Chapter 6

clashjudiciousElectronics - Devices

Nov 8, 2013 (3 years and 9 months ago)

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EE of NIU

Chih
-
Cheng Tseng

1

Chapter 6

Digital Data Communications
Techniques

Chih
-
Cheng Tseng

tsengcc@niu.edu.tw

EE of NIU

Chih
-
Cheng Tseng

2

Asynchronous and
Synchronous Transmission


timing problems require a mechanism to
synchronize the transmitter and receiver


receiver samples stream at bit intervals


if clocks not aligned and drifting will sample at
wrong time after sufficient bits are sent


two solutions to synchronizing clocks


asynchronous transmission


synchronous transmission


EE of NIU

Chih
-
Cheng Tseng

3

Asynchronous Transmission

EE of NIU

Chih
-
Cheng Tseng

4

Asynchronous
-

Behavior


simple


cheap


overhead of 2 or 3 bits per char (~20%)


good for data with large gaps (keyboard)

EE of NIU

Chih
-
Cheng Tseng

5

Synchronous Transmission


block of data is formatted as a frame


clocks must be synchronized


can use separate clock line


or embed clock signal in data


need to indicate start and end of block


use preamble and postamble


more efficient (lower overhead) than async


EE of NIU

Chih
-
Cheng Tseng

6

Types of Error


single bit errors


only one bit altered


caused by white noise


error burst


A group of bits in which two successive erroneous bits are
always separated by less than a given number
x

of correct bits.


burst errors


A burst error of length
B

is a
contiguous sequence of
B

bits in
which
the
first
and
last
bits
and any number of intermediate bits
are received
in error


caused by impulse noise or by fading in wireless

environment


effect greater at higher data rates

EE of NIU

Chih
-
Cheng Tseng

7

Error Detection


Error is inevitable


detect using error
-
detecting code


added by transmitter


recalculated and checked by receiver


still chance of undetected error


parity


parity bit set so character has even (even
parity) or odd (odd parity) number of ones


even number of bit errors goes undetected

EE of NIU

Chih
-
Cheng Tseng

8

Cyclic Redundancy Check


one of the most common and powerful
checks


for block of
k

bits, transmitter generates an
n

bit frame check sequence (FCS)


transmits
k+n

bits which is exactly divisible
by some number


receiver divides frame by that number


if no remainder, assume no error

EE of NIU

Chih
-
Cheng Tseng

9

Cyclic Redundancy Check


For a block of
k

bits, transmitter generates
n

bit sequence


Transmit
k+n

bits which is exactly divisible
by some number


Receive divides frame by that number


If no remainder, assume no error

EE of NIU

Chih
-
Cheng Tseng

10

Modulo 2 Arithmetic


Exclusive
-
OR operation


Binary addition with no carries


Binary subtraction with no carries


1111

+1010


0101


1111


-
0101


1010


11001


* 11


11001


110010


101011

EE of NIU

Chih
-
Cheng Tseng

11

CRC
---
Example

101000110100000
1101010110
110101
110101
111011
110101
111110
110101
101100
110101
110010
110101
111010
110101
01110
101000110101110
1101010110
110101
110101
111011
110101
111110
110101
101111
110101
110101
110101
111010
110101
00000
Message (
M
)

FCS (
R
)

OK!!

T
=
M
+
R

n
bits

n
-
1 bits

EE of NIU

Chih
-
Cheng Tseng

12

Error Control


Contains detection and correction of errors


Types of error


Lost frames


Damaged frames


Error control techniques


Error detection: parity bit, CRC


Positive acknowledgment


When received error free frame


Retransmission after timeout


Frame not acknowledged after predefine amount of time


Negative acknowledgement and retransmission


When received frame in which error is detected

EE of NIU

Chih
-
Cheng Tseng

13

How Error Correction Works


adds redundancy to transmitted message


can deduce original despite some errors


eg. block error correction code


map
k
bit input onto an
n
bit codeword


each distinctly different


if get error assume codeword sent was
closest to that received

EE of NIU

Chih
-
Cheng Tseng

14

Line Configuration
-

Topology


physical arrangement of stations on
medium


point to point
-

two stations


such as between two routers / computers


multi point
-

multiple stations


traditionally mainframe computer and terminals


now typically a local area network (LAN)

EE of NIU

Chih
-
Cheng Tseng

15

Line Configuration
-

Topology

EE of NIU

Chih
-
Cheng Tseng

16

Line Configuration
-

Duplex


classify data exchange as half or full
duplex


half duplex (two
-
way alternate)


only one station may transmit at a time


requires one data path


full duplex (two
-
way simultaneous)


simultaneous transmission and reception
between two stations


requires two data paths

EE of NIU

Chih
-
Cheng Tseng

17

Summary


asynchronous verses synchronous
transmission


error detection and correction


line configuration issues