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clangpotatoSoftware and s/w Development

Oct 28, 2013 (3 years and 8 months ago)

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Overview

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Review the Internet and the World Wide
Web


Learn about Web server administration


Explore the common tasks and services
performed by administrators


Web Programs and Databases


Review the Internet and the
World Wide Web


The Internet is a worldwide network of networks


Shares WAN used by the international
telecommunications network


Uses TCP/IP
Transmission Control Protocol
(TCP) and the Internet Protocol (IP)


TCP/IP



Using TCP/IP, applications on networked hosts can
create
connections

to one another, over which they
can exchange data. The protocol guarantees reliable
and in
-
order delivery of sender to receiver data
.




Where the Internet uses the HTTP (Hyper
Text Transport Protocol) protocol, it is
called the Web


Web servers use HTTP to communicate


The Internet is not centrally controlled

Review the Internet and the
World Wide Web

Review the Internet and the World
Wide Web


HTML
-

Short for HyperText Markup Language, the
authoring language used to create documents on
the World Wide Web. HTML is similar to SGML,
although it is not a strict subset.



HTML defines the structure and layout of a Web
document by using a variety of tags and attributes.



There are hundreds of other tags used to format and
layout the information in a Web page. Tags are also
used to specify hypertext links. These allow Web
developers to direct users to other Web pages with
only a click of the mouse on either an image or
word(s)

Review the Internet and the
World Wide Web


Internet had its origins in the 1960s


In 1995 a high
-
speed backbone was
created


Included 4 network access points (NAPs)


There have been many more NAPs created
since then although much traffic is now routed
between large ISPs (Internet Service
Providers). ISPs agree on sharing traffic
through peering agreements.



Hypertext, a method of preparing text that
allows readers to choose their own
pathways through the material, is invented
by Ted Nelson.


The underlined word represents a
hyperlink that lets the reader click and
jump to a new page.


It takes almost 30 years to catch on.

History of the Internet: 1965

History of the Internet: 1969


The ARPANET is established by the
Advanced Research Projects Agency
(ARPA), connecting universities, the
military and defense contractors.


In 1973, ARPA launches the Internetting
Project to explore the possibilities of
linking networks

History of the Internet: the 1970s


1976: UUCP (UNIX
-
to
-
UNIX CoPy) is developed
at AT&T Bell Labs and distributed with UNIX one
year later.
The term generally refers to a suite of
computer programs and protocols allowing
remote execution of commands and transfer of
files, email and netnews between computers.


1979: USENET (the decentralized news group
network), based on UUCP, is created by Steve
Bellouin, Tom Truscott and Jim Ellis.

History of the Internet: the 1980s


1986: The NSFNET, created by the
National Science Foundation, is born,
providing a national network. To many
people, this becomes the true birth of the
Internet


1989: Quantum, formerly Q
-
Link online
service for Atari and Commodore users,
becomes AOL.

History of the Internet: 1991


Hypertext browsing software is proposed
by Tim Berners
-
Lee, the inventor of the
World Wide Web.


Information interconnected by hyperlinks is
called a web. The Web is a hypertext
system on a global scale.


ANS, Advanced Network Systems, spins
off to the NSFNET and becomes the first
commercial ISP. Its mission is to foster
commercial and research networking
opportunities.

History of the Internet: 1992


The Internet Society (ISOC) is founded,
incorporating the Internet Architecture
Board.


The ISOC's primary function is to foster
international participation and cooperation
in Internet technologies. Membership is
open to all.

History of the Internet: 1993


The U.S. envisions an Information
Superhighway, formerly known as the
National Information Infrastructure (NII), to
provide a system of interconnected
networks linking every citizen to multiple
sources of information and means of
communication.

History of the Internet: 1993


Mosaic, the first navigation browser to
make use of graphics and a point
-
and
-
click interface, is developed by Marc
Andreessen.


Internet traffic proliferates at a 341%
annual growth rate.

History of the Internet: 1994


Netscape, cofounded by Marc Andreessen
and James Clark, dramatically increases
the popularity of the Web by incorporating
video, sound and animation into their
browser.


