The following texts are for the master students who are preparing for the English state
The texts will be followed by reading comprehension and vocabulary exercises. Also will be added
and grammar tasks in the exam.
Texts are for the
schools: 1. School of
Food and Biotechnology
Industrial Technology and Design
Computer Science and Management School (Computer 10,
5. School of
Geology and Petroleum Engineering (10)
6. School of
Mechanical Engineering (10)
7. School of
8. School of
Materials Science (10)
9. School of
Telecommunication and Information Technology (10)
10. School of
ing and Architecture (10)
11. School of
Social Technology (10)
13. School of Mining Engineering (10)
School of Food and Biotechnology
WHY WE NEED FOOD
from apples and pea
s to whole meal bread and ice cream
contain two main
categories of nutrients, the macronutrients and the micronutrients.
Macronutrients are required
in large amount for healthy growth and development;
they form the basis of every diet and they provide energy for all the body’s everyday functions
and activities. These nutrients are further categorized as being primarily fats, proteins,
fiber, although most foods contain all of them in varying proportions.
Vitamins and minerals make up the micronutrients, so called because they are found in tiny
amount in foods. Unlike macronutrients, vitamins and minerals do not provide energy and are
needed in small amounts, but they play a critical role in the normal functioning of the body and
digestive processes, to ensure good health.
Take a look at what you eat in an average day: the chances are that your diet includes a
wide variety of foods fr
om all the basic food groups, and that it provides a range of essential
nutrients. Your breakfast, for example may be rich in carbohydrates and fiber from cereal or
wholemeal toast; you may have a mixed salad for your lunch, and grilled fish and vegetables
dinner providing proteins and a variety of vitamins and minerals. Whatever you eat at individual
meals, your diet is made up of foods from the five basic food groups.
In addition to supplying nutrients, food provides your body with energy. Approximat
thirds of the energy we obtain from food goes to support the body’s basic, involuntary
functions, which are the activities that are performed without any conscious control, such as heart
rate, maintaining breathing, and body temperature. Th
e minimum energy needed to carry out
these functions is determined by your basal metabolic rate which is your baseline rate of
metabolism measured when the body is at rest. You also expand energy through conscious,
voluntary activities, which range from th
e sedentary to the strenuous. All your body’s energy
needs are met from your body’s energy stores.
Almost all foods are of plant or animal origin, although there are some exceptions. Foods not
coming from animal or plant sources inclu
de various edible fungi, including mushrooms. Fungi and
ambient bacteria are used in the preparation of fermented and pickled foods such as leavened
bread, wine, beer, cheese, pickles, and yogurt. Additionally, salt is often eaten as a flavoring or
ative, and baking soda is used in food preparation. Both of these are inorganic substances,
as is water, an important part of human diet.
Many plants or plant parts are eaten as food. There are around 2,000 plant
species which are cultivated for f
ood, and many have several distinct cultivars. Plant
can be classified as with the nutrients necessary for the plant’s initial growth. Because of this,
seeds are often packed with energy, and are good sources of food for animals, including huma
re the ripened extensions of plants, including the seeds within. Fruits are made
attractive to animals so that animals will eat the fruits and excrete the seeds over long distances.
Fruits, therefore, make up a significant part of the diets o
f most cultures. Some fruits, such as
pumpkin and eggplant, are eaten as vegetables. Vegetables are a second type of plant matter
eaten as food. These include root vegetables (such as potatoes and carrots), leaf vegetables
(such as spinach and lettuce), st
em vegetables (such as bamboo shoots and asparagus), and in
Florence vegetables (such as globe artichokes and broccoli). Many herbs and spices are highly
can be used as food either directly or indirectly by the products they
Meat is an example of a direct product taken from an animal, which comes from either muscle
systems or from organ. Food products produced by animals include milk produced by mammals,
which in many cultures is drunk or processed into dairy produc
ts such as cheese or butter.
While some food can be eaten raw, many foods undergo some form of
preparation for reasons of safety, palatability, or flavor. At the simplest level this may involve
washing, cutting, trimming or adding other food
s or ingredients, such as spices. It may also
involve mixing, heating or cooling, pressure cooking, fermentation, or combination with other
food. In a home, most food preparation takes place in a kitchen. A meal is made up of food which
is prepared to be e
aten at a specific time and place. The preparation of animal
based food will
usually involve slaughter, evisceration, hanging, portioning and rendering. In developed countries,
this is usually done outside the home in slaughterhouses which are used to proc
ess animals mass
for meat production. On the local level a butcher may commonly break down larger animal meat
into smaller manageable cuts and pre
wrapped for commercial sale or wrapped to order in
butcher paper. In addition fish and seafood may be fabrica
ted into smaller cuts by a fish monger
at the local level. However fish butchery may be done on board a fishing vessel and quick
for preservation of quality
These are naturally occurring chemicals essential for health. For many of
us, the word
“vitamin” conjures up the shelves of the local chemist, or perhaps the fortified cereals that we eat
for breakfast each morning. But these chemical substances occur naturally, in minute quantities,
in most of the foods that we eat on food sour
ces to meet our vitamin needs.
Although vitamins contain no calories, they are essential for normal growth and
development, and many chemical reactions in the body. Vitamins are necessary for the food to
use the calories provided by the food that we eat a
nd help process proteins carbohydrates, and
fats. Vitamins are also involved in building cells, tissues, and organs
vitamin C, for example,
helps produce healthy skin. Vitamins are classified as fat
soluble or water
soluble, based on how
they are absorbed
by the body. Vitamins A, D, E and K are fat
soluble vitamins include vitamin C
and the B
Research has shown that foods rich in antioxidants are particularly beneficial for health.
Antioxidants include vitamins A, C, and E, and they are
found in a wide range of vegetables and
For the most part, we rely on food sources or supplements to meet our vitamin and
mineral requirements. However, there are a few exceptions to this; for example, gut flora (the
organisms in the intesti
nal tract) produce vitamin K. Vitamin D is also converted by the skin
into a form that the
body can use with the help of ultraviolet light in sun light.
Because your body makes only a few vitamins itself, a balanced diet is very important
at your body receives the sufficient amount of vitamins, as well as minerals, that it
requires each day.
The key to getting enough vitamins in your diet is to eat a variety of foods. This is because
while some nutrients tend to be found in substantial amo
unts in certain groups of foods, such as
vitamin C in fruits and vegetables, other nutrients, such as the B vitamins, are found in smaller
amounts in a wide range of foods. No one food contains an adequate amount of all the vitamins
that you require daily,
but if you make healthy choices from a variety of foods, you are less likely
to miss out on any one particular nutrient.
Most people buy the same foods each week, which can result in a limited range of vitamin.
For example eat two apricots instead of one
orange, for a boost of vitamin A. Or choose salmon
on your bagel instead of your usual cream cheese, to boost your intake of vitamin D. Buying
vegetables and fruits in season also helps to vary your shopping choices.
Part of a group of compoun
ds known as lipids, and composed of the elements carbon
oxygen, and hydrogen, fats are found mainly in plants, fish, and meats. They form a major part of
all cell membranes in the body and play a vital role in the absorption of the fat
D,E, and K from foods.
Fat gives the body insulation, helping to maintain a constant temperature against extremes
of hot and cold. It is also serves as an important source of energy.
