Part3 T07 Simple Beam Design Tutorial - Kxcad.net

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Nov 15, 2013 (3 years and 8 months ago)

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T7 Simple Beam Design

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T7 Simple Beam Design Tutorial – Demonstrating the use of
MasterFrame and MasterKey Steel Sections Design

T7.1 Introduction
This tutorial provides an introduction on the use of MasterFrame for Windows and
MasterKey Steel Section Design through the generation, analysis and design of a
one span simply supported steel beam.
In general, the basic steps involved in this tutorial are as follows:
 Generate the beam geometry
 Define member properties and loading
 View supports conditions
 Define loading cases and combinations
 Define job references and project title
 Analyse the frame
 View and print analysis results
 Design the steel beam
 Print the design results

As you work through the tutorial references are made to relevant sections in the main
manual.
In this tutorial, you will create and analyse a simple steel beam, as shown below.

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T7.2 Loading MasterFrame
To start this tutorial:
Select Start>
Programs>
MasterSeries>
MasterSeries for
Windows

Select Frames from the
top menu and then
‘MasterFrame : Analyse
Design Drafting’ from
the drop down menu.
T7.3 The File Selection Menu
The MasterFrame File Selection menu will now be displayed.
This menu enables you to load existing files or create new data files. As each
existing file is selected, a picture of the frame is displayed in the window to assist
your selection.
Select the New File button to clear and set the focus to file name input box.
Type “Tut07”.
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The Get File button has changed to Create New
Select Create New.
A02. Introducing the MasterSeries Structural Software Suite:
2.2 General File Management

T7.4 The Frame Generation Menu
In most cases you will be able to select a start-up
frame and then tailor it to your specific requirements.
In this case we shall generate a Simple Beam.
The Frame Generation Menu (Frame Wizard) is now
displayed as shown.
TIP! If the frame you are generating does not match
one of the pre-processor frames, choose a frame that
is similar to, but larger than, your frame. It is easier to
delete members than to add them. If in doubt a multi-
storey frame makes a good basic grid.

Select the Simple Beam button

3.3.2 Frame Generation Procedures and Templates

T7.5 Before we Begin
The Top Toolbar
As you work with MasterFrame the top Toolbar enables you to manipulate the frame
view quickly and access various viewing tools.
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3.2 MasterFrame Tool Bar

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T7.6 The Simple Beam Pre-Processor

The Simple Beam Pre-
Processor generates a
single span simply
supported beam. This
pre-processor
immediately begins
MasterFrame at the
Member Properties
(Sections) editing area.
At this stage no more
information is know about
the member than its
node numbers 0001 and
0002, and a default
length of 9m.
In normal circumstances i.e. while not using this pre-processor, the member
information can be access by selecting Member Properties (Sections), Member
Loading or Member Orientation from the Members menu. As we are in
Member
mode any information that is changed or added is immediately applied to the
currently highlighted (3D) member. Since the simple beam consists of only one
member it is automatically highlighted.
Unlike other pre-processors the simple beam one does not apply any loading or
define any section sizes. However for a single member this is a very simple process
using the standard MasterFrame editing facilities. Nodal Static Supports have been
defined as pinned for the left side (x,y and z restraint) and a horizontal roller for the
right side (y restraint only).

T7.7 Defining Member Section Properties
 Select the Steel Sections. The steel sections database appears
 From the sections sizes drop list select a 457x152 UB 52
This section size is now applied to the simple beam. Additional information about the
beam can be added, for instance, the grade of steel to be used, any haunches
applicable to the member and also addition of any concrete encasement which may
affect the design.

T7.8 Applying Member Loading
 Select the
Loads option above the right hand member graphics box
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This takes us into the area where the loadings can be defined. We can also alter the
default beam length in this screen.
 In the Member Length (m) text box at the bottom right of the screen enter 6.0
The x co-ordinates of the beam are automatically turned on, displaying the values in
metres adjacent to the node points on the screen.
To enter loads on the beam
Select the UDLY button twice to add two uniformly distributed loads over the
length of the member
All loads are initially called up as negative Y-Axis loads, acting downward.
The List of load to edit (Current Member) loads box on the right side of the screen
now has two loads in it. Both loads are UT UDLY -000.000.
We now need to edit these loads.
Pick the upper of the two loads in the current member loads box to highlight it
Change the load in the member loads box to D1 UDLY -015.000 (kN/m)
The ‘D1’ refers to the load group and represents a dead load in set 1. You can either
type D1 over UT (highlight the U of UT with the mouse – the letter turns red
indicating that it can be overtyped) or use the drop lists below to change the load
group, (currently showing Unity) and select the Dead load.
Pick the second load in the loads list
Change the load in the member loads box to L1 UDLY -020.000 (kN/m)
The ‘L1’ represents a live load in set 1.
 Select the PY button to add a point load along the length of the member
 Ensure that the PY load is highlighted in the member loads box
Change the load to D1 PY -040.000 3.000 (kN,m)
Tip!:If you are unsure of the meaning of an entry in the load information look at the
units in brackets at the right side of the load definition. In the above example the
units tell us that the first numeric entry is in kN, therefore specifies the magnitude of
load. The second is in metres, which in this case is the distance along the length of
the member (measured from the lower node number) of the point load.
To save and exit the member information area,
 Click on the floppy disk icon on the top left of the screen
 Click on the P button above that to Park the beam, i.e. exit the editing mode you
are in and return to generic safe mode where no editing is taking place

