REPUBLIC OF IRAQ REGIONAL GOVERNMENT OF KURDISTAN

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Feb 22, 2014 (3 years and 7 months ago)

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REPUBLIC OF IRAQ


REGIONAL GOVERNMENT
OF KURDISTAN

TRANSPORT CORRIDORS
PROJECT




ENVIRONNMENTAL AND S
OCIAL IMPACT ASSESSM
ENT FRAMEWORK


SEMEL


IBRAHIM AL KHALIL

ROAD CORRIDOR

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY


AUGUST 1
9
, 2013








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Document Title:

Draft ESIAF



Executive
Summary


Project :

Iraq Transport Corridors Project

Code

E160
8


Client:

Kurdistan Regional Government

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

0.

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

................................
................................
..............................

3

0.1.

Introduction

................................
................................
................................
......................

3

0.2.

Existing Policy, Legal and Administrative Frameworks

................................
.................

3

0.3.

Project Description

................................
................................
................................
...........

4

0.4.

Analysis of Alternatives

................................
................................
................................
...

6

0.5.

Description of Baseline Conditions
................................
................................
..................

7

0.6

Pubic Consultations

................................
................................
................................
........

10

0
.7
.

Environmental and Social Assessment

................................
................................
..........

11

0.8
.

Mitigation and ESIAF Implementation and Management

................................
.............

12

0.9
.

Summary and Conclusions

................................
................................
.............................

22



LIST OF TABLES


Table 1: Level of Impact

6

Table 2: ESMP during Construction (Batil


Girsheen)

13

Table 3: ESMP during Operation (Batil


Girsheen)

16

Table 4: ESMP during Construction (Girsheen


Suhaila)

17

Table 5: ESMP during Operation (Girsheen


Suhai
la)

20


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0.

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

0.1.

Introduct
ion

This
executive summary

presents the Environmental and Social Impact Assessment Framework
(ESIAF) for the Transport Corridor Project in Kurdistan at Governorate of Duho
k . This Corridor
from Semel to I
brahim Al Khalil is 63km long, and
is divided into four sections: Semel


Batil
(segment 1


15km lon
g);
Batil


Gersheen (segment 2


8km long);
Gersheen


Suh
aila (segment 3


23
-
25km long); and
Suhaila


Ibrahim Al Khalil (segment 4


14km long). The segments 1 and 4 are
currently under construction (financed by the KRG). Segm
ent 2 is in the tendering phase (to be
financed by the KRG). Segment 3 is to be co
-
financed by the World Bank and
does not yet have its
alignment determined.


The Ministry of Construction and Housing / General Directorate of Roads and Bridges in Duhok
aim
to expand

this Corridor to

from 2 lanes to 6 l
anes motorway. The need for widening the road resulted
from the increasing demand of land transportation, and the current heavy tr
affic, coupled with the
poor condition of the

existing

road that is not designed

to carry such axial loads. About 3,000 heavy
freight trucks enter Kurdistan /Iraq daily at Ibrahim al Khalil border crossing with Turkey.

The main scope of the present ESIAF is segment 3. However, aspects of segment 2 are also being
considered as works ha
ve not started on this segment which is currently in the tendering stage. It
could be considered as associated with the alignment that will be funded using Bank financing of
segment 3. Segments 1 and 4

which have ongoing civil works will be addressed thro
ugh
environmental and resettlement audits prior to the end of the appraisal period of theWorld Bank
funded segments. These environmental and social audits will assess the non
-
Bank funded road
segments compliance with the safeguards policies, identify any g
aps in terms of environmental and
social management and develop corrective action plans, if needed. The Government will implement
these corrective action plans/environmental management plans/RAPs for non
-
Bank funded road
segments in addition to the environ
mental management plans and RAPs for Bank
-
funded segments.

The purpose of the ESIAF is to assess the potential environmental impacts of the alignment (yet to be
determined) to be financed by the Bank. After selecting the alignment, a full ESIA for segment
3

(and if possible segment 2)

will be prepared, reviewed, approved and disclosed prior to
commencement of civil works.


The ESIAF

report
draws heavily
on the information available from existing documentation including
feasibility studies, pre
-
construction
photographs of the routes currently under construction;
documentation of land acquisition for routes under construction; cadasters showing land ownership
along the entire alignment; and any existing socio
-
economic studies of communities and settlements
alo
ng the alignment. In addition, data has been collected from other relevant stakeholders such as
Academia and other institutions at Duhok. Public consultations

were also held

in order to involve the
projects’ stakeholders
in

the
environmental and social con
siderations of the project.



0.2.

Existing Policy, Legal and Administrative Frameworks

Regarding the national legislation, there are currently two valid Laws for the Protection and
Improvement of the Environment in Iraq, which introduce compulsory application
of EIA for
infrastructure project: the Law of Environmental Protection and Improvement i
n Iraqi Kurdistan
Region, No 8 of
2008; and the Law for the Protection and Im
provement of Environment No. 27
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of
2009. For the purpose of this project, the KRG Law of Env
ironmental Protection of 2008 is
followed as it provides more comprehensive EIA provisions.


The World Bank has 10 current Operational Policies and Procedures:

-

Pest Management (OP/BP 4.09)

-

Environmental Assessment (OP/BP 4.01)

-

Natural Habitats (OP/BP 4.04)

-

Safety of Dams (OP/BP 4.37)

-

Projects on International Waterways (OP/BP 7.50)

-

Projects in Disputed Areas (OP/BP 7.60)

-

Forests (OP/BP 4.36)

-

Involuntary Resettlement (OP/BP 4.12)

-

Indigenous Peoples (OP/BP 4.10)

-

Physical Cultural Resources (OP/BP 4.11)


The
policies that apply and are triggered for this project are:

-

Environmental Assessment (OP/BP 4.01).

-

Involuntary Resettlement (OP/BP 4.12).

