Android Full Report - 123SeminarsOnly

chulavistajuniorMobile - Wireless

Dec 10, 2013 (3 years and 7 months ago)

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Android

is an
open
-
source

software stack

for
mobile devices

that includes an
operating system
,
middleware

and key
applications
.
[5]
[6]

Google Inc.

purchased the initial developer of the
software, Android Inc., in 2005.
[7]

Android's
mobile operating system

is based upon a modified
version of the
Linux kernel
. Google and other

members of the
Open Handset Alliance

collaborated on Android's development and release.
[8]
[9]

The Android Open Source Project
(AOSP) is tasked with the maintenance and further development of Android.
[10]

Canalys

reported that in Q4 2010 the Android operating system was the world's best
-
selling
smartp
hone platform, dethroning
Nokia
's
Symbian

from the 10
-
year top position.
[11]
[12]

Jumping
from 23.5 percent, Android now represents 31.2 percent of the U.S smartphone market.
[13]

According to
Gartner
, Symbian is still slightly ahead on sales if some legacy non
-
Nokia Symbian
smartphones are included in the Q4 2010 f
igures.
[14]

Android has a large community of developers writing
application programs

("
apps
") that extend
the functionality of the devices. There are currently over 150,000 apps available for
Android.
[15]
[16]

Android Market

is the online app store run by Google, though apps can also be
downloaded from
third
-
party sites
. Developers write primarily in the
Java language
, controlling
the device via Google
-
developed Java libraries.
[17]

The unveiling of the Android distribution on 5 November 2007 was announced with the
founding of the
Open Handset Alliance
, a consortium of 80
hardware
,
software
, and
telecom

companies de
voted to advancing
open standards

for mobile devices.
[18]
[19]

Google released most
of the Android code under the
Apache License
, a
free software

and
open source license
.
[20]

The Android open
-
source
software stack

consists of
Java applications

running on a Java
-
based,
object
-
oriented

application framework

on top
of
Java core libraries

running on a
Dalvik virtual
machine

featuring
JIT compilation
. Libraries written in C include the surface manager,
OpenCore
[21]

media framework
,
SQLite

relational
database management system
,
OpenGL ES 2.0

3D graphics

API
,
WebKit layout engine
,
SGL

graphics engine,
SSL
, and
Bionic libc
. The
Android operating system consists of 12

million
lines of code

including 3

million lines of
XML
,
2.8

million lines of
C
, 2.1

million lines of
Java
, and 1.75

million lines of
C++
.
[22]

Contents

[
hide
]



1 History


o

1.1 Android Inc. founded in 2003

o

1.2 Android Inc. acquired by Google

o

1.3 Development accelerates

o

1.4 Open Handset Alliance

o

1.5 Licensing

o

1.6 Version history



2 Features



3 Hardware running Android



4 Software development


o

4.1 Software development kit

o

4.2 Android Market

o

4.3 App Inventor for Android

o

4.4 Android Developer Challenge

o

4.5 Google applications

o

4.6 Third party applications

o

4.7 Mobile gaming

o

4.8 Native code

o

4.9 Community
-
based firmware



5 Securi
ty issues



6 Marketing


o

6.1 Logos

o

6.2 Typeface

o

6.3 Market share

o

6.4 Usage share



7 Linux compatibility



8 Claimed infringement of copyrights and patents



9 See also



10 References



11 Bibliography



12 External links


History

Andro
id Inc. founded in 2003

Android, Inc. was founded in
Palo Alto
,
California
, United States in October, 2003 by
Andy
Rubin
, Rich Miner, et al. to develop, in Rubin's words "...smarter mobile devices that are more
aware of its owner's location and preferences." Key employees involved in the founding of
Android Inc. include
Andy Rubin, also the co
-
founder of
Danger Inc.
, Andy McFadden, who
worked with Rubin at WebTV, and Chris White, who led the design and interface of WebTV.
[23]

Other crucial employees includes Richard Miner, a co
-
founder of Wildfire Communications, Inc.
and former vice
-
president of Technology and innovation at
Orange
, and all those of whom
brought considerable wireless industry experience to the company.
[23]
[24]

Despite the obvious past
accomplishments of the founders and early employees, Android Inc. operat
ed secretively,
admitting only that it was working on software for mobile phones.
[23]

Android Inc. acquired by Google

Google

acquired

Android Inc. in August, 2005, making Android Inc. a wholly
-
owned subsidiary
of Google Inc. Key employees of Android

Inc., including Andy Rubin, Rich Miner and Chris
White, stayed at the company after the acquisition.
[25]

Not much was known about Android Inc. at the time of the

acquisition so many assumed that
Google was planning to enter the
mobile phone

market with this move.