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3.4 The member Information Editing Area

T7.9 Taking a Look at the Nodal Supports
From the Nodal drop menu, select Static Supports [RS].
Node 1 is already defined as Pinned with a x restraint. Node 2 has a y direction
only restraint. In this tutorial we will not change the support condition, but only
briefly introduce the nodal information area and how to view the supports conditions.
In the Static Supports area you normally view one support condition at a time.
Above the Add New button at the bottom left of the screen should read No. 1 of 2,
which tells us that there are two support conditions and we are currently looking at
No. 1. The nodes that the current condition is applied to are listed in the blue
coloured Apply to Nodes box . In this case the first support condition is only applied
to node 1. The degrees of freedom that are restrained for this support condition are
given in the x, y, z and x, y and z check boxed.
Each support is graphically represented on the nodal point as a set of 6 restraint
boxes that are either active (red) or inactive (white). These 6 boxes represent the 6
degrees of freedom of the support. The order of the boxes is the directional restraints
x, y, and z followed by the rotational restraints x, y and z. For example:

Fixed support has all 6 boxes red
Pinned support has only the first 3 boxes red
Horizontal roller has just the second box red
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To move to the second support condition;
Click on the downward pointing arrow on the right of the drop list that contains the
text UT Rs 111100.
From the list that appears select the second support condition UT Rs 010000
The second support is shown graphically and is applied to node 2 and has a y only
restraint.

 Click on the P button above that to Park the beam, i.e. exit the editing mode you
are in and return to generic safe mode where no editing is taking place
3.9 Support Conditions

T7.10 Taking a Look at Loading Cases and Load Groups
MasterFrame does not analyse for the loads that you apply to the structure but rather
analyses for loading cases. If you have 10 different loads applied to a simple beam
but have no loading cases then no forces/deflections/reactions will be present in the
analysis results. A Load Case is a combination of the individual load groups. Each
load on the structure is assigned to a load group as we have already seen.
A load group is a group of loads that are always applied together with the same load
factor. The loads may be of different types and have different values. In this
example a UDLY load and a PY load were assigned to the D1 load group.
MasterFrame allows up to 40 different load groups to be used, namely groups D0 to
D9, L0 to L9, W0 to W9 and N0 to N9. In most cases, you may only need to use 3 or
4 load groups but sometimes you may wish to use more. For example in a frame with
a crane beam you can separate the vertical and horizontal crane loads from the
general live load by using groups L1, L2 and L3.
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3.8.1 Load Groups, Loading Cases and Combinations
In this tutorial, we have already assigned loads to the following groups:
D1 Dead Loads.
L1 Live Loads.
To allow easier checking of our data we will label our load groups.
 From the Cases drop menu select Load Group Titles.
 Select Dead and 1, for
D1
The D1 and L1 load group titles
are set automatically to Dead
Load (D1) and Live Load (L1)
so we do not need to change
them, however we could add
further text to make the title
more descriptive.

3.8.2 The Loading Cases Menu

Load Case Titles
Select the Loading Cases [No. of] tab
By default there are already two loading cases and case titles
generated.
Loading Case 1: Dead plus Live (Ultimate)
Loading Case 2: Live Only (Serviceability)
In this tab we have the facilities to manage (add/delete/copy/paste/import/add
service) loading cases and define titles for them. However, for this example we will
retain the default loading cases and titles.

Density
Select the Frame Loading Data tab index.
Select the Steel button to insert 78 into the text box.
This value can be edited if you require a different value.

