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PSY 368 Human
Memory

Neuropsychology & Memory

Review for Exam 2

Announcements


Focus Questions for Weldon and Roediger (1987)
Due Monday Today


Exam 2 Wednesday (March 28)

Alzheimer

s Disease


Alzheimer’s disease


Cortical, progressive dementia


Criteria


deficit in two or more areas of cognition, at least one of
which is memory


interferes with social or occupational functioning


decline from premorbid level


gradually progressive course


rule out other causes

Alzheimer

s Disease


Alzheimer’s disease
(
video clip
# 19, ~7mins)


Cortical, progressive dementia


Disease is associated with the development of neuro
-
fibrillary tangles and plaques



To stay healthy, neurons must
communicate with each other
,
carry
out metabolism
, and
repair
themselves
.


AD disrupts all three of these
essential jobs.

Pet Scan of
Normal Brain

Pet Scan of Alzheimer

s
Disease Brain

Alzheimer

s Disease


Alzheimer’s disease


Signs of AD are first noticed in the
entorhinal cortex, then proceed to the
hippocampus.


Affected regions begin to shrink as
nerve cells die.


Changes can begin 10
-
20 years before
symptoms appear.


Memory loss is the first sign of AD.

Preclinical AD

Alzheimer

s Disease


Alzheimer’s disease


AD spreads through the brain. The
cerebral cortex begins to shrink as more
and more neurons stop working and die.


Mild AD signs

can include memory loss,
confusion, trouble handling money, poor
judgment, mood changes, and increased
anxiety.


Moderate AD signs
can include increased
memory loss and confusion, problems
recognizing people, difficulty with
language and thoughts, restlessness,
agitation, wandering, and repetitive
statements.

Mild to Moderate AD

Alzheimer

s Disease


Alzheimer’s disease


In severe AD, extreme shrinkage
occurs in the brain. Patients are
completely dependent on others for
care.


Symptoms can include weight loss,
seizures, skin infections, groaning,
moaning, or grunting, increased
sleeping, loss of bladder and bowel
control.


Death usually occurs from aspiration
pneumonia or other infections.
Caregivers can turn to a hospice for
help and palliative care.

Severe ADs

Alzheimer’s Disease


The brains of people with AD have an abundance of
two abnormal structures:

An actual AD plaque

An actual AD tangle


Beta
-
amyloid plaques



Dense deposits of protein and
cellular material that accumulate
outside and around nerve cells


Neurofibrillary tangles



Twisted fibers that build up inside
the nerve cell


Alzheimer’s disease

Alzheimer

s Disease


Alzheimer’s disease


Relatively intact articulatory loop of WM


three types of memory problems


WM


verbal and spatial memory impairments


Episodic memory impaired (e.g., free recall)


Executive function


Semantic memory is also impaired


Naming and word generation impaired in AD




Note: pure amnesics do not have the latter two impairments

Exam 2 Review


Chapter 5: Memory Processing


Chapter 6: Forgetting


Chapter 7: Implicit Memory


Chapter 8: Neuropsychology and Memory


Chapter 9: Recognition

Exam 2 Review


Chapter 5: Memory Processing


Craik & Lockhart (1972), Levels of processing
(slide 16)


Craik & Tulving (1975)


good experimental evidence
supporting LOP (deeper processing remembered better)
(slide 17)


Transfer Appropriate Processing


Morris, Bransford, & Franks (1977)


good experimental
evidence supporting TAP (match of processing at encoding and
retrieval more important than LOP)
(slide 18
-
21)


Context effects (similar context at encoding & test, better
memory)


Encoding Specificity Principle (Thompson & Tulving, 1970)

(slide 22
-
23)



Exam 2 Review


Chapter 6: Forgetting


Ebbinghaus and forgetting function
(slide 24)


Permastore (see Bahrick studies)
(slides 25
-
27)


Retrospective vs. Prospective memory


Theories of forgetting


Failure of Consolidation


Decay


Context/cue mismatch


Interference (retroactive and proactive)
(slides 28
-
29)



Exam 2 Review


Chapter 7: Implicit Memory


Implicit memory tasks (vs. explicit tasks)
(slides 30
-
31)


Process Dissociation Procedure (Jacoby, 1991)
(slides 32
-
34)


Theoretical accounts


The activation view


Multiple memory systems
(slide 35)


Transfer appropriate processing


Blaxton (1989) (data vs. conceptual driven, or direct vs.
indirect)
(slides 36
-
40)


Bias view




Exam 2 Review


Chapter 8: Neuropsychology and Memory


Methods of study
(slide 41)


Neurons and the Brain
(slides 42
-
45)


Hippocampus


Memory Disorders


Amnesia
(slide 46)


Anterograde


retrograde


Alzheimer’s Disease
(today’s lecture, slides 3
-
9)

Exam 2 Review


Chapter 9: Recognition


Recall vs. Recognition


Signal Detection Method
(slide 47)


Single vs. dual process theories
(slides 48
-
51)


Tagging Model


Strength Theory


Generate
-
Recognize Model


Remember/Know Processes Model


Face Recognition
(slide 52)




Level of Processing

Craik & Lockhart (1972)


Considered
level of processing
at study to be more important for
memory than intent to learn


Levels of processing = how

deeply


the item is processed


The depth of processing helps determine the durability in LTM.


