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Dec 10, 2013 (3 years and 4 months ago)

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PROJECT
REPORT

ON

ANDROID OS

By Soni Ketan

5
th

BY

Roll No
-
28


By Ketan Soni

5
th

Semester CE

Div
-

BY Roll No
-

28


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ACKNO
W
LEDGMENT






I am very glad for having such an intelligent
and useful guide throughout the project and thankful
to Purvi Patel Madam from her support and
encouragement throughout my journey on this project.
Purvi Patel Madam had enlig
htened the path of glory
with her views
a
nd knowledge for us.











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ABSTRACT



What is Android? Android is a software platform
and operating system for mobile devices, based on the
Linux operating system,
and developed

by Google and
later the Open H
andset Alliance. It allows developers
to write managed code in a Java
-
like language that
utilizes Google
-
developed Java libraries, but does not
support programs developed in native code. It is one of
the world’s fastest growing mobile operating system.
Ini
tially it is used for mobile applications only but now
a day’s it is also used in making full fledge applications.







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INDEX





I
ntroduction……………………………………………….
.
5



A brief history of Android
..............................
.
8



The Android platform
……
……………………………10



Android

Application

Architecture……………….12



Required tools……………………………………………
.16



Android Phone
s
…………………………
………………..22



Google

Nexus One VS IPhone 3GS………………25



Resources……………………………………………………27



Advantages of Android……………………………….
.29



Conclusion……………………………
……………………..32



Bibliography
………………………………………………
..34



Glossary………………………………………………………
.35





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INTRODUCTION



The BlackBerry and iPhone, which have appealing
and high
-
volume mobile platforms, are addressing
opposite ends of a spectrum. The BlackBerry is rock
-
solid
for the enterprise business user. For a consumer
device, it's hard to compete with the iPhone for ease of
use and the "cool factor." Android, a young and yet
-
unproven platform, has the potential to play at both
ends of the mobile
-
phone spectrum and perhaps

even
bridge the gulf between work and play.



Today, many network
-
based or network
-
capable
appliances run a flavor of the Linux kernel. It's a solid
platform: cost
-
effective to deploy and support and
readily accepted as a good design approach for
deployme
nt. The UI for such devices is often HTML
-
based and viewable with a PC or Mac browser. But not
every appliance needs to be controlled by a general
computing device. Consider a conventional appliance,
such as a stove, microwave or bread maker. What if
your
household appliances were controlled by Android
and boasted a color touch screen? With an Android UI
on the stove
-
top, the author might even be able to
cook something.

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What is Android? Android is a software platform
and operating system for mobile devices
, based on the
Linux operating system, developed by Google and later
the Open Handset Alliance. It allows developers to
write managed code in a Java
-
like language that utilizes
Google
-
developed Java libraries, but does not support
programs

developed in nat
ive code.



Android has been cr
iticized for not being all open
source software despite what was announced by
Google. Parts of the SDK are proprietary and closed
source and some believe this is so that Google can
control the platform. Google will continue t
o make
money from online advertising, but now seeks to
extend this onto mobile devices.




With Android being part of the Open Handset
Alliance, the other members of the alliance will follow
T
-
Mobile’s lead and unveil their products for Android.
For instan
ce Qualcomm have announced that it is
working on more than five Android based handsets to
be released during Q1 2009.





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Android being free also means that smaller
handset manufacturers don’t have to worry about the
(very large) headache of writing and m
aintaining an
operating system
.




















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A BRIEF HISTORY



A BRIFE HISTORY OF

ANDROID


The Android platform is the product of the

Open
Handset Alliance
, a group of organizations
collaborating to build a better mobile phone. The
group, led by Goo
gle, includes mobile operators,
device handset

manufacturers, component
manufacturers, software solution and platform
prov
iders, and marketing companies.
From a software
development standpoint, Android sits smack in the
middle of the open source world.



T
he first Android
-
capable handset on the market
was the G1 device manufactured by HTC and
provisioned on T
-
Mobile. The device became available
after almost a year of speculation, where the only
software development tools available were some
incrementally im
proving SDK releases. As the G1
release date neared, the Android team released SDK
V1.0 and applications began surfacing for the new
platform.

