9EnablingDevices(2)

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Dec 14, 2013 (3 years and 7 months ago)

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Enabling Devices & Collaboration

CWD, CMC, CMT


Level 3

Prepared by: TLS First Prepared on: Jan 10, 2007 Last Modified on:

Quality checked by: MOH

Copyright 2004 Asia Pacific Institute of Information Technology

Ubiquitous Computing

CE00313
-
3

Ubiquitous Computing

Topic & Structure of the lesson


Why should devices collaborate?


Human
-
device communication


HTML to XML


The future of the Web


Web Services


The Semantic Web


Semantic Web Services

Ubiquitous Computing

Learning Outcomes

At the end of this module,
YOU

should be able to:



Discuss how devices could collaborate.

Ubiquitous Computing

Key Terms you must be able to use

If you have mastered this topic,
you should be able to
use the following terms correctly in your assignments
and exams
:




collaboration

Ubiquitous Computing

Scenario


Lecture Theatre

Ubiquitous Computing

Multi
-
agent Systems

Ubiquitous Computing


Web of

Knowledge

HyperText Markup Language

HyperText Transfer Protocol

Resource Description Framework

eXtensible Markup Language

Self
-
Describing Documents

Foundation of the Current Web

Proof, Logic and

Ontology Languages

Shared terms/terminology

Machine
-
Machine communication

1990

2000

2010

Berners
-
Lee, Hendler;
Nature
, 2001

DOCUMENTS

DATA/PROGRAMS

Context

Ubiquitous Computing

A simple XHTML document





<!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC
"
-
//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Strict//EN
"

"
http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1
-
strict.dtd
"
>

<html>

<head>


<title>
Mailing Address
</title>

</head>

<body>


<h1>
Thanaletchumi.S
</h1><br />


<p>


Lecturer
<br />

</p>

</body>

</html>

Ubiquitous Computing

Removing the Human Element

Browser

Web
Server

Request for
server side
Page

Processes server
script and converts
it into HTML

Database

HTML Page

?

Ubiquitous Computing

Flight Booking Example

"txtOutboundDestCity"

"txtOutboundDepCity"

"cmbMonthFrom"

"cmbDayFrom"

Ubiquitous Computing

What is XML?


eXtensible Markup Language (XML)


Text based
-

interoperable


W3C recommendation since 1998


well
established


No pre
-
defined tags
-

extensible


Self
-
descriptive using Document Type Definition
(DTD) or XML Schema





Ubiquitous Computing

What is XML?


Similar to other mark
-
up languages like
HTML but has a different purpose


HTML is used for displaying content/data


XML is used for describing data

Ubiquitous Computing

A Simple XML Document

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf
-
8" ?>

<mailingAddress>


<name>
Thanaletchumi
</name>


<jobTitle>
Lecturer
</jobTitle>


<department>
ICT
</department>


<organisation>
APIIT/UCTI
</organisation>


<street>
TPM
</street>


<town>
MALAYSIA
</town>

</mailingAddress>

Ubiquitous Computing

Web Services

(Based on a drawing by H. Voormann)

Ubiquitous Computing

Web Services
-

Standards


Exchange data using SOAP (Simple Object
Access Protocol)

<?xml version="1.0"?>

<soap:Envelope xmlns:soap=http://www.w3.org/2001/12/soap
-
envelope


soap:encodingStyle="http://www.w3.org/2001/12/soap
-
encoding">



<soap:Body xmlns:fb="http://www.flight.org/booking">


<fb:GetDepartureTime>


<fb:Date>Dec
-
24</fb:Date>


<fb:DepAirport>LON</fb:DepAirport>


<fb:ArrAirport>FCO</fb:ArrAirport>


</fb:GetDepartureTime>


</soap:Body>


</soap:Envelope>

Ubiquitous Computing

Code (accessing the service)

Double click on the
“Search” button in the
design view and then
insert this code.


Don’t forget to register
for your Amazon
Subscription ID and
insert here!
(
http://
www.amazon.com/gp/aws/
registration/registration
-
form.html
)


Make the call to the
Web Service and get
the results.

Ubiquitous Computing

Why Web Services?


Integration of heterogeneous data sources on
disparate platforms


Standard data formats


Standard protocols


Reuse of services and components

Ubiquitous Computing

Developing UDDI


Intention for automatic service discovery
and integration


Describe service


Describe service procedure


Describe inputs, outputs, preconditions and
effects


Taxonomies and logic

Ubiquitous Computing

“…
an extension of the current Web

in
which
information is given well
-
defined
meaning
,
enabling computers and
people to work in better cooperation
.”


(
Berners
-
Lee, T. & Miller, E. 2002, 'The Semantic Web Lifts Off',
In
Ercim News
, vol. 51, pp. 9
-
11.
[URL:
http://www.ercim.org/publication/Ercim_News/enw51/
]

)

Semantic Web


Definition

Ubiquitous Computing

Annotated
Web Page

Agent

Ontology

Human

Internet

The Semantic Web

Ubiquitous Computing

“Distributed Ontology Comparison” was authored by “Philip Windridge”

RDF Triples

Ubiquitous Computing

Representing ‘meaning’ in RDF

RDF Triples

Ubiquitous Computing

‘Meaning’ in RDF

RDF Triples

Ubiquitous Computing

Representing ‘meaning’ in RDF

RDF Triples

Ubiquitous Computing

Ontology

Human

Being

Child

Adult

Conference

Delegate

Building Ontologies

Philip

Windridge

is
-
a

is
-
a

is
-
a

is
-
a

Ubiquitous Computing

Ontology

Annotated
Web Page

Internet

Ontology

Ontology

Semantic Web Ontologies

Ubiquitous Computing

Summary


XML is used for describing data


XML forms basis of descriptive/semantic
languages


Web Services uses a standard interface to
ensure successful communication


Semantic Web uses a shared vocabulary


Semantic Web Services draws on both

Ubiquitous Computing

Conclusion


Difference between:


Standardising what we say


Standardising how we say it


Balance between:


Removing ambiguity through constraint


Accepting ambiguity/contradiction as a natural
part of communication and dealing with it

Ubiquitous Computing

Links


W3C
http://www.w3.org/2001/sw/


Professor James Hendler
http://www.cs.umd.edu/~hendler/


Dr. Jeff Heflin
http://www.cse.lehigh.edu/~heflin/


OntoWeb
http://ontoweb.aifb.uni
-
karlsruhe.de/


An introduction to RDF
-

http://www
-
106.ibm.com/developerworks/library/w
-
rdf/


Introduction to RDF
-

http://www.w3schools.com/rdf/rdf_intro.asp

Ubiquitous Computing

Links (continued)


The Semantic Web
http://www.sciam.com/article.cfm?articleID=00048144
-
10D2
-
1C70
-
84A9809EC588EF21


Semantic Web Services
http://www.sitepoint.com/print/semantic
-
web
-
services


Ubiquitous Computing

Quick Review Question

Discuss within your group how enabling devices could
assist collaboration in ubiquitous environment.

Ubiquitous Computing

Q & A

Question and Answer Session

Ubiquitous Computing

Topic and Structure of next session

Next Session

Meaning