Lipids and lipoproteins:
In addition to fats, lipids include phospholipi
ds, triglycerides, waxes,
and sterols. The most well
known sterol is cholesterols which circulate in the blood attached to
compound known as lipoproteins. Low
density lipoproteins (LDL), which carry cholesterol to
tissues and organs, are often called “bad”
cholesterol, since high levels in the blood are associated
with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. High
density lipoproteins (HDL), which carry
cholesterol away from the tissues and back to the liver, are known as “good” cholesterol, since
levels decrease the risk of cardiovascular disease.
Fats are also referred to as good or bad according to whether their chemical bonds are
“saturated” with hydrogen. Unsaturated fats are further classified into mono
which differ in t
heir nutritional makeup.
Avoid saturated fats:
With the exception of palm and coconut oils, most saturated fats are
derived from animal and dairy products. Red meat and meat products such as sausages are major
sources of saturated fat in the diet, alon
g with whole milk and its products, such as cheese,
cream, and ice cream.
Excessive intake of saturated fats and trans fatty acids are now believed to increase the
risk of cardiovascular disease by raising the unhealthy LDL and triglycerides in the blood,
lowering healthy HDL levels.
Polyunsaturated fats consist of two major types: omega
3 fatty acids, founds in fish oils
6 fatty acids, found in vegetable oils such as sunflower, rapeseed, and corn. Your
diet should include both types.
These are substances originating in rocks and metal ores. Many minerals are essential for
health. We obtain them by eating plants, which take up minerals from the soil, by eating animals
that have eaten plants and, to some extent, by d
rinking water that contains minerals.
Minerals are needed by the body in only tiny quantities and are termed macrominerals or
microminerals, according to the percentage of your total body weight they constitute and how
much you need in your daily diet.
Macrominerals make up more than 0.005 percent of the body’s weight and you need to be
getting more than 100mg of these daily. They include calcium, magnesium, phosphorous,
potassium, sodium, and sulphur. Microminerals, which are also known as trace element
s, make up
less than 0.005 percent of the body’s weight and you need less than 100 mg daily. Those
microminerals with identified roles in health include chromium, copper, fluoride, iodine, iron,
selenium, and zinc.
Minerals work together in making and brea
king down body tissues and breaking down body
tissues and in regulating metabolism
the chemical reactions constantly occurring in the body.
Bone, for example consists of a framework of the protein collagen in which most of the body’s
calcium, phosphorus, a
nd magnesium are deposited. Minerals are stored in your bones so that in
the event of a dietary deficiency, some of the minerals can be released from the bones for the
body’s needs. The teeth also contain significant amount of the minerals calcium and phos
Minerals are found in many key molecules in the body and are involved in essential chemical
reaction. For example, calcium activates a digestive enzyme that helps to break down fats; copper
is needed to incorporate iron into
No single f
ood is the best source of all of the minerals, but eating a variety of foods usually
ensures that you get enough of these important nutrients. In addition, the body can store
minerals for future use when intake might be low.
Animal foods are generally the
best sources of minerals because they tend to contain
minerals in the proportions our bodies need. Fruits and vegetables can be useful sources of some
minerals such as potassium. Mineral water can be a source of minerals including magnesium.
e often lost when a food is processed. For example, potassium, iron, and
chromium are removed from whole grains during the refining process.
Minerals differ from vitamins in that they are not damaged by heat or light, that but some
can be lost in the wate
r used for cooking. To help preserve the mineral content of vegetables,
avoid boiling them. Instead, steam them if possible or use the microwave, and keep the cooking
time short. If you do boil, wait until the water is bubbling before you add the vegetable
s: if you
put them in cold water and then bring it to the boil, more nutrients will be lost.
FRUITS FOR HEALTH
naturally sweet, colourful, high in vitamins and fibre, and low in calories and fat
are the ideal snack. Scientific research
shown that a modest increase of one or two servings of
fruit per day can dramatically reduce your susceptibility to many diseases.
Rich in antioxidants:
Vitamin C and phytochemicals, including antioxidants, abound in fruit.
Antioxidants destroy harmful su
bstances in the body, called free radicals, which can build up and
cause cancer. Of particular interest are two types of phytochemicals
flavonoids and polyphenols
which together have a powerful antioxidant quality. In addition, other phytochemicals in
have been found to be anti
viral, and anti
We truly do have a reason to say that an apple (or any fruit) a day keeps the doctor away.
Benefits of different fruits:
Fruits are rich in vitamins and
minerals, especially vitamin C
and potassium, and in fibre. Eat a variety to reap their individual nutritional benefits.
The skin of this refreshing fruit is an excellent source of fibre. A medium apple
has about 47 calories.
Due to a
short life span once picked, most apricots are dried or canned. A fresh
apricot has about 12 calories.
Technically a herb and hot a fruit, a medium banana (100g) contains 95 calories
and is loaded with vitamins and minerals.
elicious fruits are rich in antioxidants and help prevent urinary tract
infections. There are about 50 calories in 80g blueberries.
80g contains 48 calories, with vitamins A and C and minerals.
A medium kiwi fruit 60g has 29 calories
and offers a good range of vitamins.
This is rich in a form of carotene that is known to fight cancer. A slice of melon
(100g) has 24 calories.
A medium peach 100g has about 33 calories, and offers vitamin C and D plus
A medium peach (100) has about 33 calories, and offers vitamins C and D plus
This fruit contains a potent enzyme, bromelain that has been used to aid
digestion, reduce inflammation, and help cardiovascular disease. A large size 80g
has 33 calories.
A medium plum 55g has 20calories. Plums are a good source of vitamins C and
offer potassium too.
Raisins and sultanas:
Being so rich in sugar, these dried fruits are an excellent source of
energy: 1 tablespoon contains 82 calories
There are nearly 1000 varieties of raspberries. They provide 20 calories per
A slice 200g of this refreshing melon contains 62 calories plus vitamin C and
THE BENEFITS OF DAIRY PRODUCTS
Milk and it
s products are excellent sources of protein, vitamins, and minerals
particularly of calcium, which is essential for healthy bones and teeth.
The varieties of milk:
Although cow’s milk is the most common in the UK, sheep’s and
goat’s milk are availa
ble too, as are plant
based substitutes such as soya milk and rice milk.
Cow’s milk is processed in a variety of ways to create products that vary in nutritional content and
storage capability. Fat content is one of the most important distinctions, varyin
g from whole or
fat milk (which contains 3.9 percent fat) to through semi
skimmed (1.6 percent) to skimmed.
Special milks are available for people with specific dietary needs, such as lactose
intolerance. Milk is also available in UHT (ultra
eated), dried, evaporated, and condensed
forms, which are useful for cooking.
Cheese is in concentrated form, which is why cheese is such a great source of the
important nutrients found in milk. It’s also the reason why cheese has such high saturated fat
content. As with milk, the solution is simply to opt for reduced fat and low
fat varieties, which
contain the vital nutrients while limiting unhealthy saturated fat.
Yogurt is another milk product, made by treating milk with a bacterial culture. Yogurt i
rich in protein and vitamin B2, and contains living bacteria that are healthy for your digestive
system. It is available in many different types and, as with other milk products, the lower fat
varieties are the healthier choice.
Choosing the right milk:
Most milk consumed in the world is cow’s milk. However, other
milks are available as healthy alternatives.