Development accelerates

At Google, the team led by Rubin developed a mobile device platform pow
ered by the
Linux
kernel
. Google marketed the platform to handset makers and
carriers

on the premise

of providing
a flexible, upgradable system. Google had lined up a series of hardware component and software
partners and signaled to carriers that it was open to various degrees of cooperation on their
part.
[26]
[27]
[28]

Speculation about Google's intention to enter the mobile communications market continued to
build through December 2006.
[29]

Reports from the

BBC

and
The Wall Street Journal

noted that
Google wanted its search and applications on mobile phones and it was working hard to deliver
that. Print and online media outlets soon reported rumors that Google was developing a Google
-
branded
handset
.
[30]

Some speculated that as Google was defining technical specifications, it was
showing prototypes to cell phone manufacturers and network operators.

In September 2007,
InformationWeek

covered an
Evalueserve

study reporting that Google had
filed several
patent

applications in the area of mobile telephony.
[31]
[32]

Open Handset Alliance

Main article:
Open Handset Alliance

"Today's announcement is more ambitious than any single 'Google Phone' that the press has been speculating
about over the past few weeks. Our vision is that the powerful platform
we're unveiling will power thousands
of different phone models."


Eric Schmidt
,
former Google Chairman/CEO
[8]


On the November 5, 2007 the
Open Handset Alliance
, a
consortium

of several companies which
include
Broadcom Corporation
,
Google
,
HTC
,
Intel
,
LG
,
Marvell Technology Group
,
Motorola
,
Nvidia
,
Qualcomm
,
Samsung Electronics
,
Sprint Nextel
,
T
-
Mobile

and
Te
xas Instruments

unveiled itself. The goal of the Open Handset Alliance is to develop
open standards

for mobile
devices.
[8]

On the same day, the Open Handset Alliance also unveiled their first product,
Android, a mobile device
platform

built on the
Linux kernel

version 2.6.
[8]

On December 9, 2008, 14 new memb
ers joined, including
ARM Holdings
,
Atheros
Communications
,
Asustek Computer Inc
,
Garmin Ltd
,
PacketVideo
,
Softbank
,
Sony Ericsson
,
Toshiba Corp
, and
Vodafone Group Pl
c
.
[33]
[34]

Licensing

With the exception of brief update periods, An
droid has been available under a
free
software
/open source license since 21 October 2008. Google published the entire
source code

(including

network and telephony stacks)
[35]

under an
Apache License
.
[36]

Google also keeps the
reviewed issues list publicly open for anyone to see and comment.
[37]

Even though th
e software is open
-
source, device manufacturers can not use Google's Android
trademark unless Google certifies that the device complies with their Compatibility Definition
Document (CDD). Devices must also meet this definition to be eligible to license Goo
gle's
closed
-
source applications, including Android Market.
[38]

In September 2010,
Skyhook Wireless

filed a lawsuit against Google in which they alleged that
Google had used the compatibility document to block Skyhook's mobile positioning service
(XPS) from Motorola's Android mobile devices.
[39]

In December 2010 a judge denied Skyhook's
motion for preliminary injunction, saying that Google had not closed off the possibility of
accepting a revised version of Skyhook's XPS service, and that Motoro
la had terminated their
contract with Skyhook because Skyhook wanted to disable Google's location data collection
functions on Motorola's devices, which would have violated Motorola's obligations to Google
and its carriers.
[40]

Version history

Main article:
Android version history

Android has seen a number of updates since its original release. Th
ese updates to the base
operating system typically focus on fixing bugs as well as adding new features. Generally each
new version of the Android operating system is developed under a code name based on a dessert
item.

The most recent released versions of
Android are:



2.0/2.1 (Eclair)
, which revamped the user interface and introduced
HTML5

and
Exchange
ActiveSync

2.5 support
[41]



2.2 (Froyo)
, which introduced speed improvements with
JIT

optimization and the
Chrome

V8
JavaScript engine
, and added Wi
-
Fi hotspot teth
ering and Adobe Flash support
[42]



2.3 (Gingerbread)
, which refined the user interface, improved the soft keyboard and copy/paste
features, and ad
ded support for
Near Field Communication
[43]



3.0 (Honeycomb)
, a tablet
-
oriented
[44]
[45]
[46]

release which supports larger screen devices and
introduces many new user interface features, and supports multicore processors and hardware
acceleration for graphics.
[47]

The Honeycomb SDK has been released and the first device
featuring this version, the
Mot
orola Xoom

tablet, went on sale in February 2011.
[48]

The upcoming version of Android is:



Ice
-
cream sandwich
, a combination of Gingerbread and Honeycomb into a "
cohesive whole,"
[49]

with a possible release in mid
-
2011
[50]

Features

Current features and specifications:
[51]
[52]
[53]


The Android Emulator default home screen (v1.5).



Architecture Diagram




Handset layouts

The platform is adaptable to large
r,
VGA
,
2D graphics

library,
3D graphics

library
based on
OpenGL ES

2.0 specifications, and traditional smartphone layouts.