There is the possibility that Physical Cultural Resources polic
ies

(OP/BP
4.11) might be triggered;
however, this cou
ld only be resolved with certainty once the alignment to be financed on segment 3
has been determined

(The annex 2 shows the chance find procedures for use in the ESIA)
.


0.3.

Project Description

The project consists of a Transport Corridor (TC) in Kurdistan from Semel to Ibrahim Al Khalil
which is 63km long. The Ministry of Construction and Housing / General Directorate of Roads and
Bridges in Dohuk aim at expanding all 4 segments of this road to
a 6
-
lane dual highway.

The TC
is divided into four segments. Segment 1 (semel


Batil) and Segment 4 (Suhaila Intersection


Ibrahim Al Khalil) are under construction (financed by the KRG). On the other hand, Segment 2
(Batil


Gersheen) is under tenderi
ng by KRG and Segment 3 (Gersheen


Suhaila Interchange)
is
under study by an engineering consulting firm (this segment will be co
-
financed by the World Bank)
.

The need for widening and upgrading the road is caused by the increasing demand of land
transpor
tation, the current heavy road usage by all types of vehicles including significant numbers of
large freight trucks, and theexisting poor condition of the road which was not constructed to carry
heavy axel loads. About 3,000 heavy freight trucks enter Kurd
istan /Iraq daily at Ibrahim al Khalil
border crossing with Turkey. These trucks bring supplies to and from Iraq and also transfer goods to
and from the Gulf Region. The original road serving this traffic is a 2
-
lane, winding, poorly
cambered, and highly d
angerous. Traffic movement is constrained and slowed which raises transport
costs and results in economic losses. Additionally, records indicate a fatality rate of around 1 per km,
which is considered as one of the highest rates in the world. Improving roa
d and safety conditions
along the KRG transport corridor is thus an urgent priority for both economic and safety reasons.

The following description provides more information for each of the four segments.

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Segments Financed by the
KRG

Segment 1: Semel


Batil

This segment is located in Semel District and crosses two sub
-
di
stricts: Semel Center and Batil.
Different land use categories exist along this segment with the majority being agricultural lands.
Some industrial and commercial activities exist along
the segment.Residential areas near the
alignment included Marina, Muqible collective and Bastike population centers
.

The construction is expected to be completed on September the 8th 2013
.

Segment 2: Batil


Gersheen

This segment is located in Semel
District and goes through one sub
-
district of Batil. Most of the land
use along this segment is agricultural lands. The exception is at Batil center where mix
-
use
residential and commercial land categories exist.

There is an option of adding the section sh
own
to
this segment in case Alignments 2, 3, or 4 are
selected for this road. The added section would be 2 km in length
. Since this segment is currently
under tendering, the construction activities are expected to be completed by end of 2014.

Segment 4:
Suhaila Intersection


Ibrahim Al Khalil

This segment is located in Zakho District and goes thro
ugh one sub
-
district of Rizgari.
Different land
use categories exist along this segment with the majority being agricultural. Residential areas exist at
Derabune collective, Heytan and at the end of the segment near Ibrahim Al Khalil. Some sections are
classified as pastures, and others represent forest areas.

This segment is

cur
rently well under construction
and

is expected to be completed on November 4th

2014
.

Segment to be Co
-
F
inanced by the World Bank

Segment 3:
Girsheen


Suhaila Interchange

This segment is currently under study by an engineering consulting firm in order to select the best
alignment and then prepared the detailed designs. This segment

will be around 23
-
25 km in length;
interchange and expected to cost around 70 million USD and will be co
-
financed by the World Bank
loan to the KRG.This segment is located in Batil District and goes th
rough one sub
-
district of Batil.

The alignment will be designed to provide safe, comfortable, convenient and economic mobility for
both local traffic and traffic heading towards Kurdistan / Iraq
-

Turkey Borders.

The existing road (Alignment alternative 1) is used extensively by heavy go
ods vehicles which
transport goods between Turkey, Kurdistan, central
-
southern Iraq, and Kuwait. However, the design
of this road does not meet the design standards for such roads. Thus, if this alignment is chosen, it
will be necessary to construct a new
6 land dual highway with optimal standards based on
internationally accepted highway construction criteria. The design team has proposed three other
possible Alignment routes (Alignments 2, 3, and 4) to be studied together along with the existing
road alig
nment. The final selection will be based on the outcomes of the engineering,
economicfeasibility, and socio
-
economic studies.

Land use along alignment 1 is mainly agricultural with scattered settlements at Girsheen,
KomalgahaGirsheen, Kelke collective, Av
zreekshno, Pebizne, Kani Arab and BajidKandal.
Regarding Alignments 2 and 3, they are completely located within agricultural lands; few villages
exist but far from the proposed road.

Alignment 4 is the farthest to the north and located between agricultural

lands to the South and
mountains to the North. Similar to Alignments 2 and 3, villages are quite far from the road
alignment.

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Interchanges

Three semi
-
grade separated interchanges will be constructed along the road at Girsheen South,
Girsheen North, and Su
haila
.


0.4.

Analysis of Alternatives

The analysis of project alternatives
was conducted
from an envi
ronmental and social standpoint.

Environmental & Social
multi
-
criteria
Screening (ESSMC) has been developed to perform this
analysis
. The screening is based
on the
level of impact
significance

for

each options made or
alternative proposed. The levels of Impacts areclassified as follows:

Table
1
: Level of Impact

Level

Imapct

-
1

Minor Advers (Negative) Significance

+1

Minor Positive
Significance

-
2

Potential Adverse (Negative) Significance

+2

Potential Positive (Beneficial) Significance

0

No change to the existing situation


The analysis approach for this project was conducted at two levels:

-

Level One Analysis (Retroactive
Approach):

this analysis was applied to the road
segments that are either under construction or that under tendering for construction

(which
are Segments 1, 2 and 4)
. This analysis look
ed

at the decision that wasmade byKRG to select
the existing road align
ment as preferable option to proceed with construction activities of the
project. The evaluation of the selected alignment will be made upon the overall impact
especially for the operational phase which is considered the long term impact.


