桯h獥猠灥爠
week.


Standardized plans, factory assembled frames


$7,990 or $60/month with no down payment.


Consumerism



1950


Introduction of the Diner’s Card


Modern advertising

Baby Boom


It seems to me that every other young
housewife I see is pregnant.



--

British visitor to America, 1958


1957


ㄠ1慢a 扯牮b敶敲礠㜠7散潮摳


Largest generation in US history


Increase in school enrollments, canned
food.


Leads to a youth culture


Baby Boom


Teen Culture


In the 1950s


瑨攠睯牤t
“teenager”

entered


the American language.


1951


“race music”



“ROCK ‘N ROLL”


roots lay mainly in
rhythm and blues
,
country
,
folk
,
gospel
, and
jazz



“Juvenile Delinquency”



Teen Culture


The “Beat” Generation
:


rejection of mainstream American values


celebrated non
-
conformity and spontaneous
creativity


Jack Kerouac


On The Road


Allen Ginsberg


poem, “Howl”


Neal Cassady


William S. Burroughs

A Changing Workplace


Automation
:


1947
-
1957


factory workers decreased by 4.3%,
eliminating 1.5 million blue
-
collar jobs.


By 1956


more
white
-
collar

than blue
-
collar


jobs in the U. S.


Computers


Mark I

(1944). First IBM


mainframe computer (1951).


Corporate Consolidation
:


By 1960


600 corporations (1/2% of all U. S.
companies) accounted for 53% of total corporate
income.



WHY??

Cold War military buildup.


A Changing Workplace


New Corporate Culture
:


“The Company Man”


1956


Sloan Wilson’s

The Man in


the Gray Flannel Suit


Women

lose factory jobs in the post war
period, but gain service sector jobs


“pink collar” sector


secretarial work


Pop culture still glorifies the housewife and the
cult of domesticity


Betty Friedan and NOW reject this image


Feminine Mystique


Well
-
Defined Gender Roles

The
ideal modern woman

married, cooked and
cared for her family, and kept herself busy by
joining the local PTA and leading a troop of
Campfire Girls. She entertained guests in her
family’s suburban house and worked out on the
trampoline to keep her size 12 figure.


--

Life

magazine, 1956

The
ideal 1950s man

was the provider, protector,

and the boss of the house.
-
-

Life

magazine,
1955



The Culture of the Car


Car registrations: 1945


㈵ⰰ,〬0〰

†††††††††††
ㄹ㘰1


㘰ⰰ,〬0〰


2
-
family cars doubles from 1951
-
1958


1956


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污牧l獴s
灵扬p挠睯牫猠灲潪p捴c楮i䅭敲楣慮a
history!



Cost $32 billion.



41,000 miles of new highways built.

The Culture of the Car


America became a more homogeneous
nation because of the automobile.


The Culture of the Car


The U. S. population was on the move in
the 1950s.


NE & Mid
-
W


匠☠南S
(“Sunbelt” states)


1955


䑩獮敹污湤n潰o湥搠楮i卯畴S敲渠
California.


(40% of the guests came from outside
California, most by car.)

Television


1946


㜬〰〠呖T獥瑳t楮i瑨攠售U匮

1950


㔰ⰰ,〬0〰 呖⁳整e 楮i瑨攠售⁓U


Mass Audience


呖T捥汥l牡瑥r
traditional American values.


“Television is a vast wasteland.”



乥睴潮N䵩湮潷Ⱐ䍨慩牭慮a潦o瑨攠
Federal Communications Commission,
1961



Television in the 1950s and 1960s


Leave It to Beaver

1957
-
1963



Father

Knows Best

1954
-
1958



The Ozzie & Harriet Show

1952
-
1966


Religious Revival


Church membership
: 1940

††
㘴6〰0ⰰ,0


1960



ㄱ㐬4〰ⰰ,0


Television Preachers
:


1. Catholic
Bishop Fulton J. Sheen



“Life is


Worth Living”


2. Methodist Minister
Norman Vincent Peale




††
The Power of Positive Thinking


3.
Reverend Billy Graham



散畭敮楣u氠
message; warned against the evils of
Communism.


Progress Through Science


1951
--

First IBM Mainframe Computer


1952
--

Hydrogen Bomb

Test


1953
--

DNA

Structure Discovered


1954
--

Salk Vaccine

Tested for Polio


1957
--

First Commercial
U. S. Nuclear


Power Plant


1958
--

NASA

Created


1959
--

Press Conference of the
First 7


American Astronauts


The 50s Come to a Close


1959


乩硯N
-
䭨牵獨K桥瘠
“Kitchen Debate”


An entire house was built that the American
exhibitors claimed anyone in America could
afford. It was filled with labor saving and
recreational devices meant to represent the fruits
of the
capitalist American consumer market
.