Storage

SQLite
, a lightweight
relational database
, is used for data storage purposes

Connectivity

Android supports connectivity technologies including
GSM
/
EDGE
,
IDEN
,
CDMA
,
EV
-
DO
,
UMTS
,
Bluetooth
,
Wi
-
Fi
,
LTE
, and
WiMAX
.

Messaging

SMS

and
MMS

are available forms of messaging, including threaded
text messaging

and now Android Cloud to Device Messaging Framework (
C2DM
) is also a part of
Android Push Messaging service.

Web browser

The web browser available in Android is based on the open
-
source
WebKit

layout
engine, coupled with
Chrome
's
V8

J
avaScript engine. The browser scores a 93/100 on
the
Acid3

Test.

Java support

While most Android applications are written in
Java
, there is no
Java Virtual Machine

in the platform and Java byte code is not executed. Java classes are compiled into
Dalvik executables and run on the
Dalvik virtual machine
. Dalvik is a specialized
virtual machine designed specifically for Android and optimized for battery
-
powered
mobile devices with limited mem
ory and CPU.
J2ME

support can be provided via
third
-
party
-
applications.

Media support

Android supports the following audio/video/still media formats:
WebM
,
H.263
,
H.264

(in
3GP

or
MP4

container
),
MPEG
-
4 SP
,
AMR
,
AMR
-
WB

(in 3GP container),
AAC
,
HE
-
AAC

(in MP4 or 3GP container),
MP3
,
MIDI
,
Ogg Vorbis
,
WAV
,
JPEG
,
PNG
,
GIF
,
BMP
.
[53]

Streaming
media support

RTP/RTSP streaming (
3GPP PSS
,
ISMA
), HTML progressive download (HTML5
<video> tag). Adobe Flash Streaming (RTMP) and HTTP Dynamic Streaming are
supported by the Flash 10.1 plugin
.
[54]

Apple HTTP Live Streaming is supported by
RealPlayer for Mobile
[55]

and planned to be supported by the operating system in
Android 3.0 (Honeycomb).
[47]

Microsoft Smooth Streaming is planned to be support
ed
through the awaited port of Silverlight plugin to Android.

Additional
hardware
support

Android can use video/still cameras,
touchscreens
,
GPS
,
accelerometers
,
gyroscopes
,
magnetometers
,
proximity

and
pressure sensors
,
thermometers
, accelerated 2D
bit blits

(with hardware orientation, scaling, pixel format conve
rsion) and accelerated 3D
graphics.

Development
environment

Includes a device emulator, tools for
debugging
, memory and
performance profiling
.
The
integrated development environment

(IDE) is Eclipse (currently 3.4 or greater)
using the Android Development Tools (ADT
) Plugin. The programming languages are
Java and C/C++.

Market

The
Android Market

is a catalog of applications that can be downloaded and installed
to Android devices over
-
the
-
air, without the us
e of a PC.

Multi
-
touch

Android has native support for
multi
-
touch

which was initially made available in
handsets such as the
HTC Hero
. The featu
re was originally disabled at the kernel level
(possibly to avoid infringing Apple's patents on touch
-
screen technology at the
time).
[56]

Google has since release
d an update for the
Nexus One

and the
Motorola
Droid

which enables multi
-
touch natively.
[57]

Bluetooth

Supports
A2DP
,
AVRCP
, sending files (
OPP
), accessing the phone book (
PBAP
),
v
oice dialing and sending contacts between phones. Keyboard, mouse and joystick
(
HID
) support is available through manufactur
er customizations and third
-
party
applications. Full HID support is planned for Android 3.0 (Honeycomb).
[47]

Video calling

The mainstream An
droid version does not support video calling, but some handsets
have a customized version of the operating system which supports it, either via
UMTS

network (like the
Samsung Galaxy S
) or over IP. Video calling through Google Talk is
planned for Android 3.0 (Honeycomb).

Multitasking

Multitasking of applications is available.
[58]

Voice based
features

Google search through Voice has been available since initial release.
[59]

Voice actions
for calling, tex
ting, navigation etc. are supported on Android 2.2 onwards.
[60]

Tethering

Android supports tethering, which allows a phone to be used as a wireless/wired
hotspot
. Prior to Android 2.2 this was supported by third
-
party applications or
manufacturer customizations.
[61]


Hardware running Android


Main article:
List of Android devices

The Android OS can be used as an operating system for cellphones, netbooks and
tablets
,
including the
Dell Streak
,
Samsung Galaxy Tab
, TV and other devices.
[62]
[63]

The first
commercially available phone to run the Android operating system was the
HTC Dream
,
released on 22 October 2008.
[64]

In early 2010 Google collaborated with
HTC

to launch its
flagship
[65]

Android device, the
Nexus One
. This was followed l
ater in 2010 with the
Samsung
-
made
Nexus S
.