Level of Processing

Example

1) Visual Form


DOG


includes the letters D, O,
and G

2) Phonology

Rhymes with FOG

3) Semantics
(Meaning)

A four
-
legged pet that often chases
cats and chews on bones

SHALLOW

DEEP


Craik and Tulving (1975)

Levels of Processing

Task
:


Participants viewed words and were asked to make three
different types of judgments:


Visual processing (e.g.

Is LOG in upper case?


Y/N)


Phonological (e.g.

Does DOG rhyme with LOG?


Y/N)


Semantic (e.g.

Does DOG fit in the sentence:

The ___ chased
the cat

?


Y/N)


Finally, participants were asked to recognize the words they
had seen before in a surprise test including both old and new
words.

Morris
,
Bransford
, and Franks (1977
)


Task
:


Participants made either a phonological or semantic judgment
about each item on a word list
.


Study:
eagle

(yes/no fits clue)


Deep
-

The ____ is the US national bird.


Shallow
-

rhymes with legal


The learning was
incidental
: participants were not told that they
would have to later recall the words.


This constrains (limits) the learning strategies used
.

Transfer
-
appropriate processing

Morris, Bransford, and Franks (1977)


Task
:


The final test was either:


A standard recognition test for the learned words.


A rhyming recognition test for learned words


e.g., Was a word presented that rhymed with

regal

?.

Transfer
-
appropriate processing

Transfer
-
appropriate processing

Encoding:

Recognition
test:

Rhyming test:

Does ____ rhyme
with legal?
(eagle)

63%

49%

Does ____ have
feathers? (eagle)

84%

33%

Morris,
Bransford
, and Franks (1977)


Results
:


Standard recognition test: Deeper processing led to better performance.


Rhyming recognition test: The shallower rhyme
-
based encoding task led
to better performance because it matched the demands of the testing
situation.

Transfer
-
appropriate processing

Encoding:

Recognition
test:

Rhyming test:

Does ____ rhyme
with legal?
(eagle)

63%

49%

Does ____ have
feathers? (eagle)

84%

33%

Morris,
Bransford
, and Franks (1977)


Conclusion:


The take
-
home message is that when the processing at encoding
matches the processing at retrieval, performance will be better.


It only makes sense to talk about a learning method

s efficiency in
the context of the type of final test.

Thompson and Tulving (1970)


Examined effectiveness of cue


Had people learn lists of strong or weak associates.


Strong vs. weak cues (

flower

)


Strong: bloom


Weak: fruit


Study: no cue vs. weak cue


Test: no cue, weak cue, or strong cue


Encoding Specificity Principle

Encoding Specificity Principle

Thompson and Tulving (1970)


Thompson
and
Tulving

showed that
this can be reversed if
you change the study
context.


The best retrieval cue for a word like

flower


would be a
strong associate like

bloom.



fruit


is weakly associated to

flower,


and would be unlikely to pull it out.

Memory

Performance

Rapid forgetting for short
delays
-

slower for longer
delays

Forgetting

Ebbinghaus

(1885)

What do we forget?


Permastore:


Describes the leveling off of the forgetting curve at long delays.


Beyond this point, memories appear impervious to further
forgetting.

Bahrick (1984)


Permastore


Rapid forgetting of foreign
language for 3 yrs,


Then of a asymptotes (levels off)
after about 2 years,


Stays fairly constant even up to 50
yrs.


The overall level of retention is
determined by the level of initial
learning.

Bahrick
,
Bahrick

&
Wittlinger

(1975
)

Permastore


Tested nearly 400 high
-
school graduates on their ability to recognize
and name classmates after delays of up to 30 years.


Questions


Recall


Can you list all your classmates?


Can you name all these faces?


Recognition


Is this the name of a classmate?


Is this the face of a classmate?


Match these names and faces

Bahrick
,
Bahrick

&
Wittlinger

(1975
)

Permastore


Tested nearly 400 high
-
school graduates on their ability to recognize
and name classmates after delays of up to 30 years.

