Cataloging rule changes:

clashjudiciousElectronics - Devices

Nov 8, 2013 (4 years and 8 months ago)


ULA Fall Workshop, 2002

Cataloging rule changes:

Electronic Resources

(AACR2 Chapter 9)

By Cheryl D. Walters

Sponsored by Technical Services Roundtable

Chapter 9 revision background

Chapter 9 underwent considerable revision in 2001
and a new printing of the chapter was included as part
of Amendments 2001.

Unlike the Chapter 12 changes which will not be
implemented until the end of 2002, changes in new
chapter 9 have already been implemented by LC and
other libraries.

Two basic changes outside of
chapter 9: 0.24 and 1.1C1

Introduction to AACR2: Part I, Description:

0.24: a change in principle

New rule:

It is important to bring out
all aspects of the item

described, including its content, its carrier, its type of
publication, its bibliographic relationships, and whether it is
published or unpublished.

Old rule:

…the starting point for description is the
physical form of
the item in hand

Two basic changes outside of
chapter 9: 0.24 and 1.1C1

Chapter 1: General rules for description

1.1C1: New General Material Designation

The general material designation
[electronic resource]

replaces the now
defunct [computer file] in both gmd lists


The end of this presentation includes some information
about a commercially available utility program that can
globally change all the [computer file] gmds in an online
catalog to the new gmd [electronic resource].

Chapter 9:

The first evidences of change…

New title for AACR2 chapter 9 :

New name:
Electronic Resources

Old name: Computer Files

Term “
electronic resource
” replaces all
instances of term “computer file” throughout
Chapter 9

9.0A: Changes in scope

Broader, clearer scope of chapter (9.0A)

New scope says Chapter 9 covers:

the description of
electronic resources
. Electronic resources
consist of:


(information representing numbers, text, graphics, images,
maps, moving images, music, sounds, etc.),


(instructions, etc., that process the data for use), or

combinations of data and programs

Old scope said it covered:

the description of files that are encoded for manipulation by
computer. These files comprise data and programs…

9.0A: Clarification of what
electronic resources are:

Electronic resources may be accessed:


Via a physical carrier such
as disc/disk, cassette, or
cartridge that is inserted
into a computerized
device or an
accompanying peripheral


No physical carrier

Via a terminal connected
to a system or network or
movable resources
stored elsewhere

9.0A: Defines computerized device:

A computer or computer
like device used to
manipulate data and/or programs

What is

Mainframe computer

Computer workstations

Desktop/laptop computers

Personal Digital

Assistants (PDAs)

Handheld or tablet


Electronic book readers

Internet appliances


CD music players

DVD video or audio


Laserdisc video players

Digital cameras

Personal digital audio
players (e.g. MP3)

9.0B1: Chief source of information

New chief source:

The preferred chief
source of information for
electronic resources
the resource itself

Old chief source:

The preferred chief
source of information is
the title screen(s)

9.0B1: More flexibility in preferred
choices for chief source:

Take info from
whichever formally presented
has the fullest

Title screens

Main menus

Program statements

Initial displays of information

Home pages (new!)

File headers
encoded metadata

Physical carrier or its labels


internal evidence
specified order of

Title screen.

From other internal
evidence such as:


Main menus, or


Program statements, or


First display of info., or


File header

9.0B1: Other less preferred

New (in order of preference)

Printed or online
documentation or other
accompanying material (pub
letter, “about” file, pub web

Information printed on
container issued by pub

Other published descriptions
of resource

Other sources (e.g.
metadata records)

Old (in order of preference)

Physical carrier or its labels

Info issued by pub/creator
with file

Info printed on container
issued by pub

Other published descriptions
of file

Other sources

9.0B1: Definition of label broadened

Definition of label now broadened to include
information printed or embossed directly on the
physical carrier

As before, the source of the title proper should
be given in a note.

If title is from the label, the note simply reads “Title
from label” regardless of the type of label (paper
label versus an embossed label).


Impact on catalogers?

More flexibility for catalogers, but more
judgment required

There is no longer a clear order of precedence for
the chief source of information.

Cataloger can use formally presented evidence from
the entire resource instead of just the title screen

Rules give direction only when info in sources varies
in degree of fullness. Then catalogers should use
the source that provides the most complete

9.2: Edition Area changes
(MARC tag 250)

Resolving multiple edition statements is more complex

New wording in 9.2B5:
If an item consists of multiple
physical carriers,

including accompanying material,
and there are multiple edition statements relating to the
whole as well as to parts of the resource, transcribe
only the edition statement(s) relating to the whole
resource in the edition area. Edition statements
relating to parts may be given in a note (see 9.7B7).

Old wording:
Transcribe an edition statement
appearing in accompanying material only if it also
refers to the file. In case of doubt, do not record…

9.2: Edition Area changes
(MARC tag 250)

New rule on updated remote resources: 9.2B8

New rule 9.2B8

If a remote access electronic resource is
frequently updated, omit the edition statement
and give the information in a note (see 9.7B7)

9.3: Type & Extent of Resource Area

(MARC tag 256)

Terminology changes:

New section name:

Type and Extent of
Resource Area

New subsection names:

Type of resource


Extent of resource


Old section name:

File Characteristics


Old subsection names:


Number of records,
statements, etc.