iOS

and Android

2.2.1
Froyo

may be setup to dual boot on a jailbroken
iPhone

or
iPod Touch

with the help of iBoot and iDroid.
[66]

Software development

The early feedback on developing applications for the Android platform was mixed.
[67]

Issues
cited include bugs, lack of documentation, inadequate QA infrastructure, and no public issue
-
tracking system. (Google announced an issue tracker on 18 January 2008.)
[68]

In December 2007,
MergeLab mobile startup founder Adam MacBeth stated,
"Functionality is not there, is poorly
documented or just doesn't work... It's clearly not ready for prime time."
[69]

Despite this,
Android
-
targeted applications began to appear the week after the platform was announced. The
first publicly available application was the
Snake game
.
[70]
[71]

The
Android Dev Phone

is a
SIM
-
unlocked and hardware
-
unlocked device that is

designed for advanced developers. While
developers can use regular consumer devices purchased at retail to test and use their applications,
some developers may choose not to use a retail device, preferring an unlocked or no
-
contract
device.

Software devel
opment kit

The Android
software development kit

(SDK) includes a comprehensive set of development
tools.
[72]

These include a
debugger
,
libraries
, a handset
e
mulator

(based on
QEMU
),
documentation, sample code, and tutorials. The SDK is downloadable on the android developer
website, or click
here
.Curre
ntly supported development platforms include computers running
Linux

(any modern desktop
Linux distribution
),
Mac OS X

10.4.9 or later,
Windows XP

or later.
The officially supported
integrated development environment

(IDE) is
Eclipse

(currently 3.4, 3.5
or 3.6) using the Android Development Tool
s (ADT) Plugin, though developers may use any text
editor to edit Java and XML files then use
command line

tools (
J
ava Development Kit

and
Apache Ant

are required) to create, build and debug Android applications as well as control
attached Android devices (e.g., triggering a reboot, installing software package(s)

remotely).
[73]

A preview release of the Android SDK was released on 12 November 2007. On 15 July 2008,
the Android Developer Challenge Team accidentally sent an
email to all entrants in the Android
Developer Challenge announcing that a new release of the SDK was available in a "private"
download area. The email was intended for winners of the first round of the Android Developer
Challenge. The revelation that Goog
le was supplying new SDK releases to some developers and
not others (and keeping this arrangement private) led to widely reported frustration within the
Android developer community at the time.
[74]

On 18 August 2008 the Android 0.9 SDK beta was released. This release provided an updated
and extended API, improved development tools and an updated design for the home screen.
Detailed instructions for upgrading are av
ailable to those already working with an earlier
release.
[75]

On 23 September 2008 the Android 1.0 SDK (Release 1) was released.
[76]

According
to the release notes, it included "mainly bug fixes, although some smaller features were added."
It also included several API changes from the 0.9 version. Multiple versions have be
en released
since.
[77]

Enhancements to Android's SDK go hand in hand with the overall Android platform
development. The SDK also supports older versions of the An
droid platform in case developers
wish to target their applications at older devices. Development tools are downloadable
components, so after one has downloaded the latest version and platform, older platforms and
tools can also be downloaded for compatibi
lity testing.
[78]

Android applications are packaged in
.apk

format and s
tored under
/data/app

folder on the Android
OS (the folder is accessible to root user only for security reasons). APK package contains .dex
files
[79]

(compiled by
te code files called
Dalvik

executable), resource files, etc.

Android Market

Main article:
Android Ma
rket

Android Market is the online software store developed by Google for Android devices. An
application program ("app") called "Market" is preinstalled on most Android devices and allows
users to browse and download apps published by third
-
party develope
rs, hosted on Android
Market. As of December 2010

there were about 200,000 games, applications and widgets
available on the Android Market, with an

estimated 2.5 billion total downloads.
[80]

Only devices that comply with Google's compatibility requirements are allowed to preinstall
Google's closed
-
source Android Market app and access the Market.
[81]

The Market filters the list
of applications presented by the Market app to those that are compatible with the

user's device,
and developers may restrict their applications to particular carriers or countries for business
reasons.
[82]

Google announced the Android Market
on 28 August 2008, and it was available to users on 22
October 2008. Support for paid applications was available from 13 February 2009 for US and
UK developers,
[83
]

with additional support from 29 countries on 30 September 2010.
[84]

In
February 2011, the Android Market was made fully accessible on the web, allowing users t
o
browse and pick up applications using their PCs, send them to their mobile phone and make
comments on them. All this functionality was previously accessible only from mobile phone
devices.
[85]

Users can install apps directly using APK files, or from alternative app markets. Unlike Apple,
Google allows independent app stores to operate for Android.
[86]