Whole or full
fat milk has 7.8 g of fat per 200ml serving and 132 calories.
Calcium content is slightly less than that in lower fat vari
With slightly less lactose than cow’s milk, goat’s milk contains more vitamins
A, B6, and calcium, potassium, copper, and selenium. Full
fat goat’s milk has about the same
amount of fat as cow’s milk, but there are skimmed versions.
Rich in protein, fat, and minerals, sheep’s milk is not widely available. It is
most often found made into cheese and yogurt.
This is good for people with lactose intolerance as it doesn’t contain any lactose
or casein. A 200ml glass
contains almost 6.0g of protein, 4.8g of fat, no cholesterol, and 86
calories. Soya milk is not a good natural source of calcium or vitamin B12, so choose a fortified
This is a good substitute for semi
skimmed cow’s milk for people who
allergies or who are lactose
free, and low in fat. Choose varieties fortified with
calcium and vitamin D.
free and low in saturated fat, almond milk is also very low in sugar.
FAST FOOD IN AMERICA
The modern history of fast
food in America began on July 7, 1912 with the opening of a
fast food restaurant called the Automat in New York. The Automat was a cafeteria with its
prepared foods behind small glass windows and coin
ted slots. Joseph Horn and Frank
Hardart had already opened an Automat in Philadelphia, but their “Automat” at Broadway and
13th Street, in New York City, created a sensation. Numerous Automat restaurants were quickly
built around the country to deal with
the demand. Automats remained extremely popular
throughout the 1920’s and 1930’s. The company also popularized the notion of “take
with their slogan “Less work for Mother”. The American company White Castle is generally
credited with opening the
food outlet in Wichita, Kansas in 1921, selling hamburgers
for five cents apiece. Among its innovations, the company allowed customers to see the food
being prepared. White Castle later added five holes to each beef patty to increase its surfa
and speed cooking times. White Castle was successful from its inception and spawned numerous
McDonald’s, the largest fast
food chain in the world and the brand most associated with
the term “fast food,” was founded as a barb
in in 1940 by Dick and Mac McDonald.
After discovering that most of their profits came from hamburgers, the brothers closed their
restaurant for three months and reopened it in 1948 as a walk
up stand offering a simple menu of
fries, shakes, coffee, and Coca
Cola, served in disposable paper wrapping. As
a result, they were able to produce hamburgers and fries constantly, without waiting for customer
orders, and could serve them immediately; hamburgers cost 15 cents, about half
the price at a
typical diner. Their streamlined production method, which they named the “
System” was influenced by the production line innovations of Henry Ford. The McDonalds’ stand
was the milkshake machine company’s biggest customer and
a milkshake salesman named Ray
Kroc traveled to California to discover the secret to their high
Kroc thought he could expand their concept, eventually buying the McDonalds’ operation outright
in 1961 with the goal of maki
ng cheap, ready
go hamburgers, French fries and milkshakes a
Kroc was the mastermind behind the rise of McDonald’s as a national chain. The first part
of his plan was to promote cleanliness in his restaurants. Kroc often took part a
t his own Des
Plaines, Illinois, outlet by hosing down the garbage cans and scraping gum off the cement. Kroc
also added great swaths of glass which enabled the customer to view the food preparation. This
was very important to the American public which bec
ame quite germ conscious. A clean
atmosphere was only part of Kroc’s grander plan which separated McDonald’s from the rest of the
competition and attributes to their great success. Kroc envisioned making his restaurants appeal
to families of suburbs. “Wher
e White Tower (one of the original fast food restaurants) had tied
hamburgers to public transportation and the workingman...McDonald’s tied hamburgers to the
car, children, and the family.
FOOD FOR DIFFERENT CULTURE
Have you ever stopped to really
think about what you and your family eats every day and
why? Have you ever stopped to think what other people eat? In the movie Indiana Jones the
Temple of Doom, there are two scene in which the two lead characters are offered meals from a
e. One meal, meant to break the ice consisted of insects. The second meal was a
lavish banquet that featured such delicacies as roasted beetles, live snake, eyeball soup, and
chilled monkey brains for dessert. Some cultures eat such things as vipers and ra
rats, dog meat, horsemeat bats, animal heart, liver, eyes, and
insects of all sorts. Sound good?
The manner in which food is selected, prepared, presented and eaten often differs by
culture. One man’s pet is another person‘s delicacy
dog, anyone? Americans love beef, yet it is
forbidden to Hindus, while the forbidden food in Moslem and Jewish cultures is normally pork,
eaten extensively by the Chinese and others. In large cosmopolitan cities, restaurants often cater
to diverse diets an
d offer “national” dishes to meet varying cultural tastes. Feeding habits also
differ, and the range goes from hands and chopsticks to fill sets of cutlery. Even when cultures
use a utensil such as a fork, one can distinguish a European from an American by
holds the implement. Subcultures, too, can be analyzed from this perspective, such as the
executive dinning room, the soldiers mess …or the ladies tea room, and the vegetarian’s
Often the different among cultures in the foods they
eat are related to the difference in
geography and local resources. People who live near water (the sea, lakes, and rivers) tend to eat
more fish and crustaceans. People who live in colder climates tend to eat heavier fatty foods.
However with the develop
ment of a global economy, food boundaries and difference are
beginning to dissipate: McDonalds is now on every continent except Antarctica, and tofu and
yogurt are served all over the world.
FISH AND SHELLFISH
Eating fish twice a week reduces your
risk of heart disease. Low in both total and saturated
fat content, fish and shellfish are excellent sources of protein and vitamins, so you should try to
include them in your diet at least twice a week. Fish and shellfish are high in important nutrients
such as vitamins B1, B6, niacin, and D and some are rich in omega
3 fatty acids.
Benefits of fish:
Ever since it was discovered that people such as Inuite, who eat a diet
based on fish, have a low incidence of cardiovascular disease, the link between e
ating fish and
reduced risk of heart attack has been a hot topic.
Shellfish is healthy:
This food source has acquired a bad reputation because some
shellfish contain a high level of cholesterol. However we now know that cholesterol levels in the
related to the intake of saturated fat rather than to eating cholesterol
When handled properly, fish and shellfish are as safe to eat as any other source of protein.
Most harmful microbes found in fish are destroyed during cooking.
g fish for omega
Oil rich fish such as sardines, mackerel, and
salmon contain healthy fat called omega
3 fatty acids. This fat is believed to reduce the risk of
your developing cardiovascular disease by increasing the levels of “good” choles
terol in the body
and lowering the levels of “bad” cholesterol and triglycerides. All fish and shellfish contain some
3 fatty acids, but the amount can vary. Generally, the fattier fish contain more than the
leaner fish, but the proportion of omega
3 fatty acids can vary considerably between fish species.
School of Power Engineering
The Main Components of Electric C
The main components of any circuits are devices that produce and utilize electric energy.
They are: 1. Power sources 2
. Utilizing loads 3. Connecting conductors.
The most common power sources are electric generators and primary cells. Electric
generators convert chemical energy into electric energy.
Loads include electric heaters, electric motors, incandescent lamps, e
tc. Motors convert
electric energy into mechanical, incandescent lamps and heaters convert electric energy into light
and heat. Utilizing devices or loads convert electric energy into thermal, mechanical or chemical
Electric powers is delivered
from power sources to loads by electric wires. According to
their material, wires can be aluminium, copper, steel, etc.
