PROVIDING ACCESS TO CREDIT

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Dec 10, 2013 (3 years and 6 months ago)

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PROVIDING ACCESS TO CREDIT

in

KENYAN INFORMAL SETTLEMENTS


Addressing environmental, health and economic needs.



PROPOSAL



By


Will Ruddick

Associate


COMMUNTY FORGE

100 Rue De Carouge, Geneva Switzerland


2012




General Info
rmation








Project Title

Providing Access to Credit in Kenyan Informal
Settlements

Name of Organization

Community Forge, a non
-
profit organization based in
Geneva, Switzerland

Project Location

The project is located in three i
nformal
settlements in the Kongowea Location, Near Mombasa
Kenya

Project Brief

Creating a mutual
-
credit system in order to provide
Kenyan Chamas (traditional women's saving circles)
access to credit tied to community development.

Contacts:

President:
Tim

Anderson

Mailing Address:
100 Rue de Carouge,

Geneva 1205, Switzerland

Tel:

+41

22

320

27

87

Email:

tim@communityforge.net

website:

http://communityforge.net/


Progr
am Contact:
Will Ruddick

Cell:
+254 727 806 655

Email:
will@communityforge.net


Project Time Table

January 2012
-

January 2013


Project Cost Summary

23,200








Providing Access to Credit in Kenyan Informal Settlemen
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TABLE OF CONTENTS

1. Executive Summary

................................
................................
................................
................

5

2. Background

................................
................................
................................
.............................

6

3. Program Description

................................
................................
................................
...............

7

4. Rationale

................................
................................
................................
...............................

10

5. Benefits and Objectives

................................
................................
................................
........

11

6. Partnerships and Networking

................................
................................
...............................

11

7. Implementation Plan and Time Frame

................................
................................
...................

13

8. Plans to Ensure Communit
y Participation

................................
................................
............

14

9. Risk Assessment

................................
................................
................................
..................

14

9.1 Assumptions

................................
................................
................................
.......................

15

10. Evaluation Plan

................................
................................
................................
...................

15

11. Project Sustainability

................................
................................
................................
...........

16

12. Project Scalability

................................
................................
................................
................

17

13. Project Staff

................................
................................
................................
........................

17

14. Budget

................................
................................
................................
................................
.....
18

LIST

OF

TABLES AND ILLUSTRATIONS

1. Illustration. Flow of Credit

................................
................................
................................
......

10

2. Table.

Project Implementation Schedule

................................
................................
...............

13

3. Table. Budget

................................
................................
................................
........................

18

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List of Abbreviations



CC



Chama Credit


CF



Community Forge


GPS



Global Positioning System phone)


GWC



Green World Campaign
-

Kenya


KSH



Kenyan Shillings (National Currency)


LEN



Local E
conomic Network


MOU



Memorandum of Understanding


SMS



Short Message Service (Sent over mobile phone)





Providing Access to Credit in Kenyan Informal Settlemen
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1. Executive Summary


With unemployment reaching up to 40% Kenya
1

is in dire need of a holistic approach to
development that will create jobs, and d
evelop markets while also providing local social
services. Community Forge seeks to undertake a one
-
year program in the informal settlements
(slums) of Kongowea Kenya, to stimulate the local economy with an innovative form of credit,
called mutual
-
credit.

The mutual credit system is designed for Chamas (traditional women's
savings circles) to promote small
-
scale business development and provide a means for
community lead trash removal.


Mutual
-
credit provides a way for Chamas to continue promoting a saving
s culture as they do
now, and to reduce local volatility and issue credit without interest.
Through building a mutual
-
credit system, this project offers a way to empower communities to issue their own credit that
stays circulating in a target community. Th
is allows funds dedicated to health and environmental
programs to continue moving through the community, giving people a means of building local
businesses and trading with one another outside of scarce national currency.


Community Forge is asking for fun
ds
that can be used as a catalyst for building a
sustainable mutual
-
credit system in Kongowea Kenya, while also providing an example for
development programs around the world.


This Project will:



Connect communities to their own abundance.



Provide Communit
y Groups Access to Credit



Provide a mechanism for communities to self finance social service work.



Create sustainable trash collection and other social services.



Increase Local Trade and Local Business Development



Effect over 200 small
-
scale businesses and

more than 20,000 community members.



Create tools for Development Programs Worldwide






1


Kenya ranks 147
th

out of 185 nations in the Human Development Index.