App Inventor for Android

Main article:
Google App Inventor

On 12 July 2010 Google announced the availability of App Inventor for Android,
a Web
-
based
visual development environment for novice programmers, based on MIT's Open Blocks Java
library and providing access to Android devices' GPS, accelerometer and orientation data, phone
functions, text messaging, speech
-
to
-
text conversion, contact

data, persistent storage, and Web
services, initially including Amazon and Twitter.
[87]

"We could only have done this because
Android’s architecture is so open,"

said the project director, MIT's
Hal Abelson
.
[88]

Under
development for over a year,
[89]

the block
-
editing tool has been taught to non
-
majors in computer
science at Harvard, MIT, Wellesley, and the University of San Francisco, where Professor David
Wolber developed
an introductory computer science course and tutorial book for non
-
computer
science students based on App Inventor for Android.
[90]
[91]

Android Developer Challenge

Main article:
Android Developer Challenge

The Android Developer Challenge was a competit
ion for the most innovative application for
Android. Google offered prizes totaling 10 million
US dollars
, distributed between ADC I and
ADC II. ADC I accepted submissions from 2 January

to 14 April 2008. The 50 most promising
entries, announced on 12 May 2008, each received a $25,000 award to fund further
development.
[92]
[93]

It ended in early September with the announcement of ten teams that
received $275,000 each, and ten teams that received $100,000 each.
[94]

ADC II was announced
on 27 May 2009.
[95]

The first round of the ADC II closed on 6 October 2009.
[96]

The first
-
round
winners of ADC II comprising the top 200 applications were announced on 5 November 2009.
Voting for the second round also opened on the same
day and ended on November 25. Google
announced the top winners of ADC II on November 30, with SweetDreams, What the Doodle!?
and WaveSecure being nominated the overall winners of the challenge.
[97]
[98]

Google applications

Google has also participated in the Android Market by offering several applications for its
services.
These applications include
Google Voice

for the Google Voice service, Sky Map for
watching stars, Finance for their finance service, Maps Editor for their MyMaps service, Places
Directory for their
Local Search,
Google Goggles

that searches by image, Gesture Search for
using finger
-
written letters and numbers to search the contents of the phone, Google Translate,
Google Shopper, Listen for p
odcasts and My Tracks, a jogging application.

In August 2010, Google launched "Voice Actions for Android,"
[99]

which allows users to search,
write messages, and i
nitiate calls by voice.

Third party applications

With the growing number of Android handsets, there has also been an increased interest by third
party developers to port their applications to the Android operating system.

As of December 2010, the Android M
arketplace had over 200,000 applications,
[80]

with over 1
billion downloads. This is up from 70,000 in July 2010.
[100]
[101]

Obstacles to development include the fact that Android does not use established Java standards,

i.e.
Java SE

and
ME
. This prevents compatibility among Java applications written for those
platforms and those for the Andr
oid platform. Android only reuses the Java language syntax, but
does not provide the full
-
class libraries and APIs bundled with Java SE or ME.
[102]

However,
ther
e are multiple tools in the market from companies such as
Myriad Group

and UpOnTek that
provide J2ME to Android conversion services.
[103]
[104]
[105]

Developers have repor
ted that it is difficult to maintain applications on multiple versions of
Android, owing to compatibility issues between versions 1.5 and 1.6,
[106]

especially th
e different
resolution ratios in use among various Android phones.
[107]

Such problems were pointedly
brought into focus as they were encountered during the ADC2
contest.
[108]

Further, the rapid
growth in the number of Android
-
based phone models with differing hardware capabilities also
makes it difficult to develop appli
cations that work on all Android
-
based phones.
[109]
[110]
[111]
[112]

As of August 2010, 83% of Android phones run the 2.x versions, an
d 17% still run the 1.5 and
1.6 versions
[113]

Mobile gaming

Android had a huge showing at the 2011
Mobile World Congress

in regards to
smartphone

gaming, with many well established game developers showcasing Android games. The trend in
mobile gaming on smartphone devices is predicted to shrink

the game specialist device market,
affecting devices such as the upcoming
Next Generation Portable
.
[114]

Native code

Libraries written in
C

and other languages can be compiled to
ARM

native code

and installed
using the Android
Native Development

Kit
. Native classes can be called from Java code running
under the Dalvik VM using the
System.loadLibrary

call, which is part of the standard Android Java
classes.
[115]
[116]

Complete applications can be
compiled

and installed using traditional developm
ent tools.
[117]

The
ADB debugger gives a root shell under the Android Emulator which allows native
ARM code

to
be uploaded and executed. ARM code can be compiled using
GCC

on a standard PC.
[117]

Running native code is complicated by the fact that Android uses a non
-
standard C library (libc,
known as
Bionic
). The underlying graphics device is available as a
framebuffer

at
/dev/graphics/fb0
.
[118]

The graphics library that Android uses to arbitrate and control access to
this device is called the
Skia Graphics Li
brary

(SGL), and it has been released under an open
source license.
[119]