Results were mixed
:


Relatively unimpaired:


Ability to recognize their classmates


faces/names.


Ability to match up names to the
appropriate portraits.

Conclusion
:


Recall, but not recognition,

of well
-
learned personal material, closely follows
the forgetting curve first demonstrated by Ebbinghaus (1913).


Extensively impaired:


Ability to recall a name, given a person’s portrait.

Recognition

Name Matching

Recall

Name the picture


3.3 mons. 47+ yrs.


Retroactive Interference (RI)

How do we forget?


Forgetting caused by encoding new traces into memory in
between the initial encoding of the target and when it is tested.


Introducing a related second list of items impairs recall of the first
list compared to a control condition.


Proactive Interference (PI)

How do we forget?


The tendency for older memories to interfere with the retrieval of
more recent experiences and knowledge.


The number of previous learning experiences (e.g. lists) largely
determines the rate of forgetting at long delays.

Memory Tasks

indirect

direct


incidental

implicit
memory

expts
.

Levels of
Processing

expts
.


intentional

?

explicit
memory

expts
.

Test Instructions

Study
Instructions

Implicit Memory
: Often defined as "memory without
awareness”


Also “Non
-
declarative” & “procedural” (Squire, Knowlton, &
Mesen, 1993)

Perceptual Tasks

Word identification

Word stem completion

Word fragment completion

Degraded word naming

Anagram solution

Lexical decision

Implicit Memory Tasks

Non
-
Verbal Tasks

Picture fragment
naming

Object decision task

Possible/impossible
object decision

Conceptual Tasks

Word association

Category instance
generation

Answering general
knowledge questions

Often defined as "memory without awareness”


Tasks are not

process pure


(Jacoby, 1991)


Indirect measures of memory may be “contaminated” by
intentional uses of memory


E.g., in stem completion task, subjects might remember items
from previous list and use them to complete the stems


Direct measures may be influenced by unconscious or
automatic influences (Jacoby, Toth, & Yonelinas, 1993)


Process
-
Dissociation Procedure
was developed to separate
automatic (unconscious) and conscious processes

Mixing Measures

Jacoby (1991)


Read

a list of words


List 1


Hear

a list of words


List 2


Two recognition tests:


Both tests include List 1, List 2 and novel words.


Inclusion

= complete task with studied or any item


Respond “old” if word was on either list.


Exclusion

= complete task with item NOT studied (exclude
studied items)


Respond “old”
only

if word was on List 2.

Process Dissociation Procedure


Can calculate C and A for each condition in the
experiment


C = (Proportion of studied items in inclusion)
-

(Proportion of studied items in exclusion)


A = (Proportion of studied items in exclusion) / (1
-
C)


The C and A values are estimated as proportions
-

values
between 0 and 1.0


Data


Proportion of studied items in
inclusion

= C + (1
-
C)(A)


Proportion of studied items in
exclusion

= (1
-
C)(A)

Jacoby (1991)

Process Dissociation Procedure

Multiple Memory Systems


What is a system?

Schacter and Tulving (1994)

System

Other Name

Subsystems

Characteristics

Procedural

Nondeclarative

Motor skills

Non
-
conscious

operation

(indirect)

Cognitive skills

Simple

conditioning

Simple associative
learning

Perceptual

representation

Nondeclarative

Visual word form

Auditroy word
form

Structural

description

Primary

memory

Working memory

Visual

Conscious

operation

(direct)

Auditory

Semantic

Generic

Spatial

Factual

Relational

Knowledge

Episodic

Personal

Autobiographical

Event memory

If you “know how to do
something”

Allows you to automatically
recognize things

See earlier in the semester

Factual information
(chpt 10)

Memory of events


Goal to demonstrate


data
-
driven processing can affect direct tests


data
-
driven processing do not necessarily affect indirect
tests

Blaxton

(1989)

Transfer Appropriate Process

Data
-
driven

Conceptually
-
driven

Direct

Graphic
-
cued

Recall

Free Recall

Indirect

Fragment

Completion

General

Knowledge

Target word:
bashful


graphic
-
cued recall: looks like

bushful



free recall


frag completion: b_sh_u_


General knowledge:

Name one of the 7 dwarfs



Blaxton

(1989)

Data
-
driven

Conceptually
-
driven

Direct

Graphic
-
cued

Recall

Free Recall

Indirect

Fragment

Completion

General

Knowledge

Transfer Appropriate Process

S’s
saw

or
heard

lists of words (key IV here)

Predictions


Systems view
: modality match should affect only
indirect

tests (if indirect tap separate system, then modality should
affect them in the same way)



for both implicit tests: visual > auditory



for both explicit test: visual = auditory

Blaxton

(1989)