Providing Access to Credit in Kenyan Informal Settlemen
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2. Background


Founded in 2008, Community Forge (CF) is a registered non
-
profit association in Geneva,
Switzerland and has been involved in community currency related pr
ograms worldwide. CF
provides management, consulting and technology to make mutual credit systems
understandable, practical and easy to use. CF has helped develop and continues to maintain
hundreds of mutual
-
credit systems in France, Switzerland, Belgium,
Spain, Canada, and New
Zealand.


In 2010 Community Forge

associates accomplished health and environmental aid objectives in
Kongowea, a Kenyan slum, collecting 20 tonnes of trash and planting thousands of trees,
through the introduction of a complementar
y currency called Eco
-
Pesa with 75 local businesses,
whose profits increased on average by 20%. The Eco
-
Pesa pilot program confirmed that health,
environmental and economic issues could be addressed simultaneously and successfully
through the introduction
of a complementary currency
2
. The program also provided an improved
mechanism for tracking development funding and
increasing overall accountability.


In 2013 CF wishes to initiate phase 2 of this program by empowering local organizations
(Chamas) to sust
ainably self
-
issue credit and keep these social, environmental and economic
benefits flowing.


3. Program Description


Slums are the most densely populated areas in Kenya and are expected to more than double in
population within the next ten years.
In

slum

areas

where

there

is

no

or

little

municipal

collection,

waste

continues

to

pile

to

dangerous

levels

effecting

health

and

the

environment.

While slums pose many challenges for public health they also offer many opportunities for
people looking for cheap ho
using and a way to get ahead financially. One such opportunity is
the Kenyan Chama.
Chamas work by each member depositing an amount of money every
month into a group account. The members then take turn
s borrowing from that central account.
This provides a
n important savings and loan mechanism for the members.




2

Ruddick, W. (2011) ‘Eco
-
Pesa: An Evaluation of a Complementary Currency Programme
in Kenya's Informal Settlements" International Journal of Community Currency Resear
ch 15(A)
1

12, <www.ijccr.net> ISSN 1325

9547


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In the past many development economists saw African
Chamas

as archaic tribal institutions that
would die out with the rise of the modern banking, but today they are flourishing and a key
mechanism f
or communities to provide themselves with access to funds.


Beyond wealth sharing, Chamas are used as a gateway for credit unions and micro
-
finance
institutions to establish eligibility for micro
-
finance loans. Unfortunately there are two key
problems th
at Chamas face:
Volatility



Chama members live in a situation where the money is
incredibly scare and access to funds can be highly seasonal.
High interest bearing loans



When Chamas are given access to bank credit or micro
-
finance loans it is at high in
terest rates
which often cause Chamas to fail.


An important need in Chamas is loan
s. Instead of traditional bank loans this project will create a
mutual
-
credit system that will serve this purpose without interest bearing debt. Each Chama
member will be cr
edited with
Chama Credits (CC)
. These credits are only for use in the Chama
and larger group of Chamas in an area. These credits are not exchangeable for money but can
be used for goods and services amongst the Chama members. Ultimately,
CC is a credit
bac
ked by the services and products of the members.


Chamas already have a governance structure, legal status and have a long history of dealing
with group finances and loans. They tend to be made up of women elders and especially
business owners. For these r
easons Chamas make an ideal mutual
-
credit issuing organization.


Why do this?

The Chama Credit allows members to trade amongst each
-
other without money. This credit
creates a float or buffer in the community that can't leave, no matter how volatile the nat
ional
currency is. For instance
-

while in the past a boda
-
boda (bicycle transport) operator, through
family problems, may no longer be able to purchase
local food
, now with a CC the boda
-
boda
operator and water supplier have a means of exchange that can't

leave the community.


Mutual credit also serves an important function for localization. By being limited regionally it
encourages people to look for local services and products and setup local businesses.




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How does it work?

(more)

Each Chama has a certa
in amount of money it collects each month and a number of members.
Generally members don't put in more than 10% of their monthly earnings. These figures give us
a starting amount for how much Chama Credit the members can be issued.


For instance: One Chama

has 10 members who each put in 500/= Kenyan Shilllings (KSH) a
month into the group account. Their average monthly income is 5000/= KSH a month, and they
spend roughly 500/= a week on local goods and services, such as water, transport, cooked
foods and la
undry. Their other money is spent on external goods and services, such as
detergents, petrol, school
-
fees and health care. In this case using a mutual
-
credit system
the
Chama as a whole
gives itself

a maximum credit limit of 5000 Chama Credits (CC), 500
CC

for each member.