3.8.2 The Loading Cases Menu

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Loading Combinations
Select the Loading Combinations tab
The following Loading Case Combinations are already set-up by default.
Case 1: Dead plus Live [Ultimate] 1.4 x D1 + 1.6 x L1
Case 2: Live Load Only [Serviceability] 1.0 x L1

Since all the loads we applied to the
Beam were in D1 and L1 load
groups, these loading case
combinations are adequate.
If we had added a further loading
case then we would need to set up
the combination for this case. This
process it detailed in document ‘T1
MasterFrame Getting Started
Tutorial’.
Close the Titles and Load
Combination form using the X
button on the top right.
Supports and Load Groups
The UT load factor is the unity load factor. This load factor is always present and
always has a value of 1.00. The UT load factor cannot be modified by the user.
Supports normally use the UT load factor, as they would be present in all loading
cases. In some instances however, you may wish to change a support load group;
say you want to examine the effect of having a support fixed in one load case and
pinned in another. By assigning say a “N1” load group to the fixed support definition
and a “N2” load group to the pinned support definition, then if N1 is set to 1.0 and N2
is set to 0.0 in cases 1 and 2 whilst N1 is set to 0.0 and N2 is set to 1.0 in cases 3
and 4 then the fixed support is used in the first two cases and the pinned support in
the latter two.

A4. Load Groups and Loading Cases
A11. Supports and Nodal Loading

Saving our work so far
From the File drop menu, select ‘Save’ to save our work so far, or
Click on the Save button in the top left of the graphics area
T7.11 Further Editing Tools
The next section describes some of the basic techniques used in MasterFrame.
Please take a few minutes to familiarise yourself with the various frame viewing tools;
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editing and data input methods and find how you can use the frame geometry area
to select nodes and members.
Block Editing and Data Input
To enter data in a text box with a button label, press the label to clear the box and
then type in the box.
If the MasterSeries calculator is in use, then clicking on the label button will copy the
calculator display to the text box.
You can also use the standard methods of changing text used in all Windows
applications. In all Windows applications you can mark a text using the mouse and
then type in new text to replace it.
You can use the frame geometry area for selecting nodes and/or members.
Many of the block editing options rely on the user clicking inside the frame geometry
area to input a number equal to the node number, the member number, the X co-
ordinate, the Y co-ordinate or the Z co-ordinate of a node. The required value is
usually indicated by the prompt displayed in the bottom left hand side corner of
geometry area.
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3.3.3 General Block Editing Methodology
Selecting Nodes/Members
You can Add/Delete nodes/members to the selected nodes/members by clicking or
enclosing any number of nodes/members in the frame geometry area.
The “Reset” Button cancels the
selected nodes/members.
The “Add Group” button enables you
to specify a series of nodes/members
“Start @, End @ in Step of” and then
press “Add” to Add Delete these to the
currently selected nodes/members.
The “Reset All” button resets the
“Start, End and Step” to include all the
nodes/members in the frame.
You can specify the “Start, End and Step” by clicking on the appropriate
nodes/members in the frame geometry area.
Add/Delete: Delete the nodes/members if they are already selected, otherwise add
them to the list.
Enclose Nodes/Members: Position mouse, press left button, move to enclose the
selected nodes or members centres and then release.

T7.12 Analysing the Beam
From the File drop menu
select Analyse
The file will be saved
automatically and the Analysis
Type toolbar will now appear.
There are 5 possible types of
analysis. Any analysis types that
are not applicable to your frame
will be deactivated and displayed
in grey. Any analysis types that
do not match your licence will
also be deactivated. Your licence
limit for each analysis type is
listed below each button.
Note: In Rigid Frame Analysis the user can pin specific members by using the
member Release function in the editor.
In Truss Analysis all loads on members are converted to Nodal Loads and there is
no bending of the members.
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Select Plane Frame and the frame will be analysed

3.14 Analysing the Frame

T7.13 Viewing and Printing the Graphical Results
 From the Output drop menu select View/Print Graphical Output
We have no members bending
about the minor axis so Select 
Major Axis Only
Select Bending Moment and
then change the B.M. scale from
50 to 200
From the drop list, at the bottom
of the screen, select and view
each of the loading cases
including the envelope
Check the Show Values box

While viewing the diagrams the user is free to change the view using any of the top
Toolbar options, including zooming, panning, scales and font sizes.
Check the Member Diagrams
box
This displays all the diagrams, for
the current loading case, of the
member on a single screen
together with the torque and axial
load values.
You can click on any one of the
six diagrams to maximise it and
then minimise it.

Un-check the Member Diagrams box
Select Bending Moment for Loading Case 1
Select the Print button.
The Job Reference Form enables you to finalise the job details on your printout just
before printing them:
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A preview of the printed page is displayed on
the screen together with the Job Reference
dialogue box.
The Job Reference text boxes enable you to
edit the job reference details that will appear in
the printout.
While viewing the preview, you can use all the
tools on the top Toolbar and the side menu,
including zooming, panning, scaling and font
sizes.