9.3: Type & Extent of Resource Area

(MARC tag 256)

Terminology changes continued…

Term “computer” in three resource types is
now “electronic”:






data and program(s)

9.3: Type & Extent of Resource Area
(MARC tag 256)

Less use of this area by LC

New rule interpretation (LCRI 9.3B1):

Do not use Type & Extent of Resource Area (i.e. Area 3, tag
256) for original cataloging of electronic resources

Impact on catalogers: other institutions may

decide to follow
LC’s practice and

omit the Type and Extent of Resource
Area (256 field) altogether.

LCRI 9.3B1: Do not supply terms for the type of electronic resource in LC
original cataloging. Accept such terms when found in records originally
created by other cataloging agencies and used by LC in its own

9.3: Type & Extent of Resource Area
(MARC tag 256)

Terminology for types of resources remains limited

Terms for describing type of resource remain
limited to three (electronic data, electronic
program, or electronic data and program).

Additional terms adopted by ISBD(ER) are still
not allowed by AACR2.

Examples: electronic map data, electronic utility
program, electronic census data, etc.

9.4: Publication Area
(MARC tag 260):

New helpful guidance

9.4B2: What does “published” mean?

Consider all remote access electronic
resources to be published.

A web document or document available via a network would
be considered published; a document on a removable disk
would not.

9.4: Publication Area

(Marc tag 260)

Clarification on date to use

9.4F4: What publication date to use?

If there is no publication, distribution, etc. date
which applies to the item as a whole, and the
item has multiple copyright dates which apply
to various aspects of the production (e.g.
programming, sound production, graphics,
documentation), transcribe only the latest
copyright date. Optionally, transcribe the other
dates in a note.

9.5: Physical Description

(Marc tag 300)

Terms to describe physical units have changed:

New terms









Still allowed, but not new:

Computer disk

Computer optical disc

Old terms:

Computer cartridge

Computer cassette

Computer disk

Computer optical disc

Computer reel

9.5: Physical Description

(Marc tag 300)

New option

9.5B1: New option to use conventional terminology to
record the specific format of the physical carrier. LC
will use this option (LCRI 9.5B1).
New terms allowed:


Photo CDs


Example: Can present 300 field in two different ways:


1 computer optical disc : col. ; 4 ¾ in.


1 CD
ROM : col. ; 4 ¾ in.

9.5: Physical Description

(Marc tag 300)

Disk defined better

Definitions for disk versus disc moved from
brief footnote to longer, clearer definitions in

Old footnote (9.5B1): Use computer disk for
magnetically encoded computer disks

New glossary entry:

(Electronic resources). A
magnetic disk, usually encased in a protective
plastic jacket or rigid case, used by computerized
devices for storing and retrieving electronic
resources. Disks can either be fixed or removable

9.5: Physical Description

(Marc tag 300)

Disc defined better

Definitions for disk versus disc moved from
brief footnote to longer, clearer definitions in

Old footnote (9.5B1): Use computer optical disc for
optically encoded computer discs

New glossary entry:
Optical disc

resources). Any of several specific carriers
delivering optically read data (e.g. CD
Photo CD).

9.5: Physical Description

(Marc tag 300)

More options for dimensions

New option

Disks, Discs, Cartridges, and Cassettes now may
optionally be described in centimeters.

“Other carriers” now may optionally be described in

Old rule limited disks, discs, cartridges, and
cassettes to inches and “other carriers” to

9.7: Note Area
(MARC 5xx tag)

9.7B1: Systems requirements note
(MARC tag 538):

Hardware modifications now added to list

If describing a mode of access, note must begin with the

heading “
Mode of access

538: Mode of access: World Wide Web

9.7B3: Source of Title Proper note
(in a 500 tag):

now includes example of a web page:

500 Title from Web page (viewed on May 29, 1999)

9.7: Note Area

(MARC 5xx tag)

9.7B4: Variations of title note:

More examples given:

Title in HTML header: American Birding Association home

Former title: Butterflies of the United States

(Web resource title changed to: Butterflies of North America)

Second title screen: Personal finances and other

9.7: Note Area

(MARC 5xx tag)


New note for remote access resources
(in 500 tag)


for all remote access resources.

Must always give the date on which the resource

was viewed for description.

500 Description based on contents viewed Sept. 16,


In practice, this note is often combined with the

Source of title note:

500 Title from web page (viewed Sept. 16, 1998)

Automated assistance to convert to new
[electronic resource] gmd

For Horizon online catalogs, a utility called Replace
Tag Text can globally change old [computer file] gmds
to the new gmd [electronic resource]

Univ of Utah has used this successfully and says they are
“extremely satisfied” with results. Ruth Hansen from U of U

Make sure to test using a sample before doing entire database

Do not include the brackets in the string to be replace

Must reindex afterward if 245 tag subfield h is indexed in your

For more information:

Replace Tag Text Utility

Available from Alpha
G Consulting

Is a graphical user
interface program delivered via Java Web

It finds all instances of a given string in a particular tag/subfield
and replaces it with different text.

For more information, go to:

Program costs $450

For more information:

American Cataloging Rules
, 2

2002 revision:

To order, go to:

772 pages. Comes with binder, loose leaf pages, &
tabs. ISBN: 0

Price: $87.00; ALA Member Price: $78.30

“Now in a completely redesigned loose
leaf format, AACR2 is more
friendly than ever. With 8.5" X 11" pages (that fit a standard 3
ring binder), separately numbered chapters (for easy integration of
future updates), and brand new text design (that clearly distinguishes
the rules from the examples)