Civil Rights Movement


post WW2
through 1960s


Civil Rights Act of 1875
--

Outlawed segregation


Supreme Court overturned it in 1883


Plessy v. Ferguson


“separate but equal” did not violate the 14
th

amendment
(equal treatment)


Allowed Southern states to pass Jim Crow laws (separating
the races)


Allowed restrictions on inter
-
race contact


WW2 set the stage for the civil rights movement


Opened new job opportunities


One million African Americans served


Came home and fought to end discrimination


During the war, civil rights organizations fought for voting
rights and challenged Jim Crow laws


Truman ends segregation in civil service, armed forces


Civil Rights Movement


Campaign led by the NAACP


Focused on inequality between separate schools that
states provided


Thurgood Marshall argued many of these cases


1950


Sweatt v. Painter


Separate professional schools are not equal


1954
-

Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka


Marshall’s most stunning victory


Supreme Court struck down segregation in public schools
as a violation of 14
th

amendment


2
nd

case
-

To be implemented “with all deliberate speed”


Civil Rights Movement


1955


Montgomery Bus Boycott


African Americans were impatient with the slow speed of change


Took direct action


1955


Rosa Parks refused to give up her seat and was
arrested


JoAnn Robinson suggested a boycott of the buses


Leaders of the African American community formed the
Montgomery Improvement Association (MIA)


Elected 26 yr old Martin Luther King to lead


Dr. King made a passionate speech and filled the audience with
a sense of mission


African Americans boycotted the buses for 381 days and filed a
lawsuit


Organized car pools


Walked long distances


1956


Supreme Court outlawed bus segregation


Civil Rights Movement


1957


Little Rock 9
-

State had been
planning for desegregation


Governor Faubus ordered the National Guard to
turn away the “Little Rock Nine”


the 9 African American students who would
integrate Little Rock Central High


A Federal judge ordered Faubus to let the
students attend the school


Eisenhower placed the National Guard under
federal control to watch the 9 attend school


A year later, Faubus shut down the high school


Civil Rights Movement


Civil Rights Act


1957


Establishes Civil Rights Commission to investigate
violations


1957


Southern Christian Leadership
Conference established (SCLS)


Mobilize black churches for civil rights


1960


Student Non
-
violent Coordinating
Committee (SNCC) formed


1960


Sit
-
in movement


focus on segregated
lunch counters


1
st



Greensboro, NC

Civil Rights Movement


Freedom Riders


Civil Rights activists would ride busses to test
the Supreme Court decision that banned
segregation on buses and in bus terminals


Provoking a violent reaction to force the JFK
administration to enforce the law


Riders were tormented and beaten


Newspaper coverage and the violence provoked
JFK to send federal marshals to protect the
riders


Segregation in all interstate travel facilities was
banned

Civil Rights Movement


1962


Integrating Ole Miss


Air Force Veteran James Meredith won a federal
court case that allowed him to enroll in the all
-
white
University of Mississippi (Ole Miss)


Governor Ross Barnett refused to let him register


Kennedy ordered federal marshals to escort
Meredith


Riots broke out and resulted in 2 deaths


Federal officials accompanied Meredith to class to
protect him


Civil Rights Movement


Birmingham


Strictly enforced its segregation


Reputation for racial violence


Reverend Shuttlesworth, MLK, and the SCLC tested their
non
-
violence


MLK and others were arrested during a nonviolent
demonstration


MLK wrote
Letters from a Birmingham Jail


With MLK out of jail, the SCLC planned a children’s march in
Birmingham


Police Commissioner “Bull” Connor arrested them


Later, the police met the marchers with high pressure fire hoses
and attack dogs


TV cameras captured the scene


Birmingham officials finally ended segregation


Convinced JFK to write a civil rights act



Civil Rights Movement


1963
-

March on Washington


To show support for JFK’s civil rights bill, a march on
Washington was formed


Aug. 28, 1963, 250,000 people assembled in
Washington


MLK gave his “I have a Dream” speech


Appeals for peace and harmony


Two weeks later, 4 girls were killed in a Birmingham
church


Two months later, JFK is assassinated


LBJ pledges to carry out JFK’s work


Passes Civil Rights Act of 1964


Prohibited discrimination


Gave equal access to public accommodations


Civil Rights Movement


1964


24
th

Amendment


abolished poll tax


1964


Freedom Summer
-

CORE and SNCC worked
to register as many African
-
American voters as
possible


push for voting rights bill


1964
-

SNCC organized the Mississippi Freedom
Democratic Party to give African Americans a political
voice


Fannie Lou Hamer spoke at the Democratic National
Convention in 1964


Support poured in for the MFDP


Civil Rights leaders compromised with the Democratic
Party (MFDP got two seats in Congress)


Civil Rights Movement


1965
-

SNCC led a voting rights campaign in
Selma, Alabama


After a demonstrator was shot, MLK organized a 50
mile march to Montgomery


Mayhem broke out and TV crews caught police
beating and gassing marchers


Johnson presented a voting rights act and gave
marchers federal protection


Voting Rights Act of 1965



eliminates literacy
tests, allows federal officials to oversee
registration, voting



* end of nonviolence *


Civil Rights Movement


Malcolm X


Began as militant black nationalist


Black separatism


Went on Hajj, moved away from separatism


Assassinated in 1965


Black Power


Black Panther party


Stokely Carmichael


leader of SNCC began to preach black
power


1966


Exercise political and economic rights to speed integration


Emphasized their distinctiveness


1968


MLK assassinated