In addition to these three main components, electric circuits use different types of
switches, protection devices (relays and fuses),
and meters (ammeters, voltmeters, wattmeters,
etc.). The types of electrical circuits associated with electrical power production or power
conversion systems are either resistive, inductive, or capacitive. Most system have some
combination of each of these
three circuit types. These circuit elements are also types of loads.
A load is a part of a circuit that converts one type of energy into another type. A resistive load
converts electrical energy into heat energy.
In our discussion of electrical circuit
s, we will primarily consider alternating
systems as the vast majority of the electrical power which is produced is alternating current.
current (dc) systems must be studied in terms of electrical power conversation.
After electricity is produced at power plants it has to get to the customers that use the
electricity. Our cities, towns, states and the entire country are criss
crossed with power lines that
“carry” the electricity.
A power system is an intercon
nection of electric power stations by high voltage power
transmission lines. Nowadays the electricity is transmitted over long distances and the length of
transmitting power lines varies from area to area.
A wire system is termed a power line in case it h
as no parallel branches and a power
network in case it has parallel branches.
According to their functions, power lines and networks are subdivided into transmission
and distribution lines.
Transmission lines serve to deliver power form a station to dis
tribution centres. Distribution
lines deliver power from distribution centres to the loads.Lines are also classed into: 1. overhead
2. indoor 3. cable (underground)
Overhead lines comprise line conductors, insulators, and supports. The conductors are
hed to the insulators, and these are attached to the supports. The greater the offered
resistance the higher are the heating losses in the conducting wires. The losses can be reduced
simply by using a step down transformer.
Indoor lines include conductor
s, cords, and buses. A conductor may comprise one wire or a
combination of bare wire not insulated from one another. They deliver electric current to the
As to underground lines, they are suitable for urban areas. Accordingly, they are used in
ities and in the areas of industrial enterprises.
Power Consumers and Power S
An electric power consumer is an enterprise utilizing electric power. Its operating characteristics
vary during the hours of day, days and nights, days of w
eek and seasons. All electric power
consumers are divided into groups with common load characteristics. To the first group belong
municipal consumers with a predominant lighting load: dwelling houses, hospitals, theatres, street
lighting system, mines,
etc. To the second group belong industrial consumers with a predominant
power load (electric motors): industrial plants, mines, etc. To the third group belongs transport,
for example, electrified railways. The fourth consists of agricultural consumers, f
The operating load conditions of each group are determined by the load graph. The load
graph shows the consumption of power during different periods of day, month and year. On the
load graph the time of the maximum loads and m
inimum loads is given. Large industrial areas
with cities are supplied from electric networks fed by electric power plants. These plants are
interconnected for operation in parallel and located in different parts of the given area. They may
include some l
arge thermal and hydroelectric power plants.
The sum total of the electric power plants, the networks that interconnect them and the
power utilizing devices of the consumers, is called a power system. All the components of a power
system, are interrelat
ed by the common processes of protection, distribution, and consumption of
both electric and heat power. In a power system, all the parallelly operating plants take part in
carrying the total load of all the consumers supplied by the given system.
nergy: Solution to Global Climate Change
The issue of global climate has been widely reported on, and was recently covered in the
PBC documentary, “What’s Up With the Weather?” nuclear power plants do not produce carbon
dioxide emissions, which a
re a major contributor to the greenhouse effect and global climate
change. In fact, nuclear energy releases no emissions of any kind, so they also do not contribute
to local air pollution problems. The US Representative to UN Organizations in Vienna, Ambas
John B. Rich III, has declared that “only nuclear energy can help meet the world’s energy needs
without threatening the environment”. Worldwide, reliance on nuclear has reduced greenhouse
gas emissions by almost metric tons annually.
The herring: th
e “problem” of nuclear waste. The entire nuclear power industry generates
approximately 2.000 tons of solid waste annually in the United States. All technical and safely
issues have been resolved in creation of high
level waste repository in the US; politi
cs are the only
reason we do not have one. In comparison, coal fired power produced 100.000.000 tons of ash
and sludge annually, and this ash is laced with poisons such as mercury and nitric oxide. Industry
generates 38.000.000 tons if hazardous waste, and
the kind they make will be with us forever,
not decaying away, this waste does not receive nearly the care and attention in disposal that
radioactive waste does. This is not to say that radioactive waste is more dangerous; it is not. We
should be probably
more careful with other industrial wastes.
Power engineering is a science which studies all kinds of energy. It is a very young science
and it is applied in very branch of industry. Our industrial progress is based on power, powe
our machines, industrial plants, heating and lighting systems transport and communication.
Indeed, there is hardly a sphere of our life where power is not required. We may trace the rise of
civilization by man’s ability to generate power.
eering comprises different sciences and branches of sciences such as:
mathematics, machine details, strength of materials, electrical engineering, hydrolics, heat
transfer, electrical units, gas and steam turbines, atomic reactors, solar installations and
Power supply is one of the major criteria of a country industrial might. Without an ample
power supply, no branch of national economy can develop rapidly or at all effectively.
Industrial process depends on power. For centuries coal, oil and w
ater were its main
sources. In the 19
century they were used to produce steam. In the first half of the 20
electricity. Our time is the age of automatic power. A new fuel and a new source of power is put
to the service of man.
Today we obtain p
ower from many sources: one of them is coal, oil, natural gas, to
produce the best that operates internal and external combustion engines. The other source is
falling water in our hydro
electric power stations, where water turbines operate electric
ors, the next is nuclear reactor which produces heat by means of atomic fission. We also
use the energy of tides, subterranean heat and solar energy to produce electricity.
Power engineering includes such forms of energy as: solar, atomic, thermal, electr
from combustion of coal oil, shale and gas, steam power, wind etc.
The sources from which energy can be obtained to provide heat, light, and power. Energy
sources have progressed from human and animal power to fossil fu
els and radioactive elements,
and water, wind, and solar power. Industrial society was based on the substitution of fossil fuels
for human and animal power. Future generations will have to increasingly use solar energy and
nuclear power as the finite reser
ves of fossil fuels become exhausted. The principal fossil fuels are
coal, lignite, petroleum, and natural gas
all of which were formed millions of years ago. Fossil
fuels which have potential for future use are oil shale and tar sands.
Oil shale depo
sits have been found in many areas of the United States, but the only deposits of
sufficient potential oil content considered as near
them potential resources are those of the Green
River Formation in Colorado., Wyoming, and Utah.
Tar sands represent the l
argest known world supply of liquid hydrocarbons. Extensive
resources are located throughout the world, but primarily in the Western Hemisphere. The best
known deposit is the Athabasca tar sands in northeastern Alberta, Canada.
Nonfuel sources of energy i
nclude wastes, water, wind, geothermal deposits, biomass, and solar
heat. At the present time the nonfuel sources contribute very little energy, but as the fossil fuels
become depleted, the nonfuel sources and fission and fusion sources will become of gre
importance since they are renewable. Nuclear power based on the fission of uranium, thorium,
and plutonium, and fusion power based on the forcing together of the nuclei of two light atoms,
such as deuterium, tritium, or helium 3, could become princip
al sources of energy in the 21
All sources of energy put together is energy locked up in nuclei of atoms of matter itself. It
has been known for at least a century. It is called nuclear energy.