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To spur innovation, Google sponsored two rounds

of "Android Developer Challenges," where millions of
dollars were

given to top contest submissions. A few
months after the G1, the Android Market was released,
allowing users to browse and download applications
directly to their phones. Over about 18 months, a new
mobile platform entered the public arena.















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ANDROID

PLATFORM



With Android's breadth of capabilities, it would be
easy to confuse it with a desktop operating system.
Android is a layered environment built upon a
foundation of the Linux kernel, and it includes rich
functions. The UI subsystem includ
es:




Windows



Views



Widgets for displaying common elements such
as edit boxes, lists, and drop
-
down lists


Android includes an embeddable browser built
upon WebKit, the same open source browser engine
powering the iPhone's Mobile Safari browser.


Android bo
asts a healthy array of connectivity
options, including WiFi, Bluetooth, and wireless data
over a cellular connection (for example, GPRS, EDGE,
and 3G). A popular technique in Android applications is
to link to Google Maps to display an address directly
wi
thin an application. Support for location
-
based
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services (such as GPS) and accelerometers is also
available in the Android software stack, though not all
Android devices are equipped with the required
hardware. There is also camera support.


Historically,
two areas where mobile applications
have struggled to keep pace with their desktop
counterparts are graphics/media, and data storage
methods. Android addresses the graphics challenge
with built
-
in support for 2
-
D and 3
-
D graphics,
including the OpenGL libr
ary. The data
-
storage burden
is eased because the Android platform includes the
popular open source SQLite database. Figure 1 shows a
simplified view of the Android software layers.



FIG SHOWS ANDROID ARCHITECTURE.

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ANDROID

ARCHITECHTURE



ANDROID ARCHIT
ECHURE


As mentioned, Android runs atop a Linux kernel.
Android applications are written in the Java
programming language, and they run within a virtual
machine (VM). It's important to note that the VM is not
a JVM as you might expect, but is the Dalvik Vi
rtual
Machine, an open source technology. Each Android
application runs within an instance of the Dalvik VM,
which in turn resides within a Linux
-
kernel managed
process, as shown below.







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An Android application consists of one or more of
the follo
wing classifications:



Activities


An application that has a visible UI is implemented
with an activity. When a user selects an application
from the home screen or application launcher, an
activity is started.



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Services


A service should be used for an
y application that
needs to persist for a long time, such as a network
monitor or update
-
checking application.


Content providers


You can think of content providers as a database
server. A content provider's job is to manage access to
persisted data, such

as a SQLite database. If your
application is very simple, you might not necessarily
create a content provider. If you're building a larger
application, or one that makes data available to
multiple activities or applications, a content provider is
the mean
s of accessing your data.


Broadcast receivers


An Android application may be launched to
process a element of data or respond to an event, such
as the receipt of a text message.


An Android application, along with a file called
AndroidManifest.xml, is dep
loyed to a device.
AndroidManifest.xml contains the necessary
configuration information to properly install it to the
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device. It includes the required class names and types
of events the application is able to process, and the
required permissions the appl
ication needs to run.



For example, if an application requires access to the
network


to download a file, for example


this
permission must be explicitly stated in the manifest
file. Many applications may have this specific
permission enabled. Such decl
arative security helps
reduce the likelihood that a rogue application can
cause damage on your device.








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REQUIRED TOOLS



Required tools


The easiest way to start developing Android
applications is to download the Android SDK and the
Eclipse IDE (see

Resources
). Android development can
take place on Microsoft® Windows®, Mac OS X, or
Linux.


This article assumes you are using the Eclipse IDE
and the Android Developer Tools plug
-
in for Eclipse.
Android applications are written in the Java language,
but
compiled and executed in the Dalvik VM (a non
-
Java virtual machine). Coding in the Java language
within Eclipse is very intuitive; Eclipse provides a rich
Java environment, including context
-
sensitive help and
code suggestion hints. Once your Java code is
compiled
cleanly, the Android Developer Tools make sure the
application is packaged properly, including the
AndroidManifest.xml file.