Members will have a separate CC and KSH account. Their KSH account will continue as in
normal Chama operation, but their CC account will start with a maximum debt level of 500 CCs.


For example, when one member exchanges transportation

services (worth 50 KSH traditionally)
with another member, the transported operator will be credited with 50 CC and the recipient of
the services will be debited 50 CCs (as long as her credit limit allows it). Note that for the entire
group of members the
re will always be a net
-
zero balance.


Aid Objectives

In addition to the 500 KSH that members put into the central KSH account each month, they will
also put 50 CCs into a central CC account. When this account gets to a community determined
amount, it will

be used for community service events, such as trash collection which are open to
the public. CCs will be converted into a paper voucher and spent by the LEN into the labor
needed to remove waste from areas of the slum that are not accessible by convention
al means.
The community members receiving these CC paper vouchers for their social service work can
them use them for goods and services with the Chama members. This way the fees Chama
members pay to the LEN in CC come back to them.




Technical How
-
To (SM
S Trading)


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Mutual Credit systems exist around the world, but the main hurdle many of these systems face
is easy of use. Generally someone needs to take a tedious accounting job to keep track of how
these credits are moving. Often the credits are tracked by

duplicate receipts that must be given
to the accountant after each transaction or after a certain period.


The majority of Kenyans have access to mobile phones. SMS based banking and transaction
systems are common place around the world. Chama Credits wou
ld be transacted using a SMS
system where the buyer sends CCs via a SMS message to a server. The Server then sends
receipts or error messages back to the buyer and seller.


All this data is stored on a open source server accessible to the Chama, and makes

auditing
and accounting easy. The transaction history will be used by the Chama to make the system
transparent and address difficulties.


Governance

In order to obtain critical mass, diversity and volume of trade needed for a vibrant mutual
-
credit
system,

groups of Chamas will inter
-
trade with one another. In Kongowea villages Chamas have
10
-
20 members and 10 Chamas can exist in the same area. That gives the network roughly
100
-
200 members that can now start trading their goods and services in CCs.


The gr
oup of Chamas forms a LEN (Local Economic Network).
The governance of the LEN
involves having a representative of each Chama on the board, and legal status as a Community
Based Organization with clear statues toward non
-
profit making and community focus.


Sustainability & Scalability

A LEN should be fully sustainable with little overhead costs through membership fees. Once it is
running and created there is no needed input.


Implementation will seek to train a local organization to spearhead creation of LEN
s in a
geographic region. This local organization will be a trainer of trainers.


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4. Rationale


The

implementation

of

the

proposed

project

will

improve

the

socio
-
economic

conditions

and

contribute

to

community development
by

addressing

the

fo
llowing:


Providing communities access to credit that is not tied to interest bearing debt is an important
step forward in the evolution of micro
-
finance and micro credit.

The Paris Declaration on Aid Effectiveness
3

emphasizes the need for donors and their

beneficiaries to provide more transparency in accounting for the use of aid funds and monitoring
the impact.
Since the mutual
-
credit, can only be spent within the target community and can be
tracked, this program is unique in its ability to guarantee that

funding reaches the target
population
.






3


Paris Declaration on Aid Effectiveness, 2005. “
Achieving development results


and openly accounting for
them


must be at the heart of all we do.
More than ever, citizens and taxpayers of all countries expe
ct to see the
tangible results of development efforts. We will demonstrate that our actions translate into positive impacts on
people’s lives.” See
http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/11/41/34428351.p
df

for the full declaration.

Illustration
1
: 1. Chamas begin using mutual
-
credit. 2. Chamas form
a LEN which collect services fees. 3. The LEN uses collected fee on
public service events. The payments for these events in CC return to
Chamas.


Providing Access to Credit in Kenyan Informal Settlemen
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This program will help Kenya reach its Millennium Development Goals
4

on poverty and
environmental conservation. Additionally, a well
-
laid plan and well
-
documented implementation
will make the program replicable els
ewhere.

5. Benefits and
Objectives


The

implementation

of

the

proposed

project

will

improve

the

socio
-
economic

conditions

and

contribute

to

community development
by:



Connecting Communities to Their Own Abundance.



Providing Community Groups Access to Credi
t



Providing a Mechanism for Communities to Finance Social Services.



Increasing Local Trade and Local Business Development



Creating tools for Development Programs Worldwide

Specifically the project which is planned for a 1 year implementation period has the

following as
its main objectives:



Increase profits and stability of over 200 local businesses.