Many atomic power plants for producing electric ene
rgy were built in many countries of the world.
There are great possibilities of using nuclear energy for world. A number of countries are working
at the development and construction of various kinds of locomotive, airplanes and other means of
ny atomic powered ships have been already built. Nuclear energy is and will be used
in medicine, and in many spheres of life where the atom may find useful application.
Electric power is generated at electric power plants. The main
unit of an electric power
plant comprises a prime mover and the generator which it rotates.
In order to actuate the prime mover energy is required. Many different sources of energy
are in use nowadays. To these sources belong heat obtained by burning f
uels, pressure due to
the flow prime mover, power plants are divided into groups.
Thermal, hydraulic (water/power) and wind plants are classed as:
Steam turbine plants, where steam turbines serve as prime movers. The main generating units at
e plants belong to the modern, high
capacity class of power plants.
Steam engine plants, in which the prime mover is a piston
type steam engine. Nowadays no large
generating plants of industrial importance are constructed with such prime movers. They are
used only for local power supply.
engine plants; in them diesel internal combustion engines are installed. These plants are
also of small capacity, they are employed for local power supply.
Hydroelectric power plants employ water turbines as prime
movers. Therefore they are called
hydroturbine plants. Their main generating units is the hydrogenerator.
electric power plants utilize various turbines; these plants as well as the small
capacity hydroelectric power plants are widely used in
Hydroelectric stations deliver power from great rivers, but still about 80 percent of the required
electric power is produced in thermal, electrical plants. These plants burn coal, gas, peat or shale
to make steam.
An Electric Motor
An electric motor is a device using electrical energy to produce mechanical energy.
Electric motors are everywhere! In your house, almost every mechanical movement is caused by
an AC (alternating current) or DC (direct current) electric motor.
In an ele
ctric motor an electric current and magnetic field produce a turning
movement. This can drive all sorts of machines, from wrist
watches to trains.
An electric current running through a wire produces a magnetic field around the wire.
If an electric curren
t flows around a loop of wire with a bar of iron through it, the iron becomes
If you put two magnets close together, like poles
for example, two north poles
repel each other, and unlike poles attract each other.
In a simple electric motor,
a piece of iron with loops of wire round it, called an
armature, is placed between the north and south poles of a stationary magnet, known as the field
magnet when electricity flows around the armature wire, the iron becomes an electromagnet.
on and repulsion between the poles of this armature magnet and the
poles of the field magnet make the armature turn. As a result, its north pole is close to the south
pole of the field magnet. Then the current is reserved so the north pole of the armature
becomes the south pole. Once again, the attraction and repulsion between it and the field magnet
make it turn. The armature continues turning as long as the direction of the current, and
therefore its magnetic poles, keeps being reversed.
se the direction of the current, the ends of the armature wire are connected
to different halves of a split ring called a commutator. Current flows to and from the commutator
through small carbon blocks called brushes. As the armature turns, first one half
commutator comes into contact with the brush delivering the current, and then the other, so the
direction of the current keeps being reversed.
A portable generator can provide electricity to power lights and other
matter how far you are from the mains. It works by turning the movement of a piston into
Although most electricity comes from power stations, power can also be generated by
far smaller means. Nowadays, electricity generato
rs can be small enough to hold in the hand.
Portable generators are made up of two main parts: an engine, which powers the equipment, and
an alternator, which converts motion into electricity.
The engine which runs on petrol, is started by pulling a cord.
This creates a spark
inside which ignites the fuel mixture.
In a typical four
stroke engine, when the piston descends, the air inlet valve opens and a mixture
of air and petrol is sucked in through a carburetor.
The valve closes, the piston rises on the
compression stroke and a spark within the
upper chamber ignites the mixture. This mini
explosion pushes the piston back down, and as it
rises again the fumes formed by the ignition are forced out through the exhaust valve.
This cycle is repeated many tim
es per second. The moving piston makes the crankshaft
rotate at great speed.
The crankshaft extends directly to an alternator, which consists of two main sets of
coils of insulated copper wire wound closely around an iron core. One set, called st
windings, is in a fixed position and shaped like a broad ring. Other set, the armature windings, is
wound on the rotor which is fixed to the rotating crankshaft. The rotor makes about 3.000
revolutions per minute.
eriments of August 29, 1831, gave us the principle of the electric
transformer, without which the later discoveries of that fateful year could have little real practical
application. For to convey electric current over long distances, say to supply a town,
or feed an
electric railway, it is necessary to generate it at a very high voltage, or force. By means of
transformers based on Faraday’s induction coil discovery, it is simple for a current from the grid or
direct from a power
station of say 132.000 volt
s to be stepped down for the electric train to 600
volts and for household use to 240 volts. Smaller transformers in individual prices of electrical
equipment, say a shaver or radio, may step the current down still further for special purposes.
currents may be stepped up in voltage, if required, by the same device. The
procedure is quite simple. The current is fed into the transformer across the primary, of input coil,
which corresponds to Faraday’s right
hand coil on his induction ring. The res
current is taken from the secondary, of output coil, which corresponds to Faraday’s left
the voltage will be stepped down.
So the two related discoveries of 1831 provided not only the means of making electricity
easily and cheaply
, on as large a scale as required, without any cumbersome batteries, but also
the way of using it in a safe and practical way.
School of Industrial
ithin the cultural and social influences of a specific time. It is considered to have a built in
usually of one to two seasons. A season is defined as either autumn/wint
spring/summer. Nowadays, even though French, British, Japanese and American fashion are the
, Italian fashion is considered the most important and elegant in
and it has led
the world of fashion since the 1970s and '80s.
Fashion designers can work in a number of ways. Fashion designers may work full
one Fashion Company, known as
owns the designs. They may work
alone or as part of a team.
works for themselves, and sell their designs to
, directly to shops, or to clothing ma
nufacturers. The garments bear the buyer's
label. Some fashion designers set up their own labels, under which their designs are marketed.
Some fashion designers are self
employed and design for individual clients. Other high
designers cater to spec
ialty stores or high
fashion department stores. These designers create
original garments, as well as those that follow established fashion trends. Most fashion designers,
however, work for apparel manufacturers, creating designs of men’s, women’s, and chil
fashions for the mass market. Large designer brands which have a 'name' as their brand such as
are likely to be designed by a team of individual
designers under the direction of a designer d
Designing a collection and garment:
A fashion collection is something that designers put together
each season to show their idea of new trends in both their high end couture range as well as their
mass market range. Fashion designers must take nu
merous matters into account when designing
clothes for a collection, including consistency of theme and style. They will also take into account
views of existing customers, previous fashions and styles of competitors, and anticipated fashion
trends, as wel
l as the season for the collection of fashion.
Fashion designers work in different ways. Some sketch their ideas on paper, while others
drape fabric on a dress form. When a designer is completely satisfied with the fit of the
muslin), he or she
will consult a professional pattern maker who then makes the finished, working
version of the pattern out of card. The pattern maker's job is very precise and painstaking. The fit
of the finished garment depends on their accuracy. Finally, a sample garmen
t is made up and
tested on a model.