It's possible to develop Android applications
without Eclipse and the Android Developer Tools plug
-
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in, but you would need

to know your way around the
Android SDK.


The Android SDK is distributed as a ZIP file that
unpacks to a directory on your hard drive. Since there
have been several SDK updates, it is recommended
that you keep your development environment well
organized s
o you can easily switch between SDK
installations. The SDK includes:


android.jar

Java archive file containing all of the Android SDK
classes necessary to build your application.

documention.html and docs directory

The SDK documentation is provided locally

and on the
Web. It's largely in the form of JavaDocs, making it easy
to navigate the many packages in the SDK. The
documentation also includes a high
-
level Development
Guide and links to the broader Android community.


Samples directory

The samples subdir
ectory contains full source code
for a variety of applications, including ApiDemo, which
exercises many APIs. The sample application is a great
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place to explore when starting Android application
development.


Tools directory

Contains all of the command
-
lin
e tools to build
Android applications. The most commonly employed
and useful tool is the

adb

utility (Android Debug
Bridge).


usb_driver

Directory containing the necessary drivers to
connect the development environment to an Android
-
enabled device, such as

the G1 or the Android Dev 1
unlocked development phone. These files are only
required for developers using the Windows platform.

Android applications may be run on a real device or on
the Android Emulator, which ships with the Android
SDK.

Figure
shows th
e Android Emulator's home
screen.






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Android Emulator.








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There is one IDE available for writing your
executable codes for android.








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Life Cycle of an Activity.



Life cycle not directly controlled by application
.
System
can kill an applicati
on to free up memory.

Control
through
onCreate
(),
onPause
(),
onStop
() ... methods

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ANDROID PHONES


LG’s

first

Android

S
uperphone

with

Tegra

2,

4”

screen

leaked




Talking specs
-
wise, it will come with huge 4 inch
display, nVidia Tegra 2 processor, 8 MP cam
era with
1080p HD recording, front facing camera, tock Android
[2.3 expected], and 1500 mAh battery
.

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Acer

Liquid

E



It seems the season of Android updates and devices are
getting them everywhere. From SE Xperia X10 to HTC
L
egend, every Android has g
ot one of the other update.
Today, it is the turn of

Acer
Liquid E

users in Canada.

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Samsung

Galaxy

Apollo/3

to

get

Android

2.2

update

after

Galaxy

S




This
are

some of Smart Phones featuring Android as it’s
Operating System. By the time this project is su
bmitted
no of Phones released will be very large.


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NEXUS VS IPhone




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This certain differences between Nexus
a
nd IPhone


3GS.

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RESOURCES




The

Open Handset Alliance

is a group of 47
techn
ology and mobile companies who have come
together to accelerate innovation in mobile and offer
consumers a richer, less expensive, and better
mobile experience. Together, they have developed
Android, the first complete, open, and free mobile
platform.



The

Android developers site

offers documentation,
downloads, blogs, and more.




Learn more about the

Dalvik Virtual Machine
.



Check out the

tutorials

hosted on YouTube that
discuss the int
ernals of the Dalvik VM.




Unlocking Android: A Developer's Guide

provides
concise, hands
-
on instruction for the Android
operating system and development tools.



To listen to interesting interviews and discussions for

software developers, check out

developerWorks
podcasts
.



Stay current with developerWorks'

Technical events
and webcasts
.



Follow

developerWorks on Twitter
.

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Check out upcoming conferences, trade shows,
webcasts, and other

Events

around the world that
are of inte
rest to IBM open source developers.



Visit the developerWorks

Open source zone

for
extensive how
-
to information, tools, and project
updates to help you develop with open source
technologies and use
them with IBM's products.



Watch and learn about IBM and open source
technologies and product functions with the no
-
cost

developerWorks On demand demos
.


Get products and technologies




Downloa
d the

Android SDK
.




Get the latest

Eclipse IDE
.




Innovate your next open source development
project with

IBM trial softw
are
, available for
download or on DVD.