Create sustainable trash collection and other social services in three villages.



Reduce waste burning, effecting the health of 20,000+ community members.



Creat
e financial sustainability and job security in an informal settlement.

6. Partnerships and Networking

The

project

will

seek

partnerships

with

various

local,

National

and

International

organizations,

which

include

but

not

limited

to;




Community Forge


will

provide consultation, training, facilitation and tools. All tools
including SMS software will be open source.



Green

World

Campaign (GWC)



Kenya



for

Monitoring

and

evaluation

as

well

as

management

and

capacity

building. GWC has implemented similar progr
ams in the past
and has the management capabilities in Kenya to full
-
fill this program.



Ten local Chamas in three villages in Kongowea Kenya.



Milango Microfinance



For access to chamas seeing micro
-
finance loans.



TAKACHAR



(
Massachusetts

Institute

of

Tec
hnology)



for

Green

Charcoal

expertise.




4

Millennium Development Goals in Kenya.
http://mirror.undp.org/kenya/mdgsinkenya.htm


Providing Access to Credit in Kenyan Informal Settlemen
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Central Bank of Kenya


For Legal status and networking



Kenyan Ministry of Community Based Organizations


For legal status and networking



Local Chiefs and council of elders.



Networking with other international asso
ciations working in the field of alternative banking
and monetary systems.


7. Implementation Plan and Time Frame

1.

Preparation:

1.

Liaising with funders for program design

2.

Preparing software and SMS trading system.

2.

Benchmarking:

1.

Assessing current state of Cha
mas and Community

2.

Performing a Network and Wealth Audit of the target communities

3.

Assessing network size needed for critical mass

4.

Determining indicators for monitoring and impact assessment

5.

Surveys with Chamas and community members

3.

Ownership:

1.

Group meeti
ngs and trainings

2.

Creation of Local Economic Network Committee

3.

Collecting pledges and by
-
in form community members

4.

Design and Training:

1.

Training Chama members and LEN committee.

2.

Training through small pilot networks

3.

Customizing software and SMS trading sy
stem

5.

Launching:

1.

Building to Critical mass in terms of diversity and size of the network

2.

Launching in a public event involving waste collection

6.

Monitoring and Evaluation:

1.

Continuous monitoring and evaluation for economic and social indicators

7.

Reporting:

1.

Fa
cilitating

an

midterm and
end

of

term

external

evaluation

to

assess

whether

project

objectives

have

been

realized.



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Activity


Elaboration

of

Activities


Outputs


Time

Frame


Initial Consultation



Consultation with
donors on project
documents and
report
ing



Detailed plan

Prep
-
Month 1
-
2

Development of Materials
and SMS system and
software



Consultation with
Complementary Currency
and Software Specialists



Certified educational
materials, processes and
software

Prep
-
Month 1
-
3

Consultation with community
Cha
mas and creation of a
LEN

committee.



Convening

of

individual
and
general

meetings

to

create a LEN and
appoint

working

committees




Consent and understand
of community.



Board and Working

committees

formed



Legal status and statues

Month 1


Conducting

a

base

line

survey




Evaluate the current
situation of the
community. Including
economic and social
factors.



Baseline

survey

report.



Projects and indicators
for Monitoring and
Evaluation

Month 1
-
2


Capacity

building/training



Training

workshop

for

the

LEN m
anagem
ent

committee




Community Training

events.



LEN committee trained



At least 3 community
training events including
outreach

Month 3


Collection

of

community

pledges



Receiving

pledges by
Chama members on their
commitment to the
program

Signed MoUs with
Chamas
and their
members for the use of
CCs

Month
-
3
-
4

Design and Testing



Small group testing



Training by example

System and software
Customization

Certified design

Month
-
4
-
5


Launch



-

Getting to Critical Mass



Organizing a public
launch which includes a
communi
ty service event



At least 100
pledged members
in LEN



Community service work
done



Public Launch


Month 6


Monitoring and Evaluation

-
Getting Feedback and
monitoring the trades

-
Performing surveys with
participants

-
Altering program as
needed

Continuous

P
eriodical

Evaluation

-

Evaluation

mission

field

work

-

Report

Production

Initial
Term

Evaluation

Report

Mid term


6 months in
Month 6
-
12
-
24


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operation

Final Report, 1 year in
operation


8. Plans to Ensure Community Participation


A key element of this

program is that it is

a

community

initiative

owned

by

local Chama
members.