-

Level Two
Analysis (Proactive Approach):

This analysis was made for the proposed
alternatives and the existing road options of segment 3 for which the alignment is still under
study (Girsheen


Suhaila Interchange). This analysis compare
d

the 4 different possible
Al
ignments, as well as a further option which would involve upgrading of the existing road
alignment (alignment 1) with local diversions to bypass the settlements.

As for

segment 3 of the Corridor

(Gersheen


Suhaila)
. Three alternative alignments plus the
existing alignment were considered. Results of the multi
-
criteria analysis of alternatives show that
the differences between the alternatives are more significant during the construction phase (short
-
term impacts) than during the operational phase (long
-
te
rm impacts).

Alternative 3 and the existing road alignment with modifications (bypasses of two villages which the
road is currently crossing) are promising and shall be given more attention during the course of the
ESIA. Both of them are showing less short
-
term and lon
g term adverse environmental and social
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impacts. In addition, they may generate more social and economic benefits to the impacted
communities which will enhance public acceptance of the project.

0.5.

Description of Baseline Conditions

The natural resources of relevance to road projects include water resources, wildlife and biodiversity
resources, coastal resources, and air quality.
Baseline environmental and social conditions were
studied and presented in the ESIAF. The information was
collected from the existing reports, papers
and publications, as well as field surveys and public consultations
. The following baseline conditions
were presented: physical environment, biological environment, socio
-
economic aspects,
archaeological and cult
ural resources, health and
safety. These are briefly described below:

Physical Environment

The physical environment of the project area is summarized below:

Climate and Meteorology


The climate of the project area is characterized by cold winters with high

rainfall and very hot
summers. The northern mountain regions along the Turkish border have cold winters with heavy
snow.

The nearest weather station to the project area is Zakho Metrological Station which is around 17 Km
from Girsheen. The initial meteoro
logical characteristics of the project area were obtained from the
data averages for the last 10 years
(2003
-
2012)
recorded at this station. These characteristics are
summarized as follows:

o

The average temperature for the ten years period was 20.75 °C.

o

The

average yearly rainfall at the project area was around 446 mm between 2003
-
2012.

o

The prevailing wind direction at the project area is South
-
East and sometimes tends
to South
-
West and North
-
West.

Topography

The Project area lies in the far north
-
west of

Iraq in the Kurdistan Region located between the hilly
and high mountainous area.

Dohuk province is located between two series of mountains: the Bekhir Mountains in the North and
the White Mountains in the South. The elevation of theproject area varies
from 445m to 1215ma.s.l.
The wadies stretch towards the valley in the midway between the two mountains.

Geology

The project area lies on sedimentary rocks: clay, sand, silt and gravel. The top stratum in the project
area is clay and clay mixed with sand or

silt to depth of 50 m. The strata below are layers of gravel
and clay with stones.

The groundwater table is at an average depth of 200m. The aquifer is unlikely to be affected by
surface induced pollution due to its depth and the presence of clay.

Soil

The project area is characterized with four types of soil
:



Brown soil, deep thickness, this type is suitable for agricultural purpose.



Brown soil, medium and shallow deeply eroded, deeply eroded in places. It is similar to first
typeand suitable for agricu
ltural use.

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Chestnut soils suitable for agriculture and forestry.



Rough Mountain lands not suitable for agricultural use.

Biological Environment

The biodiversity of the whole project corridor has been altered to different extents either by several
types
of pressure on the exiting natural habitat


principally agriculture
--

or by complete removal of
the natural habitats and species.

The biological environment characteristics for segments 2 and 3 are
summarized below:


Segment 2: Batil


Girsheen



The area
is characterized by Middle East Steppe with dominant shrubs of Irano
-
Turanian
Region.



The agriculture plains are the main support habitats for birds and mammals species.



Hunting and farming are the main threats on biodiversity in this segment.

Segment 3:
Gersheen


Suhaila Interchange

The biodiversity of this segment is generally characterized by the Eastern Mediterranean eco
-
region.
Detailed study is needed during preparation of the ESI
A

to determine the magnitude of the expected
ecological impacts from road construction on biodiversity
.


Alignment 1:
has the least biodiversityimportance due to the mixed use of the proposed corridor by
multiple settlements, minor commercial and intensive
agricultural activities
.

Alignment 2:
is the closest to the existing road

containing
remnants of dwarf shrubs and grass lands,
where the majority of vegetation cover has been replaced with cultivated crops or deteriorated under
overgrazing pressure
.

Alignment 3:
has an almost similar habitat of Alignment 1 with marginal distribution of natural
shrubs and grasses at the grazing plans or around the cultivated lands
.

Alignment 4:
is the closest to the mountain ranges in the area. However the proposed
Alignment
corridor lacks significant trees that are mainly located at the higher elevations in the mountains where
also more significant wildlife species may exist such as the Wild Cat, Caracal and Squirrel
.
Nevertheless, those natural habitats along this
Alignment are more represented in comparison to
Alignment alignments2 and 3 with the existing pressures of overgrazing and cultivation


Baseline Socio
-
economic Conditions

Segment 2: Batil

Girsheen

This segment does not traverse or intersect any population settlement.

A preliminary baseline Census was carried out along this Segment to identify possible PAPs and
structures along the ROW and immed
iate corridor of impact (COI).
The Census identified 10

structures whose owners and workers are likely to be adversely affected by the road works. These
structures include small shops; gas station, fences and a large commercial building which is newly
built.


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The exact number of PAPs shall be determined and e
stimates of compensation for lost assets, loss of
business and impact on workers shall be carried out as part of ESIA and RAP preparation.

