Created by: Mrs. Looser Lanett High School Alabama History Education Initiative, Cohort I 2009-2010

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Oct 28, 2013 (3 years and 9 months ago)

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Created by: Mrs. Looser

Lanett High School

Alabama History Education Initiative, Cohort I

2009
-
2010


Raw Materials


Land


Labor: unskilled and skilled


Transportation for workers and products


Capital


Entrepreneurs and managers to drive the
process


Jefferson County area: Coal, iron ore, and
limestone


Necessities for steel industry


Video clip: Sloss Furnace, Pig Iron Production


http://www.encyclopediaofalabama.org/face/M
ultimedia.jsp?id=m
-
4087



Alabama Coal Mining Company, 1856 in
Montevallo


Civil War stimulated mining and iron
industry


Revived after Civil War in Jefferson
County, Bibb County, Cherokee County,
and Shelby County


Elyton Land Company laid out city in
1871


Founded where 2 railroad lines crossed


Grew up around iron, coal, and steel
industry


Flourished as iron industry grew in 1880s


Named the “Magic City” because of
rapid growth



Eureka Mining Company in Birmingham


Managed by Henry F. DeBardeleben, son
-
in
-
law of Daniel Pratt (Alabama’s premier
entrepreneur)


Mined coal and made iron


Became Eureka Mining and
Transportation Company


Developed blast furnace for making coke
pig iron




Pig iron production


11,000 tons in 1872


800,000 tons in 1890


1,000,000 tons in
1900




Jefferson County
Population:


12,345 in 1870


23,272 in 1880


88,501 in 1900



Rogers, William Warren, Robert D. Ward, Leah Rawls Atkins, and
Wayne Flynt.
Alabama: The History of a Deep South State
. Tuscaloosa:
University of Alabama Press, 1994. 281.


Tennessee Coal, Iron
and Railroad
Company


Bought the Pratt
Company and other
competitors


Developed in late
1800s


Purchased by U.S.
Steel in 1907


http://www.pratthistory.com/henry_f__
debardeleben.htm


Established in 1881
by Col. James W. Sloss



Multimedia clip on
The Rise of the Sloss
Furnace Company
http://www.encyclop
ediaofalabama.org/fa
ce/Multimedia.jsp?id
=m
-
4085



http://www.encyclopediaofalabama.or
g/face/Article.jsp?id=h
-
1818


Northerners
controlled iron and
steel industry from
Pittsburgh


Charged shipping
rates for Alabama
steel based on
mileage from
Pittsburgh

http://www.encyclopediaofalabama.org/face
/Article.jsp?id=h
-
1818


34.9% native
-
born
whites


18.7 % foreign born:
England, Scotland,
Ireland, Holland, and
Italy


46.2 % Black


.2% Convicts from
state and county
prisons



(Rogers, p. 283)

http://www.encyclopediaofalaba
ma.org/face/Multimedia.jsp?id=
m
-
2434


Media clip on Sloss
Workers Quarters


http://www.encyclop
ediaofalabama.org/fa
ce/Multimedia.jsp?id
=m
-
6183


http://www.encyclopediaofalaba
ma.org/face/Multimedia.jsp?id=
m
-
6325


1846 Alabama law
allowed state to lease
convicts to employers


State earned the
money


Leased convicts were
also employed in
lumber and cotton
mills

http://www.encyclopediaofalabam
a.org/face/Article.jsp?id=h
-
1638


1911 Birmingham
tragedy


128 African American
convicts killed


Outcry for end to
convict leasing


Led to mining safety
bill

http://www.encyclopediaofalabama.
org/face/Multimedia.jsp?id=m
-
2431


Daniel Pratt



Henry F. DeBardeleben



James W. Sloss



Enoch Ensley



Braxton Bragg Comer


Many argued for
textile mills located
near cotton areas


By 1860: 14 mills in
Alabama


Small operations with
average work force of
94


Workers were mostly
women

http://www.forttyler.com/industr
y.htm


Began rapid growth
in 1880


1890: 13 mills,
employ 2,088


1900, 31 mills,
employ 8,332
workers


38% men, 33%
women, and 29%
children under 18


http://preservationscoreboard.uwa.edu
/inplay/millcomplex.htm


Mills located in smaller
towns


Autaugaville


Prattville


Tallassee


Lanett


Langdale


Alexander City


Sylacauga

http://www.moodyscollectibles.com/USVIE
WS/Alabama/alabama12699.htm


Good return on
investments


Save on raw material
shipping costs


Major attraction:
Cheap labor


Investments in 1880:
20% return




1897 State law:
exempted anyone
who invested $50,000
in a textile mill from
all state, county, and
municipal taxes for
10 years


Companies built mill
villages


Operated company
stores


State’s first major
employment for
women


Also employed many
children

http://www.alalabor.state.al.us/
CHILD_LABOR.htm


A mixed blessing


Helped some


Hurt others


Alternative to tenant
farming and
sharecropping


Produced reformers


Also produced a new
class of workers


Other mills:


Grist mills


Flour mills


Wool mills


1880: 2000 mills with
10,000 employees


1900: 5000 mills with
30,000 employees


http://www.encyclopediaofalabam
a.org/face/Article.jsp?id=h
-
2128




“New South Era.”
Encyclopedia of
Alabama.


http://www.encyclopediaofalabama.org


Retrieved July 11, 2009.


Rogers, William Warren, Robert D. Ward,
Leah Rawls Atkins, and Wayne Flynt.
Alabama: The History of a Deep South
State
. Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama
Press, 1994.