To

ensure

community

participation,

the

following

strategies

will

be

employed:



The formation

of

a Local Economic Network Committee made up of representatives from
Chamas in Kongowe
a. The Committee will
coordinate

all

the

activities

including

monitoring

of

work

progress

and

holding

of

regular

planning

meetings

to

discuss

on

the

way

forward

and

allocation

of

duties

to

the

members.





Members

will

be

required

to

contribute

towards

unski
lled

labour

and

a

certain

percentage

of

cash

for

community outreach activities.



School

heads, local chief and

government

officials
will

be

involved

to help design the
program and
provide

necessary

support.




Regular

meetings

will

be

convened

to

deliberate

o
n

the

group

s

activities

and

on

how

the

performance

of

the

project

could

be

enhanced;




Project

activities

will

be

monitored

by

the

management

committee

on

monthly

basis

where

activities,

results

and

outputs

of

the

preceding

months

will

be

used

as

bench

mar
ks

for

current

month.




The

project

implementation

committees

who

will

coordinate

the

proposed

project

will

be

democratically

elected

by

the

general

members

in

special

general

meetings

that

will

precede

the

project

activities.





The

project

by
-
laws

will

be

enforced

if

need

be

to

ensure

successful

implementation

of

the

proposed

projects;



Providing Access to Credit in Kenyan Informal Settlemen
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Government

officials
,
provincial

administration,

line

Ministries

(MoA)

will

be

co
-
opted

into

the

project

implementation

Committee

to

ensure

that

community

interests

are

pro
tected

and

respected.



9. Risk

Assessment



Poor

involvement

and

participation

in

project

activities

by

community

members;



Drop

in

currency

exchange

rates

changing

the

economics

of

the

project;



Unfavourable
weather

conditions

prohibiting

outreach and traini
ng
.



Unfavourable
weather

conditions

altering

the

micro
-
economic

conditions

of

the

members

thereafter

limiting

their

abilities

to

contribution

towards

the

project

implementation;



Internal

wrangles

among

the

group

members

particularly

during

the

election

of

the

working

committees;



Inadequate

expertise

among

the

project

management

committee

and

project

members

to

implement

the

proposed

project

activities;



Possible

conflict

of

interests

among

the

project

leadership

and

other

major

stakeholders.




Inability to u
se the SMS based mutual
-
credit trading system.


9.1 Assumptions



Cohesion

and

unity

among

the

project

members

shall

be

sustained;



Project

members

shall

fully

participate

in

the

project

activities;



The

project

activities

shall

be

implemented

as

projected.




T
he

funds,

technical

support,

materials

and

human

resources

shall

be

available

throughout

the

implementation

period

and

any

unforeseen

situation

shall

be

addressed

immediately.



Favourable
weather

conditions

shall

prevail

throughout

the

implementation

period



Sufficient access to mobile phones in the area for use in SMS trading.



The SMS trading system has sufficient security measures in place.



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10. Evaluation Plan

The

monitoring

and

evaluation

process

will

be

guided

by

the

following

basic

tenets

of

monitoring:



Actual

progress

will

be

compared

with

the

implementation

plan

in

order

to

identify

necessary

remedial

actions



Monitoring

plans

will

utilize

both

formal

and

informal

communication

among

the

stakeholders.



Working

committees

and

stakeholders

will

focus

on

re
sources,

activities

and

results

in

the

logical

framework

The

aims

of

monitoring

and

evaluation

are

to

improve

the

overall

management

of

the

project

and

to

enhance

the

performance

by

providing

information

and

feedbacks

on

the

implementation

of

the

projects

to

all

the

stakeholders.

The

monitoring

and

evaluation

plans

will

indicate

details

about

the

preparation

of

work

plans,

progress

review

and

self
-
evaluation

reports.


Baseline

information

will

be

collected

using

appropriate

sampling

techniques

at

the

beginn
ing

of

the

program

and

will

be

used

to

measure

impacts

and

adjust

program

parameters.

The

program

will

use

Android

mobile

phone

Open Data Kit
-

GPS

systems

to

collect

data

for

mapping,

measuring,

monitoring

and

planning

activities.

T
hematic

maps

demonstrat
ing the use and
volume of mutual
-
credits will be created.

Continuous data taking will take place detailing the use of credits. Because the credits will be
transferred over mobile phone through a server, we will have a large database of information
relating

to the credits usage and volume.