Ready to W
Fashion design is generally considered to have started in the 19th century with
who was the first designer to have his
sewn into the garments that he
created. Before the former
set up his
(fashion house) in
design and creation was handled by largely anonymous seamstresses, and high fashion
descended from that worn at royal courts. Worth's success was such that h
e was able to dictate
to his customers what they should wear, instead of following their lead as earlier dressmakers had
done. The term
was in fact first created in order to describe him. While all articles of
clothing from any time period are st
udied by academics as costume design, only clothing created
after 1858 could be considered as fashion design.
It was during this period that many design houses began to hire artists to sketch or paint
designs for garments. The images were shown to clients,
which was much cheaper than
producing an actual sample garment in the workroom. If the client liked their design, they
ordered it and the resulting garment made money for the house. Thus, the tradition of designers
sketching out garment designs instead of
presenting completed garments on models to customers
began as an economy.
At this time in fashion history the division between
not sharply defined. The two separate modes of production were still far from being competitors,
and, indeed, they often co
existed in houses where the seamstresses moved freely between
asure and ready
Around the start of the 20th century
began to include photographs and
became even more influential than in the past. In cities through
out the world these magazines
were greatly sought
after and had a profound effect on public taste. Talented illustrators, among
, George Lepape and
, drew exquisite fashion plates for these
publications, which covered the most recent developments in fashion and beauty. Perhaps the
most famous of these magazines was
La Gazette du Bon Ton
, which was founded in 1912 by
Lucien Vogel and regularly published until 1925 (with the exception of the war years).
World War II brought about many radical cha
nges to the fashion industry. After the war,
Paris's reputation as the global center of fashion began to crumble and off
peg and mass
manufactured clothing became increasingly popular. A new youth style emerged in the 1950s,
changing the focus of fashi
on. As the installation of central heating became more widespread the
age of minimum
care garments began and lighter textiles and, eventually, synthetics, were
Leather in Modern C
is a material created through the
process converts the
skin into a durable and versatile
material. Together with
, leather formed the basis of much ancient
. The leather
industry and the
industry are distinct industries that are differentiated by the importance of
their raw materials. In the leather industry the raw materials are
products of the
industry, with the meat having higher value than the skin. The fur industry uses raw materials
that are higher in value than the meat and hence the meat is classified as a b
also makes use of the skin of animals, but generally the head and part of the back are
used. Hides and skins are also used in the manufacture of
Due to its excellent resistance to abrasion and wind, leather found a use in rugged
occupations. The enduring image of a
gave way to the leather
were invented, some riders took to wearing
heavy leather jackets to protect from
and wind blast; some also wear chaps or full
leather pants to protect the lower body. Many sports still use leather to help in playing the game
or protecting players; its flexibility allows it to be formed and flexed.
used in the sense of a
(such as a
) applied with a leather
is the name popu
larly used to describe a
attraction to people
wearing leather, or in certain cases, to the garments themselves.
groups in the 1980s)
for wearing leather clothing. Leather clothing, particularly jackets, almost come as standard in the
heavy metal and Punk subculture.
groups have extensive leather clothing, i.e. leather pants, accessories, etc.
y cars and trucks come with optional or standard 'leather' seating. This can range from
imitation leather, found on some low cost vehicles, to real
, found on
luxury car brands like
) is the use of
technology for the design of objects,
real or vir
tual. CAD often involves more than just shapes. As in the manual
, the output of CAD often must convey also symbolic information such
as materials, processes, dimensions, and tolerances, according to application
CAD may be used to design curves and figures in
("2D") space; or curves,
surfaces, or solids in
CAD is an important
extensively used in many applications, including
automotive, shipbuilding, and aerospace industries, industrial and architectural design,
many more. CAD is also widely used to produce
. The m
odern ubiquity and power of
computers means that even perfume bottles and shampoo dispensers are designed using
techniques unheard of by shipbuilders of the 1960s. Because of its enormous economic
importance, CAD has been a major driving force for research
(both hardware and software), an
d discrete differential geometry.
The design of
for object shapes, in particular, is often called
aided geometric design
ided Design is one of the many tools used by engineers and designers
and is used in many ways depending on the profession of the user and the type of software in
question. There are several different types of CAD. Each of these different types of CAD syste
require the operator to think differently about how he or she will use them and he or she must
design their virtual components in a different manner for each.
There are many producers of the lower
end 2D systems, including a number of free and
ce programs. These provide an approach to the drawing process without all the fuss
over scale and placement on the drawing sheet that accompanied hand drafting, since these can
be adjusted as required during the creation of the final draft.
3D wireframe is
basically an extension of 2D drafting. Each line has to be manually inserted
into the drawing. The final product has no mass properties associated with it and cannot have
features directly added to it, such as holes. The operator approaches these in a sim
ilar fashion to
the 2D systems, although many 3D systems allow using the wireframe model to make the final
engineering drawing views.
3D "dumb" solids (programs incorporating this technology include AutoCAD and Cadkey 19)
are created in a way analogous to
manipulations of real world objects. Basic three
geometric forms (prisms, cylinders, spheres, and so on) have solid volumes added or subtracted
from them, as if assembling or cutting real
The Effects of CAD
Starting in th
e late 1980s, the development of readily affordable Computer
programs that could be run on personal computers began a trend of massive downsizing in
drafting departments in many small to mid
size companies. As a general rule, one CAD operator
could readily replace at least three to five drafters using traditional methods. Additionally, many
engineers began to do their own drafting work, further eliminating the need for traditional
drafting departments. This trend mirrored that of the eliminatio
n of many office jobs traditionally
performed by a
, etc. became standard
software packages that "everyone" was expected to learn.
Another consequence had been that sinc
e the latest advances were often quite expensive,
small and even mid
size firms often could not compete against large firms who could use their
computational edge for competitive purposes. Today, however, hardware and software costs have
come down. Even hi
end packages work on less expensive platforms and some even support
multiple platforms. The costs associated with CAD implementation now are more heavily weighted
to the costs of training in the use of these high level tools, the cost of integrating a C
PLM using enterprise across multi
CAD and multi
platform environments and the costs of
modifying design work flows to exploit the full advantage of CAD tools.
CAD vendors have effectively lowered these training costs. These methods can be split
Improved and simplified user interfaces. This includes the availability of “role” specific
tailorable user interfaces
through which commands are presented t
o users in a form appropriate
to their function and expertise.
Enhancements to application software. One such example is improved design
through the ability to model/edit a design component from within the context of a large, even
active digital mockup
User oriented modeling options. This includes the ability to free the user from the need to
design intent history
of a complex intelligent model.
can refer to a number of artistic and professional disciplines which
focus on visual commu
nication and presentation. Various methods are used to create and
combine symbols, images and words to create a visual representation of ideas and messages. A
graphic designer may use
techniques to produce the final
result. Graphic design often refers to bot
h the process (designing) by which the communication is
created and the products (designs) which are generated.
Common uses of graphic design include magazines, advertisements and product
packaging. For example, a product package might include a logo or ot
her artwork, organized text
and pure design elements such as shapes and color which unify the piece.
is one of
the most important features of gr
aphic design especially when using pre
existing materials or
While Graphic Design as a discipline has a relatively recent history, graphic design
activities span the history of humankind: from the caves of
, to Rome's
of the Middle Ages, to the dazzling neons of
. In both this
lengthy history and in the relatively recent explosion of
in the 20th and 21st
centuries, there is sometimes a blurring distinction and over
. After all, they share many of the same elements, theories, principles,
, and sometim
es the same benefactor or client. In
ultimate objective is the sale of goods and services. In graphic design, "the essence is to give
order to information, form to
ideas, expression and feeling to artifacts that document human
Design can also aid in selling a
through effective visual communication. It is
applied to products and elements of company identity like
, and text.