There will be no need for land take for segment 2 since all lands required for widening the existing
road are within
the road right of way

(ROW)
, this was confirmed by Duhok Roads and Bridges
Directorate through an official letter.


Segment 3: Girsheen

Suhaila Interchange

Some initial assessment of socio
-
economic conditions of the resident population along the 4
alternative alignments of this Segment (refer to
Error! Reference source not found.
of the ESIAF
)

has been undertaken to inform this ESIAF and identify further information needs and considerations
necessary for ESIA and RPF preparation.


Alignment 1

(the existing road) either passes immediately by, or bisects, the following villages:
Gir
sheen, KomalgahaGirsheen, Kelke Collective, Avzreekshno, Pebizne, Kani Arab and
KomalgahaBajidKandal.
There will be no need for land take for the existing road option since all
lands required for widening the existing road are within the road right of way.

Alignment 2:

passes close to the villages Girsheen, Imlke, KaniKark and Mazre. The closest village
to this Alignment is Girsheen which is located around 230 m from the ROW.

The alignment passes through agricultural land and no settlements exist on the ROW
or immediate
COI of the proposed alignment
.

PAPs under this alignment would include tenant farmers who lease
the agricultural land from the government and employees working for tenant farmers, including
herders.
The l
and take will affect 12 plots with a tot
al area of 2,293,143 m
2
.


Alignment 3:
passes close to only one village, Mazre, which is located 400 south of the ROW.
Has
similar settlement and land use characteristics to Alignment 2. No settlements are on the proposed
alignment which passes through
agricultural land on which livestock grazing is also practiced
.
Therefore, potential affected people by this Alignment include tenants who rent the agricultural land
from the government, employees who work in agriculture, livestock owners and herders.Land
Acquisition required for Alignment 3 is less


by 8%
--

than that required for Alignment 2
.

As a
result

the land take
will affect 10 plots with a total area of 2,104,963 m
2
.

Alignment 4:

passes close to the very small hamlets of Qaruda and BajidMiri, Qarud
a is 210 m
south of the ROW andBajidMiri is 650 north of the ROW.
Land Acquisition required for Alignment 4
is lower than that for Alignments 2 and 3 by 11% and 3% respectively.

As a result, l
and take will
affect 14 plots with a total area of 2,048,646 m
2
.

M
ore comprehensive study for the socio
-
economic characteristics of the affected people should be
carried out during the ESIA and RAP
/ARAP

studies. The exact number of PAPs shall be determined
and estimates of displaced people and compensation for lost asse
ts, loss of business and impact on
workers shall be carried out.

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The Local Economy and Livelihoods

The economic activities associated with Road Segments 2 and 3 include agriculture, limited basic
manufacturing, real estate, small
-
scale investment projects,

limited construction, and government
services. Basic manufacturing and larger business entities are mainly located along Segment 2
.

Many small shops and businesses are scattered along Segment 3, Alignment 1, and most of these
seem to be operated by perso
ns/families who lease the structures from owners
.

Land Ownership

There are several kinds of land ownership in KRG. However, essentially all land is state
-
owned and
provided for use to citizens under different terms.

The very limited privately owned land is essentially limited to residential areas within villages and
towns. This type of “ownership” is consistent with western concepts of ownership in that it legally
belongs to title holders and can be bought and sold o
n an open market. Much land in villages and
towns is state
-
owned but is leased for different periods of time by individuals and commercial
entities.

All agricultural lands are formally state
-
owned but are leased under different conditions

which are
expl
ained in the ESIAF in more detail
:



Leased on the basis of prior ownership



Leased on the basis of continuing state ownership


Agriculture

Agriculture is the predominant land use activity within and surrounding the project area. It mainly
involves wheat cu
ltivation, while smaller areas are harvested with potatoes, honey melons and fruit
and olive trees
.

0.6.

Public Consultations

Public consultations on the proposed project activities for
the
T
ransport
C
orridor

Segments 2 and 3
were initiated in July, 2013. Interviews and discussions were held with individual PAPs and small
groups of PAPs in informal settings along Segment 2 and along the 4 alternative alignments for
Segment 3. These informal interviews and dis
cussions revealed widespread support for the
improvement and upgrading of the TC, but also highlighted concerns about relocation. These
concerns were most severe along Alignment 1 of Segment 3 which would require by far the highest
level of resettlement,
including of smaller and larger dwellings, of businesses of various sizes, and of
agricultural and livestock structures. Fragmentation of communities would also likely be most
severe as the existing road bisects a number of communities.

The first public c
onsultation session was held on July 17, 2013 for a wide range of stakeholders.
The Consultation was held in Dohuk and hosted by the Kurdistan Government KRG Department of
Road and Bridges
.


Concerns and outcomes raised in these consultations are
summarized as follows:

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P
articipants agreed with the principle
s

of
mitigation and compensation for asset and
livelihood losses



Two comm
unity representatives raised objections about the possibility of land
acquisition



Participants expressed general
support for the project noting that it would stimulate
the local roadside economy by providing more traffic for local shops and services.



C
oncern
s were expressed about
traffic
obstruction
during road works



Concerns were
expressed about the health impacts
of dust and pollution during road
works.



Participants stressed that alignment option 1 would cause much resettlement because
of the number of villages along the alignment.



Participants expressed a preference for alignment option 4 since
it does not pass

through any communities and will require the least relocation and disruption


0.7.

Environmental and Social
Assessment

The ESIAF has provided guidance on both potential positive and negative impacts of environmental
and social concerns likely to arise
from the civil works associated with the proposed project. The
ESIAF offers options

and principles for preventing, minimizing or managing various environmental
and social impacts as an integral part of road project planning and management

The preliminary p
otential impacts during the construction phase

are likely to

include:



Potential impact from the blocking, diversion and /or reduction of natural flow for permanent
and seasonal surface water that may affect the quantity and quality of downstream flow of
water and increase soil erosion.



Potential impacts on surface water r
esources from accidental spillage and sedimentation.