Use the top Toolbar as you wish
Un-check the Values box
Check the To Scale box and the printer will print to an exact scale instead of
maximising the image on the page
You can change the printer from the droplist of printers, and alter the page
orientation from portrait to landscape
Select the Print button
The Job Reference form remains on the screen to enable you to print other
diagrams, using exactly the same layout.
Select the Exit button to exit the printing mode
Select Close to exit viewing of the graphical output

T7.14 Viewing the Text Results
From the Output drop menu select View Tabular Output > Nodal Deflections
The toolbar in the lower part of the screen enables you to control the results being
displayed and is very easy to use. When there is a large amount of data the vertical
scroll bar controls the view.
The standard method of viewing results is List per Case.This only displays results
on one loading case at a time. The other method is to List per Node/Member. This
is useful to compare results for different loading cases for the same node or
member.
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Experiment with the
various options to
display the results
Close View Tabular
Output

3.15 Viewing an
Printing Results

The Data Input file can also be easily view and printed.
 From the Data drop menu select View Data
The input data file displays all the data entered to generate the frame, section sizes,
loads, loading cases, nodal restraints, etc. The data file can then be printed.

T7.15 Designing the Steel Beam
We shall now enter the MasterKey Steel Sections Design program from
MasterFrame to carry out the integrated design of the simply supported beam.
 From the Design drop
menu select Steel Design
In the case of a single
member simply supported
beam the program
automatically applied a Beam
and Beam Portion design
check to the member. The
results from this check are
displayed in the main design
output window. The cyan
coloured background in this
window indicates that there is
a design failure.

The tabs at the bottom of the screen contain the information being used for the
design check. The Section AutoDesign tab shows the section size and the loading
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case that is being used for the design. The program automatically detects the design
cases and the serviceability cases. In this case there is only one of each. With the
AutoCase button ON (pressed down) the program will automatically select the most
critical design and deflection cases, which is very useful when there are a larger
number of loading cases.
 Scroll down the design output screen using the scroll bar to the right of it
The design results will reveal that the beam is just failing on its moment capacity
check, however it is grossly failing on the lateral buckling check. The unity ratios of
the main components of the design check are given in the design summary bar
beneath the main design output window. Any unity ratios which exceed 1 indicate a
failure and are highlighted in red.
 Enter a Title for the Beam and Beam Portion design brief
 Select the Beam and Beam Portion tab
In the Beam and Beam Portion tab you may change fundamental design assumption
such as the effective length, deflection limit etc. In most instances the default values
are appropriate.
Tip: If you are unsure what the input parameter means simply hover your cursor over
the input box and a more detail description will appear in a tool tip.
 From the effective length drop list that current has 1.00 L, select Full Rest
This defines the beam as being fully restrained and, by investigating the design
results, we can see that the change in design data is immediately effective in the
design calculations and results. This was really only for illustration, so let’s change it
back to 1.00 L.
 From the effective length drop select 1.00 L
 Select the Lateral Restraints tab
In this tab we can define positions of lateral restrains along the length of the beam
 In Portion 1 enter a value of
2.0
The Portion 1 entry is actually
used as a shortcut for defining an
equal spacing of lateral restraints
over the entire length of the
member. Entering values in
further Portions overwrites this
assumption. The Moment
Capacity/Bending Moment
diagram on the design output
window is now split up into three
portions of equal length. The
design output relates to the
currently selected / highlighted
portion.
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 Click on the centre portion of the bending moment/capacity diagram to select the
middle portion
Now that the design brief is set up the way that we want it, we can design the steel
section for the most optimum size.
 Select the Section Auto Design tab
 Select the Sort by
Weight button
 Click on the Auto Size
Current Member
button
The program will search
for the lightest steel
section of the current
section type that passes
all design checks. I
should find a 406x178 UB
67.
 Click on the Analyse
button to permanently
store the new section
size

T7.16 Printing the Design Output
 From the Print menu select Print Design Output
The print manager will appear at the bottom of the screen listing all the design
checks applied to the beam. The three portions of the Beam and Beam Portion
design check are listed separately since each portion has its own set of calculations.
 Click on the Include All button
All checks are highlighted and their maximum unity ratios are displayed.
 Click on the AutoSelect button
This reduces the currently selected checks to the most critical portion in each
member. In this case only one check is highlighted.
 Click on Print List (Summary) to print the list that is displayed in the print
manager window
 Click on Print Selected Checks to print in full detail the design output for the
check that is highlighted in the list.
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The printed design output appears in exactly the same format as shown on the
screen.