Skia has backends for both
win32

and
Unix
, allowing the development of
cross
-
platform applications, and it is the graphics engine underlying the
Google Chrome

web
browser.
[120]

Community
-
based firmware

There is a community of open
-
source enthusiasts that build and share Android
-
based firmware
with a number of customizations and add
itional features, such as
FLAC

lossless audio support
and the ability to store downloaded applications on the
microSD

card.
[121]

This usually involves
rooting

the device. Rooting allows users roo
t access to the operating system, enabling full control
of the phone. In order to use custom firmwares the device's bootloader must be unlocked.
Rooting alone does not allow the flashing of custom firmware. Modified firmwares allow users
of older phones to

use applications available only on newer releases.
[122]

Those firmware packages are updated frequently, incorporate elements of Android functionality
that haven
't yet been officially released within a carrier
-
sanctioned firmware, and tend to have
fewer limitations.
CyanogenMod

and
VillainROM

are two examples of such firmware.

On 24 September 2009, Google issued a
cease and desist

letter
[123]

to the modder Cyanogen,
citing issues with the re
-
distribution of Google's closed
-
source applications
[124]

within the custom
firmware. Even though most of Android OS is open source, phones come packaged with closed
-
source Google applications for functionality such as the application store and GPS navigation.
Google has asserted that these applicatio
ns can only be provided through approved distribution
channels by licensed distributors. Cyanogen has complied with Google's wishes and is
continuing to distribute this mod without the proprietary software. He has provided a method to
back up licensed Goog
le applications during the mod's install process and restore them when it is
complete.
[125]

Security issues

In March 2011, Google pulled 58 malicious apps from t
he Android Market, but not before the 58
apps were downloaded to around 260,000 devices.
[126]

These apps were malicious applications in
the Android Market which
contained trojans hidden in pirated versions of legitimate apps.
[127]

The malware (called DroidDream) exploited a bug which was present in versions of Android
ol
der than 2.2.2.
[128]
Android device manufacturers and carriers work in tandem to distribute
Android based updates and had not uniformly issued patches to their cu
stomers for the
DroidDream exploit, leaving users vulnerable.
[129]

Google said the exploit allowed the apps to
gather device specific information, as well as per
sonal information. Within days, Google
remotely wiped the apps from infected users and rolled out an update that would negate the
exploits that allowed the apps to view information. They also announced that they would be
resolving the issue to ensure that
events like this did not occur again.
[130]

Security firms such as
AVG

and
Symantec

have released antivirus software for Android devices.

In August 2010, an SMS Trojan called Trojan
-
SMS.AndroidOS.FakePlayer.a infected a number
of mobile devices, according to security firm
Kaspersky Lab
. Disguised as a harmless media
player application, the trojan, once installed sends out SMS text messages without the users
knowledge or consent. According to Denis Maslennikov, Senior Malware Researcher at
Kaspersky Lab, the
re's not an exact number of infected devices available at present, but the
outbreak is currently regional. For now, only Russian Android users can actually lose money
after installing the Trojan, but anyone can be infected.
[131]

Android users were advised not to use
the Android web browser until Google issues a security patch. The Android Security Team
responded and developed a fix on February 5th and patched Open

Source Android two days
later.

Marketing

Logos

The Android logo was designed with the
Droid font family

made by
Ascender Corporation
.
[132]

Android Green is the color of the Android Robot that represents the Android operating system.
The print color is
PMS

376C and the
RGB color

value in hexadecimal is #A4C639, as specified
by the Android Brand Guidelines.
[133]


Android logo

Typeface

The custom typeface of Android is called Norad, only used in the text logo.
[134]

Market share

Research company
Canalys

estimated in Q2 2009 that Android had a 2.8% share of worldwide
smartphone

shipments.
[135]

By Q4 2010 this had grown to 33% of the market, becoming the top
-
selling smartphone platform. This estimate includes the Tapas and OMS variants o
f Android.
[11]

In February 2010
ComScore

said the Android platform had 9.0% of the U.S. smartp
hone market,
as measured by current mobile subscribers. This figure was up from an earlier estimate of 5.2%
in November 2009.
[136]

By the end o
f Q3 2010 Android's U.S. market share had grown to 21.4
percent.
[137]

In May 2010, Android's first quarter U.S. sales surpassed that of the rival iPhone platform
.
According to a report by the NPD group, Android achieved 25% smartphone sales in the US
market, up 8% from the December quarter. In the second quarter, Apple's iOS was up by 11%,
indicating that Android is taking market share mainly from
RIM
, and still has to compete with
heavy consumer demand for new competitor offerings.
[138]

Furthermore, analysts pointed to
advantages that Android has as a multi
-
channel, multi
-
carrier OS, which allowed it to duplicate
the quick success of Microsoft's Windows Mobile.
[139]

In early October 2010, Google added 20 countries to its list of approved submitters. By mid
-
October, purchasing apps will be available in a total of 32 countries.
[140]

For a complete list of
countries that are allowed to sell apps and those able to buy them see
Android Market
.