Potential increase in noise levels during construction activities such as excavation, movement
of vehicles and heavy equipment.



Dust generation due to earthworks, construction machinery and stockpili
ng of construction
material. In addition
, generation of gases and particles such

as SOx, NOx, CO, CO2, and
PM
10

due to vehicle induced emissions.



Ecosystem fragmentation affecting migratory species and species that utilize the agricultural
land as their
food source and habitat.



Loss of jobs for the local community due to project activities. This is especially the case if
the existing road alignment is selected as the most feasible alternative.



Land take issues, resettlement or relocation of PAPs
adversely affected by project activities
shall be undertaken in accordance with laws, regulations and guidelines for
Resettlement/Land Acquisition of KRG and OP 4.12. If there is a gap between KRG laws
and the Bank’s OP 4.12 then OP 4.12 provisions shall
apply.


The preliminary
potential impacts during the operation phase

are likely to

include:



Potential increase in exhaust emissions due to traffic volume and variation in vehicle types
using the new constructed road.

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Potential increase in noise levels
attributed to the increase in traffic volume as well, due to
the anticipated larger number of vehicles along the new road.



If alternatives 1 or 2 were selected, potential disturbance to agricultural lands is anticipated
which are considered suitable habi
tats for birds and mammals.



The proposed project will increase the traffic through the road in case of widening current
road, and introduce traffic to new areas in the case of the three alternatives; this will result in
increasing land value and provide
more options for commercial activities along the road.



The construction of the new road is anticipated to significantly reduce traffic accidents since
it will not cross settlements.


0.8.

Mitigation and ESIAF Implementation and Management

The preliminary

mitigation measures for the identified negative impacts are presented in the format
of the Environmental and Social Management Plan (ESMP). The preliminary ESMP will guide the
detailed ESMP that will be presented in the ESIA study. It will allow all the r
esponsible entities of
the project to determine if the proposed mitigation measures are being adequately followed, and are
sufficient to provide the necessary environmental and social protection.

The ease of ESIAF to enhance the performance of the sector
and related institutions through capacity
building and training in environmental and social management h
as also been taken into account in
which capacity building and training topics have been proposed for
Higher management at the
General Directorate of Ro
ads and Bridges in Duhok (GDRB) specifically, the
P
roject Management
Team (PMT)in addition to the
Environmental Protection and Improvement Board
(
EPIB
).

The below ESMP tables
address Segment 2,Batil


Girsheen and Segment 3, Girsheen


Suhaila
Interchange
since construction activities for these remaining two segments have not commenced yet
.
T
he

tables include

project activities that will be undertaken during construction and operation
.

Consequently, the monitoring requirements for each segme
nt are presented in the ESIAF report.
Draft ESIAF

Arabtech Jardaneh

13


Table
2
: ESMP during Construction (Batil


Girsheen)

Parameter

Potential Impacts

Mitigation Measures

Institutional
Responsibility

Time Frame for
Implementation

Cost Estimate

Water
resources

Contamination
downstream surface
water resources due to
polluted stormwater
runoff

Limit construction activities in rainy weathers


The contractor shall use barriers or other measures to ensure
that sediments and any other contaminant do not come into
cont
act with, or are transported off
-
site in surface water run
-
off.


A spill prevention and response plan shall be prepared by the
contractor in order to control any inadvertent leakage or
spillage. Spill response measures shall be implemented (as
necessary) t
o contain and clean up any contaminated soil.

Contractor; and
continuous reporting
with Directorate of
Dohuk Roads and
Bridges


-

Weekly Monitoring
for identified
important water
resources

-

Immediate check
after any
reported
pollution event

To be
determined

during ESIA
stage

Noise

Noise/vibration
disturbance to nearby
receptors as a result of
construction activities.

Restriction of work activities during daytime on weekdays
with coordination and approval of Directorate of Dohuk
Roads and Bridges


The contra
ctor shall provide 24 hours advance notification of
construction schedule and activities with potential disturbance
to nearest residences, facilities and other relevant sensitive
receptors.


The contractor shall perform regular maintenance on all
equipment
, vehicle and machinery.

Contractor; and
continuous reporting
with Directorate of
Dohuk Roads; and
Bridges


Ministry of
Environment


General Dohuk
Directorate of
Health

-

Baseline prior
commencement of
work near settlements

-

Monthly monitoring

-


Immediate check
after any
reported
complaint

To be
determined
during ESIA
stage

Air Quality

Generation of dust due
construction activities


Release of exhaust
emissions from
construction vehicles
and plant equipment

The contractor shall make sure that a
ny vehicle or equipment
leaving the project area is cleaned of loose debris.


The contractor shall use dust suppression measures on
unpaved roads, excavations, stockpiles, and for transport of
excavated material to reduce airborne particulates near
populat
ed areas and sensitive receptors during windy
conditions and when needed.


The contractor shall store cement, sand, or other such fine
grained material in manner to prevent wind erosion and dust.


Construction vehicles shall comply with speed limits for
he
avy vehicles as per KRG requirements.


Contractor; and
continuous reporting
with Directorate of
Dohuk Roads; and
Bridges


Ministry of
Environment


General
DohukDirectorate of
Health


-

Baseline prior
commencement of
work near settlements

-

Immediate check
after any
reported
complaint

To be
determined
during ESIA
stage

Draft ESIAF

Arabtech Jardaneh

14


Parameter

Potential Impacts

Mitigation Measures

Institutional
Responsibility

Time Frame for
Implementation

Cost Estimate

Vehicle and machinery movements during construction shall
be restricted to designated routes at all times where
practicable.


Contractor to perform regular maintenance to construction
vehicles and equipment.

Soil

Disposal of
construction waste;
hence impacting the
top soil


Accidental spillage/
leakage from stored
chemicals and fuel

Develop a waste management plan during construction stage
to control, handling and properly dispose

generated waste.