Transfer Appropriate Process

Data
-
driven

Conceptually
-
driven

Direct

Graphic
-
cued

Recall

Free Recall

Indirect

Fragment

Completion

General

Knowledge

Same pattern of results
regardless of modality

Visual better than auditory
for both

Predictions


TAP View
: modality match should affect
data
-
driven
tasks
only. (priming depends on match between study/test
processing match & not on
indirect

vs
direct
):


for both data
-
driven tests: visual > auditory



for both conceptually
-
driven tests: visual = auditory


Blaxton

(1989)

Transfer Appropriate Process

Data
-
driven

Conceptually
-
driven

Direct

Graphic
-
cued

Recall

Free Recall

Indirect

Fragment

Completion

General

Knowledge

Visual
should
be better
than
auditory

Visual and
auditory
should
be about
the same

Results

Priming Effect (V > A) for data
-
driven tasks only:


indirect
: frag completion


direct
: graphemic
-
cued recall


Not all indirect tests display
priming effect.


Gen Know (indirect,
conceptual): V = A

Blaxton

(1989)

Transfer Appropriate Process

Conclusions

Support view that processing
rather than system is what is
important


Neuroscientists typically study memory in animals


Can record electrical or chemical signals directly from
individual neurons, or carefully remove small portions of
the brain


Psychologists typically study memory in humans


More limited techniques


“Experiments of nature” Case studies


Lesions


Direct electrical stimulation


Neuroimaging techniques


Methods of Study

The Neuron


Dendrites


Cell body


Axon


Myelin sheath


Terminal buttons


Synapse


Billions of synapses

nice reference web page

Neurons and Memory

Hebbian

Learning:


Cells that fire together
wire together


Connections between
neurons are weighted


Weights can be
changed based on
feedback from later
cells



Basic assumption of most
computational neural
network models
(connectionism)



Limbic system
: controls emotions and
instinctive behavior (includes the hippocampus
and parts of the cortex)


Thalamus
: receives sensory and limbic
information and sends to cerebral cortex


Hypothalamus
: monitors certain activities and
controls body

s internal clock


Hippocampus
: where short
-
term memories are
converted to long
-
term memories

Other Crucial Parts

Structure of the brain

Hippocampus


Important for formation of new episodic memories


Important for encoding perceptual aspects of memories


Novel events, places, and stimuli


Important for declarative memory


Especially as part of medial temporal lobe


Supported by case of HM


Video

(location
, 1 min
)


Video

(damage
, 7 mins
)

Amnesia


Loss of memory ability
-

usually due to lesion or
surgical removal of various parts of the brain


Relatively spared performance in other domains


A pure amnesia is relatively rare


Two broad categories:


Retrograde
: loss of memories for events prior to damage


Anterograde
: loss of ability to store new memories of events
after damage

Signal Detection Theory


Recognition accuracy depends on
:


Whether a signal (noise/target memory) was actually
presented


The participant

s response


Thus, there are four possible outcomes:



Hits


Correctly reporting the presence of the signal


Correct Rejections


Correctly reporting the absence of the signal



False Alarms


Incorrectly reporting presence of the signal when it
did not occur


Misses


Failing to report the presence of the signal when it
occurred

CORRECT

INCORRECT


Two classes of theories


Single process theories
-

retrieval is one process
regardless of task


Dual process theories
-

two processes needed for
retrieval
-

can be task dependent

How does Recognition work?

Generate
-
recognize model (G
-
R)


Recall

is made up of two processes


First, generate a set of plausible candidates for recall (
G
eneration

stage
)


Second, confirm whether each word is worthy of being recalled
(
R
ecognition

stage



not the same as the recognition test)


Recognition

is made up of only one process


Because the experimenter provides a candidate, recognition does
not need the generation stage

Dual
-
process theories

Dual
-
process theories

(Tulving , 1985; Gardiner, 1988)


Relatively recent change in recognition methodology


Does someone


Specifically remember


Conscious recollection of the information’s occurrence at study



Just somehow know


Knowing that it was on the list, but not having the conscious
recollection, just a “feeling of knowing”


Remember versus Know Process Model


Remember/Know processes


Make R/K judgment for

Old


items


Remember

= consciously recollect details of the item’s
presentation


Know

= sure an item was presented, but can’t recall any of the
details of presentation


Dual
-
process theories


R/K differ by:


Picture superiority
effect


R: P > W


K: W > P


Generation
effect


R: G > R


K: R = G


Word frequency
effect


R: L > H


K: H = L


Evidence for special ability:

(1)
Prosopagnosia

(2)
Newborn preferences

(3)
Face inversion effect

(4)
Pop
-
out effect for faces


Face Recognition