As of December 2010

Google said over 300,000 Android phones were being activated daily,
[141]

up from 100,000 per day in May 2010.
[142]

In February 2011, during the 2011
Mobile World Congress
,
Eric Schmidt

announced that
Android has reached 350,000 activations per day.
[143]

Usage share

Data collected during two weeks ending on March 15, 2011


Data collected during two weeks ending on March 15, 2011
[144]


Platform


API Level

Distribution

Android 3.0 (Honeycomb)

11

0.2%

Android 2.3.3 (Gingerbread)

10

1.0%

Android 2.3 (Gingerbread)

9

0.7%

Android 2.2 (Froyo)

8

61.3%

Android 2.1 (Eclair)

7

29.0%

Android 1.6 (Donut)

4

4.8%

Android 1.5 (Cupcake)

3

3.0%



Linux compatibility

Android's kernel was derived from
Linux

but has been twea
ked by Google outside the main
Linux kernel

tree.
[145]

Android does not have a native
X Window System

nor does it support the
full set of standard
GNU

libraries, and this makes it difficult to port existing GNU/Linux
applications or libraries to And
roid.
[146]

However, support for the X Window System is
possible.
[14
7]

Google no longer maintains the code they previously contributed to the
Linux
kernel

as part of their Android effort, creating a separate version or
fork

of Linux.
[148]
[149]

This
was due to a disagreement about new features Google felt were necessary (some related to
security of mobile applications).
[150]

The code which is no longer maintained was deleted in
January 2010 from the Linux
codebase
.
[15
1]

Google announced in April 2010 that they will hire two employees to work with the Linux kernel
community.
[152]

However, as of January 2011, points of content
ion still exist between Google and the Linux
kernel team: Google tried to push
upstream

some Android
-
specific power management code in
200
9, which is still rejected today.
[153]

Furthermore,
Greg Kroah
-
Hartman
, the current Linux kernel
maintainer for the
-
stable branch,
said in December 2010 that he was concerned that Google was no longer trying to get their code
changes included in mainstream Linux.
[154]

Some Google Android developers hinted that "the
Android team was getting fed up with the process," because they were a small team and had
more urgent work to do on Android.
[155]

Claimed infringement of copyrights and patents

On 12 August 2010,
Oracle
, owner of Java since it acquired
Sun Microsystems

in April 2009,
sued Google over claimed infringement of copyrights and patents. The lawsuit claims that, "In
developing Android, Google knowingly, directly and repeatedly infringed Oracle's Java
-
related
intelle
ctual property."
[156]

Specifically the patent infringement claim references seven patents including United States
Patent No. 5,966,702, entitled "M
ethod And Apparatus For Preprocessing And Packaging Class
Files," and United States Patent No. 6,910,205, entitled "Interpreting Functions Utilizing A
Hybrid Of Virtual And Native Machine Instructions."
[157]

It also references United States Patent
No. RE38,104, ("the '104 patent") entitled “Method And Apparatus For Resolving Data
References In Generated Code” authored by
James Gosling
, best known as the father of the
Java
programming language
.
[158]

In response Google submitted multiple lines of defense, saying that Android did not infringe on
Oracle's patents or copyright, that Oracle's patents were invalid, and several other defenses. They
said that Androi
d is based on
Apache Harmony
, a
clean room

implementation of the Java class
libraries, and an independently de
veloped virtual machine called
Dalvik
.
[159]
[160]
[161]

The
Free Softw
are Foundation

has called this suit a "clear attack against someone's freedom to
use, share, modify, and redistribute software."
[162]

However, the FSF als
o criticized Google,
saying that Google could have avoided the suit by building Android on top of
IcedTea
, whose
GPL license

prov
ides some protection against patents, instead of implementing it independently
under the
Apache License
. The FSF wrote "It's sad to see that Google apparently shunned those
protections in order to

make proprietary software development easier on Android." and remarked
that Google had not taken any clear position or action against software patents.

See also



Android Market



Android version history



Chromium OS



Google Chrome OS



List of Android devices



List of Android OS
-
related topics

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55.

^

"RealNetworks G
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.
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h
ttp://www.realnetworks.com/pressroom/releases/2010/RealPlayer
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for
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Mobile
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to
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56.

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57.

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58.

^

Bray, T
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.
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59.

^

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60.

^

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61.

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62.

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63.

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64.

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the First Phone Powered by Android"
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65.

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66.

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67.

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68.

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69.

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72.

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73.

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74.

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75.

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78.

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79.

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83.

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84.

^

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85.

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86.

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87.

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89.

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94.

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95.

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98.

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99.

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Voice Actions for A
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100.

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ses 1 Billion Downloads"
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07
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15.
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market
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now
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1
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101.