All chemicals shall be stored in dedicated areas in tightly
closed containers and shall be protected from adverse weather
condition.

A spill prevention and response plan shall be prepared by the
contractor in order to control any
inadvertent leakage or
spillage. Spill response measures shall be implemented (as
necessary) to contain and clean up any contaminated soil.

Machineries and equipment shall be checked by the contractor
on daily basis.



If leaks are detected, machineries an
d equipment shall not be
operated until repaired.

Contractor; and
continuous reporting
with Directorate of
Dohuk Roads; and
Bridges and
Ministry of
Environment

-

Monthly Audit

-

Immediate check
after any reported
pollution event

To be
determined
during ESIA
st
age

Landscape
and Visual
Impacts

Visual intrusion and
degradation of
landscape aesthetics
due to construction
activities.



Stockpiling of
construction materials

A dedicated waste management plan shall be developed and
implemented based on a minimization approach and high
quality housekeeping practices.


Contractor shall ensure general cleanliness and good
housekeeping practice at construction sites at all times.


Littering

in the project area and surrounding areas shall be
prohibited.
waste

bins to be provided. within each
construction site.The contractor shall segregate storage for
different types of wastes to facilitate proper disposal as per
waste management pl
an.

Contractor; and
continuous reporting
with Directorate of
Dohuk Roads; and
Bridges and
Ministry of
Environment

-

Photography
Recording baseline
prior commencement
of work

-

Monthly Audit

To be
determined
during ESIA
stage

Draft ESIAF

Arabtech Jardaneh

15


Parameter

Potential Impacts

Mitigation Measures

Institutional
Responsibility

Time Frame for
Implementation

Cost Estimate

Biological
Environment

Localized
disturbance
to the nearby
cultivated lands that
are productive habitats
for various species of
passerines.


Illegal hunting by
construction
personnel.

Isolate and/or protect working sites from surroundings by
physical barriers to eliminate interaction with

the
surroundings.


Mapping and identifying potentially affected species (conduct
a detailed ecological assessment during the ESIA stage).


Site restoration after work completion.


Educating workers on site on ecosystem conservation
methods.

Contractor;
and
continuous reporting
to:


Directorate of
Dohuk Roads and
Bridges;


Ministry of
Environment


Dohuk Directorate
of Agriculture

-

Ecological Clearance
Prior commencement
of work

-

Monthly Audit

To be
determined
during ESIA
stage

Public and
Occupational
Health &
Safety

Accidents due to
construction activities

Use proper safety measures and personal protective
equipment and implement adequate health and safety plan and
procedures

Contractor; and
continuous reporting
with
Directorate of
Dohuk Roads; and
Bridges and
Ministry of
Environment

-

Daily check by safety
rovers at site

-

Monthly Audit

-

Immediate Check and
review after any
reported accident

To be
determined
during ESIA
stage

Socio
-
economics

Loss of business and
structures

Try to avoid any disturbance to lo
cal communities, and
provide fair mitigation
for lost assets, crops and lost source of
income.

Directorate of
Dohuk Roads; and
Bridges

-

Monthly Audit

-

Immediate check
after any reported
compliant

To be
determined
during ESIA
stage

Archaeological
Resources and
Cultural
Heritage

Potential change to the
setting and character
of identified
archaeological sites
due to construction
activities.


Accidental discovery
(Chance Find)

Apply protection techniques to any exposed archaeological
elements to protect from dust, smoke and fire.


All construction works shall be ceased if there is a risk to
impact any historical or archaeological artifact or landmark
i.e. Batil Cemetery.


Chanc
e find procedures shall be developed in accordance with
the antiquities law in case of accidental discovery.


Work shall be resumed only after archaeological experts from
DDA and official authorities are consulted and appropriate
mitigation measures are im
plemented.


Contractor; and
continuous reporting
to:


Directorate of
Dohuk Roads and
Bridges;


Dohuk Directorate
of Antiquities.


-

Archeological
Clearance prior
commencement of
work

-

Immediate check
after ant reported
chance find

-

Immediate report to
DDA
when chance
find proven

To be
determined
during ESIA
stage


Draft ESIAF

Arabtech Jardaneh

16


Table
3
:
ESMP during Operation (Batil


Girsheen)

Parameter

Potential Impacts

Mitigation Measures

Institutional
Responsibility

Time Frame for
Implementation

Cost Estimate

Air Quality

Increase in traffic
volume and variation
in vehicle types thus
increase exhaust
emissions

Monitor

the ambient air quality
standards


Conduct onsite air quality monitoring in
case of complaints.

Dohuk Directorates of
Roads and Bridges


Ministry of Environment

Continuous

To be determined during
ESIA stage.

Noise

Elevated noise levels
due to increased
number of vehicles
utilizing the road.

Conduct onsite noise monitoring in case
of any complaints.

Dohuk Directorates of
Roads and Bridges


Ministry of Environment

continuous

To be determined during
ESIA stage.





















Draft ESIAF

Arabtech Jardaneh

17


Table
4
:
ESMP during Construction (
Girsheen



Suhaila)

Parameter

Potential Impacts

Mitigation Measures

Institutional
Responsibility

Time
Frame for
Implementation

Cost Estimate

Water
resources

Potential impact from the
blocking, diversion and
/or reduction of natural
flow for permanent and
seasonal surface water



Contamination
downstream surface
water resources due to
stormwater runoff

Siz
ing of culverts must be properly calculated.


Limit construction activities in rainy weathers


The contractor shall use barriers or other measures to
ensure that sediments and any other contaminant do not
come into contact with, or are transported
off
-
site in
surface water run
-
off.


A spill prevention and response plan shall be prepared by
the contractor in order to control any inadvertent leakage
or spillage. Spill response measures shall be implemented
(as necessary) to contain and clean up any co
ntaminated
soil.

