Business Plug-In B3

clashjudiciousElectronics - Devices

Nov 8, 2013 (4 years and 5 days ago)

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McGraw
-
Hill/Irwin

© 2008 The McGraw
-
Hill Companies, All Rights Reserved

Business Plug
-
In B3

Hardware and
Software

B3
-
2

LEARNING OUTCOMES

1.
Describe the six major categories of
hardware and provide an example of
each


2.
Identify the different computer categories
and explain their potential business uses


3.
Explain the difference between primary
and secondary storage




B3
-
3

LEARNING OUTCOMES

4.
List the common input, output, storage,
and communication devices


5.
Describe the eight categories of
computers by size


6.
Define the relationship between
operating system software and utility
software



B3
-
4

INTRODUCTION


Information technology (IT)
-

any
computer
-
based tool that people use to work
with information and support the information
and information
-
processing needs of an
organization


Hardware
-

consists of the physical devices
associated with a computer system


Software
-

the set of instructions that the
hardware executes to carry out specific tasks



B3
-
5

Hardware Basics


Computer
-

an electronic device operating under the
control of instructions stored in its own memory that
can accept, manipulate, and store data



Hardware components

1.
Central processing unit (CPU)

2.
Primary storage

3.
Secondary storage

4.
Input device

5.
Output device

6.
Communication device



B3
-
6

Hardware Basics

B3
-
7

Central Processing Unit


Central processing unit (CPU)
(or
microprocessor
)
-

the actual hardware that
interprets and executes the program (software)
instructions and coordinates how all the other
hardware devices work together



Control unit
-

interprets software instructions and
literally tells the other hardware devices what to do,
based on the software instructions



Arithmetic
-
logic unit (ALU)
-

performs all arithmetic
operations (for example, addition and subtraction)
and all logic operations (such as sorting and
comparing numbers)

B3
-
8

Central Processing Unit


The number of CPU cycles per second
determines the speed of a CPU


Megahertz (MHz)
-

the number of millions of
CPU cycles per second


Gigahertz (GHz)
-

the number of billions of CPU
cycles per second




B3
-
9

Central Processing Unit


CPU speed factors


Clock speed


Word length


Bus width


Chip line width



Binary

digit

(
bit
)
-

the smallest unit of information
that a computer can process



Byte

-

a group of eight bits representing one
natural language character

B3
-
10

ADVANCES IN CPU DESIGN


Complex instruction set computer (CISC) chip
-

type of CPU that can recognize as many as 100 or
more instructions, enough to carry out most
computations directly



Reduced instruction set computer (RISC) chip
-

limit the number of instructions the CPU can
execute to increase processing speed



Virtualization
-

a protected memory space created
by the CPU allowing the computer to create virtual
machines



B3
-
11

Primary Storage


Primary storage
-

the computer’s main
memory, which consists of the random
access memory (RAM), cache memory, and
the read
-
only memory (ROM) that is directly
accessible to the CPU



B3
-
12

RANDOM ACCESS MEMORY (RAM)


Random access memory (RAM)
-

the
computer’s primary working memory, in which
program instructions and data are stored so
that they can be accessed directly by the CPU
via the processor’s high
-
speed external data
bus


Volatility


Cache memory


B3
-
13

RANDOM ACCESS MEMORY (RAM)

B3
-
14

READ ONLY MEMORY (ROM)


Read
-
only memory (ROM)
-

the portion of
a computer’s primary storage that does not
lose its contents when one switches off the
power


Flash memory


Memory card


Memory stick

B3
-
15

Secondary Storage


Secondary storage
-

consists of equipment
designed to store large volumes of data for
long
-
term storage


Megabyte (MB
or
M
or
Meg)
-

roughly 1 million
bytes


Gigabyte (GB)
-

roughly 1 billion bytes


Terabyte (TB)
-

roughly 1 trillion bytes

B3
-
16

Secondary Storage

B3
-
17

Magnetic Medium


Magnetic medium
-

a secondary storage medium
that uses magnetic techniques to store and retrieve
data on disks or tapes coated with magnetically
sensitive materials



Magnetic tape
-

an older secondary storage medium
that uses a strip of thin plastic coated with a
magnetically sensitive recording medium



Hard drive
-

a secondary storage medium that uses
several rigid disks coated with a magnetically
sensitive material and housed together with the
recording heads in a hermetically sealed mechanism

B3
-
18

Optical Medium


Optical medium types include:


Compact disk
-
read
-
only memory (CD
-
ROM)


Compact disk
-
read
-
write (CD
-
RW) drive


Digital video disk (DVD)


DVD
-
ROM drive


Digital video disk
-
read/write (DVD
-
RW)

B3
-
19

INPUT DEVICES


Input device
-

equipment used to capture
information and commands


Manual input device


Joystick


Keyboard


Microphone


Automated input device


Bar code scanner


Digital camera


Magnetic ink character reader


B3
-
20

OUTPUT DEVICE


Output device
-

equipment used to see,
hear, or otherwise accept the results of
information processing requests


Cathode
-
ray tube (CRT)


Liquid crystal display (LCD)


Laser printer


Ink
-
jet printer


Plotter

B3
-
21

Communication Device


Communication device
-

equipment
used to send information and receive it
from one location to another


Dial
-
up access


Cable


Digital subscriber line


Wireless


Satellite



B3
-
22

Computer Categories


For the past 20 years, federally funded
supercomputing research has given birth
to some of the computer industry’s most
significant technology breakthroughs
including:


Clustering


Parallel processing


Mosaic browser


B3
-
23

Computer Categories


Computer categories include:


Personal digital assistant (PDA)


Laptop


Tablet


Desktop


Workstation


Minicomputer


Mainframe computer


Supercomputer

B3
-
24

Software Basics


System software
-

controls how the various
technology tools work together along with the
application software


Operating system software


Utility software


Application software

B3
-
25

Utility Software


Types of utility software


Crash
-
proof


Disk image


Disk optimization


Encrypt data


File and data recovery


Text protect


Preventative security


Spyware


Uninstaller

B3
-
26

Application Software


Types of application software


Bowser


Communication


Data management


Desktop publishing


E
-
mail


Groupware


Presentation graphics


Programming


Spreadsheet


Word processing

B3
-
27

Closing Case One

Changing Circuits at Circuit City


Circuit City was doing so well in the 1990s
that business consultant Jim Collins, in his
best seller Good to Great, wrote: “From 1982
to 1999, Circuit City generated cumulative
stock returns 22 times better than the market,
handily beating Intel, Wal
-
Mart, GE, Hewlett
-
Packard and Coca
-
Cola”



Today, Circuit City is in a markedly different
position


B3
-
28

Closing Case One Questions

1.
How would anticipating Best Buy’s growth
have helped Circuit City remain as an industry
leader?


2.
Why is keeping up with technology critical to a
global company such as Circuit City?


3.
Highlight some of the potential risks facing
Circuit City’s new business model


4.
Why is Circuit City benefiting from
implementing strategic product placement
techniques?

B3
-
29

Closing Case Two

Electronic Breaking Points


What happens when someone accidentally spills
a cup of hot coffee on a laptop, puts a USB
memory key in a washing machine, or drops an
iPod in the sand?



How much abuse can electronic products take
and keep on working?



PC World tested several products to determine
their breaking points




B3
-
30

Closing Case Two Questions

1.
Identify six hardware categories and place each
product listed in the case in its appropriate
category


2.
Describe the CPU and identify which products
would use a CPU


3.
Describe the relationship between memory
sticks and laptops. How can a user employ one
to help protect information loss from the other?


4.
Identify the different types of software each of
the products listed in the case might use