Microsoft is sweating the lose of the
desktop to the Browser

History of the Internet: 1995


Sun Microsystems introduces Java, a
programming language that makes
animation and other interactive features
commonplace.


Traditional online services (Compuserve,
AOL and Prodigy) begin to provide
commercial Internet access.

History of the Internet: 1997


The Internet comprises an estimated
134,000 individual networks, and the
number keeps growing.


Competing browsers, including Microsoft's
Internet Explorer, appear.

History of the Internet: 1998


The Web grows from 130 sites in 1993 to
over 2 million sites, and the number keeps
growing.


Not only are more people using the Web,
but more people, as well as companies
and organizations, are launching their own
sites.

History of the Internet: 2000


The dot
-
com
bubble burst
, numerically,
on March 10, 2000


One by one, dot
-
coms ran out of capital
and were acquired or liquidated; the
domain names were picked up by old
-
economy competitors or domain name
investors. Several companies were
accused or convicted of fraud for misusing
shareholders' money.

History of the Internet: 2000


Failures:


Boo.com
-

intention was to sell branded fashion
wear over the Internet; however, after spending
vast sums of its venture capital, it eventually had
to liquidate and was placed into receivership on
May 18, 2000


eToys
-

a business, owned and operated as
EToys.com. It collapsed and went bankrupt,
along with many other so
-
called Dot
-
com
companies, after the end of the Internet Bubble
on March 10, 2000.




History of the Internet: 2000


Pets.com
-

Despite their incredible web traffic and well
known brand name, sales of pet products through the
site were nowhere near profitable
-

their strategy had
been based around conquering the market on pet
supplies without adequate research on how many pet
owners would genuinely use the service. Money ran out,
the profits never came, and Pets.com was unsuccessful
in raising further capital for their floundering enterprise.
They announced they were closing their doors on the
afternoon of November 6, 2000. Today, the domain
name pets.com redirects to PETsMART's website.


History of the Internet: 2000


Kozmo.com
-

Kozmo promoted an incredible business
model; it promised to deliver small goods free of charge.
The company raised about $280 million, including $60
million from Amazon.com. The business model was
heavily criticized by business analysts, who pointed out
that one
-
hour point
-
to
-
point delivery of small objects is
extremely expensive and there was no way Kozmo could
make a profit as long as it refused to charge delivery
fees. Not surprisingly, the company failed soon after the
collapse of the dot
-
com bubble, laying off its staff of
1,100 employees and shutting down in April 2001.

The History of the Internet: 2000


Webvan
-

Was an online "credit and delivery"
grocery business that went bankrupt in 2001. It
is often considered one of the clearest examples
of misapplying Internet technology to an existing
form of business. While Webvan was popular
with consumers, the enormous amount of money
spent on infrastructure far exceeded sales
growth, and the company eventually ran out of
money.


The History of the Internet


Successful


Amazon.com



eBay


Google


MSN


PayPal (now a subsidiary of eBay)


Priceline.com


Yahoo!


Netflix

Understanding Web server
Administration


Web server administrators focus on the
Internet


Need to work with ISPs and Web page
developers


Typically, a Web server provides
information to anyone who requests it
over the Internet


Web servers can contain other
applications such as FTP and e
-
mail

Understanding Web server
Administration


Depending on the size of the organization,
some tasks may be delegated


Web page development


Database design


Programming


E
-
mail administration


Security

Selecting Programs and
Databases


Web server administrators need to install
programming languages


Web developers use a variety of languages


Active Server Pages (ASP)


Original language from Microsoft


ASP.Net


A newer environment that includes many languages


Java Server Pages (JSP)

Selecting Programs and
Databases


Non
-
Microsoft languages are popular,
even on Microsoft Web servers


Perl


one of the first and still popular


PHP


easy to use


Java Server Pages (JSP)


Macromedia ColdFusion

Web Databases


A database management system (DBMS) is
used to store data used with Web pages


Microsoft Access is appropriate for small sites


Microsoft SQL Server, Oracle 9
i
, and MySQL are
sophisticated DBMSs for larger sites


Standard Query Language (SQL) is the
language used to communicate with the DBMS