Contractor; and
continuous reporting
with Directorate of
Dohuk Roads and
Bridges


-

Weekly Monitoring
for identified
important water
resources

-
Immediate check
after any
reported
pollution event

To be
determined
during ESIA
stage

Noise

Existing road is likely to
be of higher impact
regarding noise due to
higher number of
communities.


On the contrary
Alignments2 and 3

are
expected to have less
noise levels, while
Alignment 4

is expected
to have least noise
impacts because no
community c
lusters exists
within the ROW of this
alignment

Contractor shall restrict work activities during daytime on
weekdays with coordination and approval of Directorate of
Dohuk Roads and Bridges


The contractor shall provide 24 hours advance notification
of
construction schedule and activities with potential
disturbance to nearest residences, facilities and other
relevant sensitive receptors (this measure to be
implemented if the existing road was chosen).


The contractor shall perform regular maintenance on
all
equipment, vehicle and machinery.

Contractor; and
continuous reporting
with Directorate of
Dohuk Roads; and
Bridges


Ministry of
Environment


General Dohuk
Directorate of
Health


-

Baseline prior
commencement of
work near settlements

-

Monthly monitoring

-


Immediate check
after any
reported
complaint

To be
determined
during ESIA
stage

Air Quality

Generation of dust due to
construction activities
and release of exhaust
emissions from
The contractor

shall make sure that any vehicle or
equipment leaving the project area is cleaned of loose
debris.


Contractor; and
continuous reporting
with Directo
rate of
Dohuk Roads; and
-

Baseline prior
commencement of
work near settlements

-

Immediate check
To be
determined
during ESIA
stage

Draft ESIAF

Arabtech Jardaneh

18


Parameter

Potential Impacts

Mitigation Measures

Institutional
Responsibility

Time
Frame for
Implementation

Cost Estimate

construction activities.


If existing road was
selected impacts on air
quality is higher than that
of
Alignments 2 and 3
; as
for
Alignment 4

air
quality impacts are
anticipated to have lower
effects since to
community clusters exists
within the ROW of this
alignment.

The contractor shall use dust suppression measures on
unpaved roads, excavations, stockpiles, and for transport of
excavated material to reduce airborne pa
rticulates near
populated areas.


The contractor shall store cement, sand, or other such fine
grained material in manner to prevent wind erosion and
dust.


Construction vehicles shall comply with speed limits for
heavy vehicles as per KRG requirements.


Ve
hicle and machinery movements during construction
shall be restricted to designated routes at all times where
practicable.


Contractor to perform regular maintenance to construction
vehicles and equipment.

Bridges


Ministry of
Environment


General Dohuk
Directorate of
Health


after any reported
complaint

Soil

Impacts on top soil
especially in
Alignments

2
,
3
and 4
due to presence
of agricultural lands.


Accidental spillage/
leakage from stored
chemicals and fuel

Develop a waste management plan during construction
stage to control, handling and properly dispose

generated
waste.


All chemicals shall be stored in dedicated areas in tightly
closed containers and shall be protected from adverse
weather condition.


A spill prevention and response plan shall be prepared by
the contractor in order to control any
inadvertent leakage
or spillage. Spill response measures shall be implemented
(as necessary) to contain and clean up any contaminated
soil.

Machineries and equipment shall be checked by the
contractor on daily basis to ensure that there is no leak of
oil,
fuel, greases or other liquids.



If leaks are detected, machineries and equipment shall not
be operated until repaired
.

Contractor; and
continuous reporting
with Directorate of
Dohuk Roads; and
Bridges and
Ministry of
Environment

-

Monthly Audit

-

Immediate
check
after any reported
pollution event

To be
determined
during ESIA
stage

Draft ESIAF

Arabtech Jardaneh

19


Parameter

Potential Impacts

Mitigation Measures

Institutional
Responsibility

Time
Frame for
Implementation

Cost Estimate

Landscape
and Visual
Impacts

Construction works such
as excavation and
earthworks, and
construction machinery.


Stockpiling of
construction waste


Such impacts are higher
in
Alignment
s 2
,
3
and 4
due to alteration of the
intrinsic appeal for the
agricultural plains.

A dedicated waste management plan shall be developed
and implemented based on a minimization approach and
high quality housekeeping practices.


Contractor shall e
nsure general cleanliness and good
housekeeping practice at construction sites at all times.


Littering in the project area and surrounding areas shall be
prohibited. Contractor shall provide trash bins within each
construction site.


The contractor shall
segregate storage for different types of
wastes to facilitate proper disposal as per waste
management plan.

Contractor; and
continuous reporting
with Directorate of
Dohuk Roads; and
Bridges and
Ministry of
Environment

-

Photography
Recording baseline
prior c
ommencement
of work

-

Monthly Audit

To be
determined
during ESIA
stage

Biological
Environment

Potential Habitat
fragmentation for
Alignments 2,
3,
and 4

and affecting the fauna
that rely on such habitats.
However lower impact
significance on biological
environment if existing
road was selected.


Illegal hunting by
construction personnel

Isolate and/or protect working sites from surroundings by
physical ba
rriers to eliminate interaction with the
surroundings.


Site restoration where possible.


Mapping and identifying potentially affected species
(conduct a detailed ecological assessment during the ESIA
stage).


Educating workers of ecosystem conservation
methods.

Contractor; and
continuous reporting
to:


Directorate of
Dohuk Roads and
Bridges;


Ministry of
Environment


Dohuk Directorate
of Agriculture

-

Ecological Clearance
Prior commencement
of work

-

Monthly Audit

To be
determined
during ESIA
stage

Public and
Occupational
Health &
Safety

Accidents due to
construction activities

Use proper safety measures and personal protective
equipment and implement adequate health and safety plan
and procedures

Contractor; and
continuous reporting
with
Directorate of
Dohuk Roads; and
Bridges and
Ministry of
Environment

-

Daily check by safety
rovers at site

-

Monthly Audit

-

Immediate Check and
review after any
reported accident

To be
determined
during ESIA
stage

Socio
-
economics

Loss of business and
structure
s

Try to avoid any disturbance to local communities, and
provide fare compensation for lost assets, crops and lost
source of income.