Together these are defined as
Branding has increasingly become imp
ortant in the range of services offered by many
graphic designers, alongside
, and the terms are often used interchangeably.
Graphic design is also appl
ied to layout and formatting of educational material to make the
information more accessible and more readily understandable.
Graphic design is applied in the
y in decoration, scenery, and visual
story telling. Other examples of design for entertainment purposes include novels, comic books,
in film, and programs and props on stage. This could also
include artwork used for t
shirts and other items screen printed for sale.
the fastening of
, or other
flexible materials, using
. Its use is nearly universal among human
and dates back to
times (30,000 BCE). Sewing predates the
Sewing is used prima
rily to produce
and household furnishings such as
, and table linens. It is also used for sails, bellows, skin boats,
other items shaped out of flexible materials such as
Most sewing in the
world is done by
. Pieces of a garment are often first
together. The machine has a complex set of gears and arms that pierces thread throu
the layers of the cloth and semi
securely interlocks the thread.
Some people sew clothes for themselves and their families. More often home sewers sew
to repair clothes, such as mending a torn seam or replacing a loose button. A person who sews
for a li
ving is known as a
, garment worker,
"Plain" sewing is done for functional reasons: making or mending clothing or hous
linens. "Fancy" sewing is primarily
, including techniques such as
Sewing is the foundation for many needle arts and craf
ts, such as
While sewing is sometimes seen as a semi
skill job, flat sheets of fabric with holes and slits
cut into the fabric can curve and fold in complex ways that require a high level of skill and
experience to manipulate into a smooth, ripple
free design. Alignin
g and orienting patterns
printed or woven into the fabric further complicates the design process. Once a clothing designer
with these skills has created the initial product, the fabric can then be cut using templates and
sewn by manual laborers or machines
is a combination of
may be improved for marketability and
. The role of an Industrial Designer is to create and execute design solutions towards
problems of form,
usability, user ergonomics, engineering, marketing, brand development and
The term "industrial design" is often attributed to the designer
Joseph Claude Sinel
(although he himself denied it in later interviews) but the discipline predates that by at least a
decade. Its origins lay in the industrialization of consum
er products. For instance the
, founded in 1907 and a precursor to the
, was a st
sponsored effort to
integrate traditional crafts and industrial mass
production techniques, to put Germany on a
competitive footing with England and the United States.
Western Electric model 302 Telephone, found almost universally in the United States
1937 until the introduction of touch
Industrial Designers are a cross between an engineer and an artist. They study
both function and form, and the connection between product and the user. They do not design
the gears or motors th
at make machines move, or the circuits that control the movement, but
they can affect technical aspects through usability design and form relationships. And usually,
they partner with engineers and marketers, to identify and fulfill needs, wants and expect
"Industrial Design (ID) is the professional service of creating and developing
concepts and specifications that optimize the function, value and appearance of products and
systems for the mutual benefit of both user and manufacturer" accor
ding to the
Designers Society of America).
Design, itself, is often difficult to define to non
e the meaning accepted by
the design community is not one made of words. Instead, the definition is created as a result of
acquiring a critical framework for the analysis and creation of artifacts. One of the many accepted
(but intentionally unspecific) de
finitions of design originates from
Carnegie Mellon's School of
, "Design is the process of taking something from its existing state and
moving it to a
preferred state." This applies to new artifacts, whose existing state is undefined and previously
created artifacts, whose state stands to be improved.
The Development of
Industrial management term applied to h
ighly organized modern methods of carrying on
industrial, especially manufacturing, operations. Before the Industrial Revolution people worked
with hand tools, manufacturing articles in their own homes or in small shops. In the third quarter
of the 18th ce
nt. steam power was applied to machinery, and people and machines were brought
together under one roof in factories, where the manufacturing process could be supervised. This
was the beginning of shop management. In the next hundred years factories grew ra
pidly in size,
in degree of mechanization, and in complexity of operation. The growth, however, was
accompanied by much waste and inefficiency. In the United States many engineers, spurred by
the increased competition of the post
Civil War era, began to se
ways of improving plant efficiency.
The first sustained effort in the direction of improved efficiency was made by Frederick
, an assistant foreman in the Midvale Steel C
ompany, who in the 1880s undertook
a series of studies to determine whether workers used unnecessary motions and hence too much
time in performing operations at a machine. Each operation required to turn out an article or part
was analyzed and studied minu
tely, and superfluous motions were eliminated. Records were kept
of the performance of workers and standards were adopted for each operation. The early studies
resulted in a faster pace of work and the introduction of rest periods.
also involves studying the performance of machines as well as
people. Specialists are employed to keep machines in good working condition and to ensure the
quality of their production. The flow of materials through the plant is supervised to ensure that
ither workers nor machines are idle. Constant inspection is made to keep output up to
standard. Charts are used for recording the accomplishment of both workers and machines and
for comparing them with established standards. Careful accounts are kept of th
e cost of each
operation. When a new article is to be manufactured it is given a design that will make it suitable
for machine production, and each step
in its manufacture is planned,
including the machines and materials to be used.
Modern Trends of Management
The principles of scientific management have been gradually extended to every department
of industry, including office work, financing, and marketing. Soon af
ter 1910 American firms
established the first personnel departments, and eventually some of the larger companies took
the lead in creating environments conducive to worker efficiency. Safety devices, better
sanitation, plant cafeterias, and facilities for
rest and recreation were provided, thus adding to the
welfare of employees and enhancing morale. Many such improvements were made at the
insistence of employee groups, especially labor unions.
Over the years, workers and their unions also sought and often
won higher wages and
increased benefits, including group health and life insurance and liberal retirement pensions.
During the 1980s and 1990s, however, cutbacks and downsizing in many American businesses
substantially reduced many of these benefits. Some
corporations permit employees to buy stock;
others make provision for employee representation on the board of directors or on the shop
grievance committee. Many corporations provide special opportunities for training and promotion
for workers who desire ad
vancement, and some have made efforts to solve such difficult
problems as job security and a guaranteed annual wage.
Modern technological devices, particularly in the areas of computers, electronics,
thermodynamics, and mechanics, have made automatic and
semiautomatic machines a reality.
The development of such automation is bringing about a second industrial revolution and is
causing vast changes in commerce as well as the way work is organized.
Such technological changes and the need to improve product
ivity and quality of products in
traditional factory systems also changed industrial management practices. In the 1960s Swedish
automobile companies discovered that they could improve productivity with a system of group
assembly. In a contrast to older man
ufacturing techniques where a worker was responsible for
assembling only one part of the car, group assembly gave a group of workers the responsibility
for assembling an entire car.
The system was also applied in Japan, where managers developed a number
innovative systems to lower costs and improve the quality of products. One Japanese innovation,
known as quality circles, allowed workers to offer management suggestions on how to make
production more efficient and to solve problems. Workers were
also given the right to stop the
assembly line if something went wrong, a sharp
departure from U.S. factories.