Monitoring

will

be

done

after

every

two

months.

Progress

and

financial

reports

will

be

submitted

after

every

monitoring

activity.

It

is

expected

that

the

reports

will

highlight

on

the

utilization

of

inputs

and

on

how

th
e

outputs

are

being

accomplished.

Being

a

project

that

basically

revolves

around

financing,

financial

reports

will

reflect

the

budget

description

and

projected

costs.



11. Project Sustainability

To

ensure

that

the

project

is

sustained

beyond

the

funding

period,

the

following

additional

mechanisms

will

be

employed,


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The

project

has

provision

for

training

Chama
members

and members of the LEN
management committee.
The

trained

staff

will

serve

as

Trainer

of

Trainers

to

ensure

that

all

the

beneficiaries

are

at

least

equipped

with

some

basic

maintenance

skills.




Community

mobilization

and

education

towards

project

maintenance

and

any

other

related

activities

will

be

enhanced.



In

regular
forums

the

LEN
Committee

shall

receive

new

developments

and

feedbacks

from

th
e

general

members

regarding

the

program
.




The costs for maintaining the SMS based trading system will be kept to minimal level,
accessible by the community through membership fees.

12. Project Scalability

Due to well
-
documented implementation and monitorin
g this project will be available as a
development module replicable elsewhere. The cost of replication of this program can be as low
as 5,000


and the training required can be incorporated into Chamas and mutual
-
credit models
worldwide.

13. Project Staff

T
im Anderson
Materials Development and Project Coordinator
-

Geneva

Tim is a professional trainer of trainers in Geneva and the President of Community Forge. He has helped
build mutual
-
credit systems and developed training modules for communities world wide
.

Matthew Slater
Technical Advisor and Software Specialist


based in Geneva

Matthew Slater is a specialist in community accounting. His software powers Timebanks USA and he co
-
founded Community forge.

Will Ruddick

Project Manager
-

Kenya

Will is a develo
pment specialist focusing on East Africa. After completing graduate school researching
high energy physics, he found his passion in development work which brought him to Kenya with the US
Peace Corps. Will has lived in Kenya for 5 years, speaks Kiswahili a
nd has managed several successful
development programs in environment, food security and economic development. Will is the Country
Director of Green World Campaign
-

Kenya (A Kenyan non
-
profit) and brings on board a team of Kenyans
that have been trained t
o implement complimentary currency programs.

Jacky Kowa

Behavior Change Communication, Community Liaison, and Project Assistant
-

Kenya


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Jacky is a specialist in Behaviour Change Communication and a native Kenyan. She has worked for six
years in Kenya helpi
ng development programs reach and impact impoverished communities.


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14. Budget

The

Budget

summaries

presented

below

represents

estimates

of

funds

required

to

develop the
Local Economic Network, including training as well as facilitation and monitoring for o
ne year.






Component
Cost (EUR)
Community Contrib.
Partner Contrib.
Funding Request
%
Preparation
Consulting and prep of materials
800 €
0 €
0 €
800 €
Collecting Baseline Data
800 €
160 €
320 €
320 €
Sub-total
1,600 €
160 €
320 €
1,120 €
5%
Training and Outreach
Community Gatherings
800 €
320 €
0 €
480 €
Community Events
800 €
320 €
0 €
480 €
Trainings
400 €
160 €
0 €
240 €
Sub-total
2,000 €
800 €
0 €
1,200 €
6%
Local Currency Development
Develop Software and SMS System
8,000 €
0 €
2,000 €
6,000 €
SMS service fees
1,600 €
640 €
0 €
960 €
Hardware costs (servers + phones)
800 €
0 €
0 €
800 €
Printing and Marketing Materials
2,400 €
0 €
0 €
2,400 €
Sub-total
12,800 €
640 €
2,000 €
10,160 €
41%
ACTIVITY COSTS TOTAL
16,400 €
1,280 €
4,000 €
11,120 €
53%
Project Administration Costs
Project Manager
8,000 €
0 €
1,000 €
7,000 €
Project Assistant
2,000 €
0 €
1,000 €
1,000 €
Misc costs
1,600 €
0 €
1,000 €
600 €
Travel costs
3,200 €
0 €
1,000 €
2,200 €
Sub-total
14,800 €
0 €
4,000 €
10,800 €
47%
TOTAL PROJECT COSTS
31,200 €
0 €
8,000 €
23,200 €
100%
**1 USD =
84
Kenyan Shillings
0.8
Euro