Directorate of
Dohuk Roads; and
Bridges

-

Monthly Audit

-

Immediate check
after any reported
To be
determined
during ESIA
Draft ESIAF

Arabtech Jardaneh

20


Parameter

Potential Impacts

Mitigation Measures

Institutional
Responsibility

Time
Frame for
Implementation

Cost Estimate

compliant

stage

Archaeological
Resources and
Cultural
Heritage

Potential change to the
setting and character of
identified archaeological
sites along the buffer
zone between
Girsheen



Suhaila Interchange due
to construction activities.


Accidental discovery
(Chance Find)

Apply protection techniques to any exposed archaeological
elements to protect from dust, smoke and fire where
applicable.


All construction works shall be ceased
if there is a risk to
impact any historical or archaeological artifact or
landmark.

Chance find procedures shall be developed in accordance
with the antiquities law in case of accidental discovery.


Work shall be resumed only after archaeological experts
f
rom DDA and official authorities are consulted and
appropriate mitigation measures are implemented.

Contractor; and
continuous reporting
to:


Directorate of
Dohuk Roads and
Bridges;


Dohuk Directorate
of Antiquities.


-

Archeological
Clearance prior
commencement of
work

-

Immediate check
after ant reported
chance find

-

Immediate report to
DDA when chance
find
proven

To be
determined
during ESIA
stage


Table
5
:
ESMP during Operation (
Girsheen



Suhaila)

Parameter

Potential Impacts

Mitigation Measures

Institutional
Responsibility

Time Frame for
Implementation

Cost Estimate

Air Quality

Increase in traffic volume and variation in
vehicle types using the new constructed
road.



The impacts to the ambient air quality are
mainly related to increase exhaust
emissions.


Within the existing road, impacts to air
quality are considered higher than other
Alignment
s due to presence of a higher
population level.


Monitoring

the ambient ai
r quality
standards


Conduct onsite air quality
monitoring within new highway in
case of complaints.

Dohuk Directorates of
Roads and Bridges


Ministry of
Environment

Continuous

To be determined
during ESIA stage.

Draft ESIAF

Arabtech Jardaneh

21


Parameter

Potential Impacts

Mitigation Measures

Institutional
Responsibility

Time Frame for
Implementation

Cost Estimate

Noise

Elevated noise levels due to increased
number of vehicles utilizing the road.


Within the existing road, noise impacts are
considered higher than other
Alignment
s
due to presence of a higher population
level.


Conduct onsite noise monitoring
within new hi
ghway in case of
complaints.

Dohuk Directorates of
Roads and Bridges


Ministry of
Environment

continuous

To be determined
during ESIA stage.

Biological
Environment

Potential disturbance to agricultural lands if
Alignment
s

2 or 3

were selected

If
Alignment 4

was selected disturbance of
agricultural land will be minimal; however
potential disturbance to wildlife may occur.

Mapping and identifying
potentially affected species
(conduct a detailed ecological
assessment during the ESIA stage).
In order to develop specific
mitigation measures for each
Alignment
.


Dohuk Directorates of
Roads and Bridges


Ministry of
Environment

C
ontinuous

To be determined
during ESIA stage.

Draft ESIAF

Arabtech Jardaneh

22



0.9.

Summary and Conclusions

1
-

The ESIAF covers segments 2 and 3. With respect to Segments 1 and 4, This ESIAF
reviewed documents, conducted site visits and held discussions with
contractors and
government officials to assess current environmental and social management of ongoing
construction activities. The Government of Iraq has committed to applying the World
Bank Safeguards Policies to the entire transport corridor
.

This inclu
des the segments of
the transport corridor that are not supported by the World Bank. As such the
environmental and social due diligence of these road segments will include the
preparation of environmental audits and resettlement audits prior to the end of

the
appraisal period of the World Bank funded road segments. These environmental and
social audits will assess the non
-
Bank funded road segments compliance with the
safeguards policies, identify any gaps in terms of environmental and social management
an
d develop corrective action plans, if needed.

2
-

Results of the multi
-
criteria analysis of Alignments show that the differences between the
Alignments are more significant during the construction phase (short
-
term impacts) than
during the operational phase (
long
-
term impacts). Hence, the analysis of the construction
phase weight selection of the most desired option during the ESIA phase.

3
-

The alignment 1 with modifications shows some positive potential to decrease the anticipated
resettlement impacts, but the
impacts on minority religious group settlements needs to be
very carefully considered. Therefore, it shall be added to the proposed options and
Alignments that will be studied in the ESIA.

4
-

Alignments 2 and 3 have shown higher possibility of creating signif
icant and long term
adverse agricultural land fragmentation effects, which would impact the birds and some
mammals’ species that depends on such habitats. Such impact would have chain effects on
other social, economic and life style patterns of the impacte
d communities.

5
-

Alignment 4 and 1 (with the proposed modification) are likely to have relatively less long
term adverse impacts on agriculture and land fragmentation that affect directly the economic
patterns of the affected communities.

6
-

The initially antic
ipated long term environmental adverse impacts do not have significant
variations between Alignments 2, 3, and 4 and Alignment 1, except those relating to human
health (i.e.air quality, dust, noise, traffic accidents) where alternative 1 road might have
gr
eater impacts. Adoption of the existing road option with modified alignment (bypasses)
would, to some extent, reduce such impacts.

7
-


Alignment 4 and 1 (with modifications) should be given more attention during preparation of
the ESIA and RAP/ARAp, since bot
h of them are showing less short
-
term and long term
adverse environmental and social impacts. In addition, Alignment 4 and 1 (with
modifications) may generate more social and economic benefits to the impacted communities
which will enhance public acceptanc
e of the project.