Computer Science and Management School
How did the computer evolve and where did it all start?
The computer first started with a machine
that could calculate math problems known as a
calculator to us today, but known as the difference engine to Charles Babbage in 1833. The main
purpose of the machine was to calculate astronomical tables. The machine was never built
because the government i
gnored his ideas. In 1940 an idea of the Analytical machine, which
claimed could perform any mathematical calculation. The machine was built but there were too
many bugs and defects that made the machine incompatible of doing a lot of mathematics.
rst computer costs over a million dollars, and the first personal computer was around 10,000
dollars. The computer system used punch cards to record numerical data. “The computer took up
a whole room and consists of; 19,000 vacuums, weighed over 30 tons, a
nd consumed over 200
kilowatts of energy. In comparison the first calculator had a 5 horsepower engine, measured 2x51
feet, weighed 5 tons, and contained hundreds of miles of wiring, which could do less math than a
calculator we use today.
Today over 60%
of the metropolitans in the U.S have families with access to computers. Likewise
General Motors has a 1:2 ratio of computers in their workplace for their employees. The Microsoft
Corporation hit big with its operating system and had 3 major changes in thei
r lives. In 1992
Microsoft’s stock reached a record high of $113 a share, it shipped windows 3.1 and sold the most
number of copies, and established a separation from IBM and became an independent company.
With Microsoft in control they sent out over 1,000
upgraded computer components from 1990 to
In 2006 a computer record was released followed by many statistics that astounding the
. “The an
nual search revenue was around $4,000,000,000, ¾ of Americans
spent 12 hours on the computer a week, Spam on the internet increases 60%, 70% of Americans
said they would rather shop online than go to a store, and windows newest release xp had 50
nes of code, which grows over 20% more each year.” As soon as the business world
noticed the drastic change in computers in the 1990s a revolution of the business world was soon
everyday, we don’t think about how it all started or how many years
and hard work there is behind every program, operating system, and website, that mak
computer what it is today.
What is a computer v
Computer viruses are small software programs that are designed to spread from one computer to
another and to interfere with computer operation.
A virus might corrupt or delete data on your
computer, use your e
mail program to spread itself to other co
mputers, or even erase everything
on your hard disk.
Viruses are often spread by attachments in e
mail messages or instant messaging messages. That
is why it is essential that you never open e
mail attachments unless you know who it's from and
you are expe
Viruses can be disguised as attachments of funny images, greeting cards, or
audio and video files.
Viruses also spread through downloads on the Internet. They can be hidden in illicit software or
other files or programs you might download.
p avoid viruses, it's essential that you keep
your computer current with the
, stay informed about
, and that you follow a
few basic rules
when you surf the Internet, download files, and
Once a v
irus is on your computer, its type or the method it used to get there is not as important
as removing it and preventing further infection.
Viruses may take several forms. The two principal ones are the boot
sector virus and file viruses,
but there are othe
sector virus: The boot sector is that part of the system software containing most of
the instructions for booting, or powering up, the system. The boot sector virus replaces
these boot instructions with some of its own. Once the system is turned o
n, the virus is
loaded into main memory before the operating system. From there it is in a position to
infect other files.
File virus: File viruses attach themselves to executable files
those that actually begin in a
program. (these files have extensions
.com and .exe.) When the program is run, the virus
starts working, trying to get into main memory and infect other files.
Recent trends of supporting your Computer with Modern Hardware
Recently computer hardware has become one of the most flourishi
ng industries in the
world. As a number of people are getting familiar with the computer technology the
demand of hardware industry for has grown up enormously.
A number of companies are handling the sales of computer hardware and achieving the
a several computer literate customers. Apart from the hardware sales these
companies also provide essential computer support, which is needed by most of all
computerized organizations irrespective of their scale, location or size. These companies
offer proficiency in all kinds of computer hardware mechanism and computer
hardware support service in a rate, which is highly competitive. As there is a cutthroat
competition in the market different companies offer various kinds of specialized service in
highly affordable rate to the customers.
Some big and reputed companies like IBM, HP, Microsoft or Apple have their own websites,
which offer wide support services and hardware sales in many ways to their customers for
the products they sale. All these
brands have their centers,
online PC support
, tutorials and
tips and FAQs all over the world from where they offer corresponding hardware supports.
Their wide range of supports includes different topics such as
recovery and back up, brand
components, battery related issues, maintenance and performance of the
hardware/software of the brand and the security features offered with them and many
In most of all metro cities there are a number of companies, which
are involved in
hardware sales. Most of all these shops have hardware engineers and mechanics who are
trained enough to solve all kinds of PC related issues and hence provide necessary PC
supports whenever you need them. According to its rule a computer s
upport services can
also offer maintenance and repair for a certain period of time.
Moreover recently a number of websites are offering
online PC support
tutorials, which are
mostly created by award winning prof
essionals, authors and technology and expertise.
These websites also offer reliable computer support to the customers. You may also visit
these websites to download the support utilities by simply registering yourself in these
ded by man thought
Honda has lately highly
developed fresh interface engineering that grants man thought to
command the Asimo android merely by thinkings. The user interface is known as BMI (brain
machine int.) and was produced along with Advanced Telecomm
unications Research Institute
International (ATR) and Shimadzu Corporation. It comprises of a sensor
laden helmet that
quantifies the user's brainpower and a computing device that examines the thinking models and
relays them as radio instructions to the an
Once the exploiter thinks of displacing his or her right, the pre
programmed Asimo answers
numerous moments later by elevating its right limb. Similarly, Asimo elevates its left arm once the
individual imagines locomoting their left, it commences t
o walk once the human thinks of
locomoting their legs, and it bears its deal upwards before of its utter if the individual thinks of
locomoting their tongue.
precision BMI engineering trusts upon 3 dissimilar cases of brainpower action measures:
EEG (electroencephalography) detectors evaluate the slim variations in electric potential on the
scalp that happen while imagining
infrared spectrometry) detectors evaluate alterations in intellectual blood flow
Fresh acquired data origin
engineering is accustomed method the complex information by these
2 cases of detectors, leading inwards a more exact indication.
BMI scheme bears an accuracy grade of more than 90%.
Honda has been carrying on BMI inquiry and developing on ATR since 2005
. It's checking over the
hypothesis of one day expending this case of user interface engineering with AI and robotics to
produce devices that exploiters can engage without having to make a motion.
Possible Coming Attractions: From Gallium Arsenide
to Nanotechnology to Biochips
Future processing technologies may use optical processing, nanotechnology and biochips.
The old theological question of how many angels could fit on the head of a pin today has become
the technological question of how many
could pin there. Computer developers are
obsessed with speed, constantly seeking ways to promote faster processing. Some of the most
promising directions, already discussed, are
research paths being exp
lored are the following:
Today’s computers are electronic, tomorrow’s might be
using light, not electricity. With optical
electronic technology, a machine using
lasers, lenses, and mirrors would represent the on
off codes of data with pulses of
Light is much faster than electricity. Indeed, fiber
optic networks, which consist of hair
glass fibers, can move information at speeds 3000 times faster than conventional networks.
However, the signals get
bogged down when they have to be processed by silicon chips. Opto
electronics chips would remove that bottleneck.
Nanontechnology, nanoelectronics, nanostructures, and nanofabrication