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ADVANTAGES



Android is appealing to developers




Android apps can be developed on any platform
(Windows XP and Vista, Linux, and Mac OS X) where
iPhone apps can only be developed on a fairly new
Mac.



iPhone

apps require developers to learn Objective
-
C (which is used almost nowhere outside Apple). But
Android is Java which all mobile app developers are
familiar with.



Anyone can develop and launch an Android app
whereas Apple has strict control of their App St
ore.



Getting your iPhone app available in the App Store
requires you to jump through the hoops of an approval
process which can take 2
-
3 months (and could be
rejected for “competing” with a native application!)
But Android apps can be available in the Andr
oid
Market instantly.


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Android is feature rich




Android can support the same hardware as the iPhone:
touch screen, accelerometer, GPS, Wi
-
Fi, SMS & still
camera; plus features that the iPhone doesn’t support:
MMS, video camera & Bluetooth



Android has some
fresh ideas like Google Maps “street
view” and customizable home page



Unlike the iPhone, apps on an Android handset can run
in parallel (e.g. an app running in the background can
send an alert)



The Android platform is open source and extensible by
the deve
loper community where as the iPhone is
controlled by Apple


Android is appealing to manufacturers




Android is

free OS so an Android
-
enabled Smartphone
should be cheaper than a normal Smartphone. All the
major manufacturers are looking at using it.



In the
US, AT&T has exclusive rights to sell the iPhone
3G (for the next 5 years), but Android is license and
operator independent


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Android is appealing to Advertisers




Unlike iPhone apps, which sell on the app store within
iTunes, there is no structured marketp
lace for Android
apps



This is good news as the users will get free apps, and
an advertising model will emerge more quickly than for
iPhone apps where an (initially) successful subscription
model will decrease the urgency to find a work
-
able
advertising sol
ution











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CONCLUSION



Giants like Nokia and Microsoft are not the part of
the OHA, so Android won’t become so

powerful for
now. It depends on the stability and continuous
support for the platform.



• Microsoft’s ‘windows mobile’ has a big selli
ng point
in the form of , its integrity with

Microsoft Office and
other Microsoft
-
owned tools, So, Android has to
concentrate on

developing PC compatibility apps using
the Google Office Apps.



• We are not talking about the very success of Android,
since
it has its own challenges, like its

development
task. Though, Android is a complete mobile handset
platform, encompassing a

mobile operating system, a
browser, some middle ware, and other application
environment,

that all depends upon the future
investment
s, and innovations upon the development of
an all

encompassing

new technology.




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Apart from Google, Apps developers and vendors are
predicted to be the major beneficiaries, since they
would make most out of the Android with its wider
market structure ba
cked by all the members of

OHA, developing different versions of Android, and
driving the Android's apps market to a new edge,

Defeating all the others.
















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BIBLOGRAPHY



• From Gizmo do’s

http://gizmodo.com/5395801/android
-
20
-
review
-
almost
-
human


• Learn Android

http://developer.android.com/guide/basics/what
-
is
-
android.html


• Introduction to And
roid by Jason Chen who is
developer advocate at Google

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=x1ZZ
-
R3p_w8


• What Apple did for Smartphone’s, Google may do for
all the rest

http://www.economist.com/displaystory.cfm?story_id
=12304882&fsrc=nwl






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GLOSSARY



• OHA
-

Open Handset Alliance

• GSM
-

Global System for Mobile

• EDGE
-

Enhanced Data Rates for GSM Evolution

• 3
G
-

3rd Generation mobile phones

• HSCSD
-

High Sped Circuit Switched Data

• HTC
-

High Tech Corporation

• OEM
-

Original Equipment Manufacturer

• OS
-

Operating System

• RIM
-

Research In Motion

• MPEG
-

Moving Picture Experts Group

• AAC
-

Advanced Audio
Coding

• AMR
-

Adaptive Multi
-
Rate (Patented audio data


Compression)

• JPEG
-

Joint Photographic Experts Group

• PNG
-

Portable Network Graphics

• GIF
-

Graphics Interchange Format

• VM
-

Virtual Machine

• AT&T
-

American Telegraph & Telephones
Corpora
tion