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07
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102.

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van Gurp, Jilles (13 November 2007).
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07. "
Frankly, I don't understand why Google intends to ignore the
vast amount of existi
ng implementation out there. It seems like a bad case of "not
invented here" to me. Ultimately, this will slow adoption. There are already too many
Java platforms for the mobile world and this is yet another one
"

103.

^

"Myriad's New J2Android Converter Fuels Android Applications Gold Rus
h"
.
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104.

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based"
. 23 March 2010.
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. "
On the other hand, you might think
this is kind of a scam aimed at developers who don't really understand the nature of the
platform they're targeting. M
y biggest complaint is that you'd think that Mikael Ricknäs,
the IDG News Service reporter who wrote the first story linked to above (who toils for the
same company that publishes JavaWorld), would have at least mentioned the relationship
between Java and
Android to make the oddness of this announcement clear.
"

105.

^

"Myriad CTO: J2Android moves MIDlets to

"beautiful" Android framework"
.
31 March 2010.
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. "
We will have to
wait and see exactly how much pickup J2Android actually sees. The tool isn't
actually
available on the open market just yet; while Schillings spoke optimistically about
"converting 1,000 MIDlets in an afternoon," at the moment they're working with a few
providers to transform their back catalogs. So those of you out there hoping to

avoid
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"

106.

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108.

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"A Chink In Android's Armor"
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in
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. Retrieved 2009
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10
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11. "
And now they're faced with a landslide of new handsets, some running v.1.6 and
some courageous souls even running android v.2.0. All those manufacturers/carriers
are
racing to release their phones by the 2009 holiday season, and want to ensure the hot
applications will work on their phones. And here's the problem



in almost every case, we
hear, there are bugs and more serious problems with the apps.[...]First of a
ll, the
compatibility between versions issue may be overblown. The reported problems have
been limited to an Android developer contest[...]We haven’t heard of any major app
developers complaining of backwards or forward compatibility problems. Also, I’ve n
ow
upgraded my phone from 1.5 to 1.6, and every application continues to work fine.
"

109.

^

"Android’s Rapid Growth Has Some Developers Worried"
.
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11
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droid
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Fagan’s concerns about the fragmentation of Android is being echoed by
other developers, says Sean Galligan, vice president of business development at Flurry,
an mobile app analytics company(...)"You may build
an app that works perfectly with all
three firmwares, but then when you run it on carriers’ ROMs it completely blows up,"
says Fagan. "So we find ourselves having to create apps that are compatible with
multiple firmwares, multiple ROMs and multiple device
s with different hardware.
"

110.

^

"Android just reproducing Java ME's problems, now"
.
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111.

^

"Android's Spread Could Become a Problem"
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02
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28.

112.

^

"Google Android's self
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destruction derby begins"
.
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02
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22.
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androids
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self
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02
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113.

^

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03.
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114.

^

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115.

^

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12
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Invoke JNI based methods
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.
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invoke
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jni
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116.

^

"java.lang.System"
.
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117.

^
a

b

Leslie, Ben (13 November 2007).
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.
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118.

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Cooksey, Tom (2007
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11
-
07).
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working on Android emulator"
.
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119.

^

"Skia source"
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120.

^

Toker,
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-
09
-
06).
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graphics
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121.

^

"Dream android development"
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developers forum
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122.

^

"Android 2.1 from Motorola Droid Ported to G1"
.
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123.

^

Wimberly, Taylor (24 September 2009).
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.
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124.

^

Morrill, Dan (25 September 2009).
"A Note on Google Apps for Android"
.
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developers.blogsp
ot.com/2009/09/note
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on
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google
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apps
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android.html
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125.

^

"The current state
..."
.
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126.

^

Tech Crunch
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127.

^

"The Mother Of All Android Malware Has Arrived"
.
Android Police
. March 6,
2011.
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m/2011/03/01/the
-
mother
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of
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all
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android
-
malware
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has
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arrived
-
stolen
-
apps
-
released
-
to
-
the
-
market
-
that
-
root
-
your
-
phone
-
steal
-
your
-
data
-
and
-
open
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backdoor/
.

128.

^

http://arstechnica.com/gadgets/news/2011/03/google
-
using
-
remote
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kill
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switch
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to
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swat
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android
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129.

^

http://news.idg.no/cw/art.cfm?id=1A027DCB
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1A64
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6A71
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130.

^

http://www.androidpo
lice.com/2011/03/06/google
-
acknowledges
-
droiddream
-
remotely
-
wiping
-
apps
-
removing
-
exploit
-
making
-
changes
-
to
-
prevent
-
it
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from
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happening
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again/

131.

^

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^

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134.

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135.

^

"Canalys: iPhone outsold all Windows Mobile phones in Q2 2009"
.
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136.

^

"comScore Reports February 2010 U.S. Mobile Subscriber Market Share"
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137.

^

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