Level Indicators at Multiple

choppedspleenMechanics

Feb 22, 2014 (3 years and 10 months ago)

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Habitat Mapping of High
Level Indicators at Multiple
Scales for Fish and Wildlife


Multi
-
Scale Approach


LEVEL 1: Map area of focus







Floodplain + adjacent upland



LEVEL 2: Map projects collecting habitat




variables



LEVEL 3: Map surrogates for habitat





variables



LEVEL 4: Focal habitats and focal species

What habitat data to
map?

LEVEL 1


Map
FLOODPLAIN plus adjacent
upland habitat in subbasins

GIS maps to include:


Stream channels


FEMA flood plain data layer (100 & 500 year)


Riparian


Wetlands


Roads


Upland habitats adjacent (
1/2

to 3 miles
) to
floodplain


Digital Elevation Model


Channel data


Soils (NRCS hydric soils data)


National Wetlands Inventory


Other pertinent data

How to map
floodplain habitat?

USE
:


Current habitat types using existing fish


and wildlife habitat mapping protocols

MAP
:

PRODUCT
:


GIS map with multiple data layers


Floodplain delineated (using above data)


Habitat types mapped within floodplain


and adjacent upland areas


Soil data layer including:


Erosion potential


Compaction


Floodplain gradient


Grazing (may have to be surrogate for soil
compaction)


Agricultural practices/tillage (may have to
be another surrogate for soil compaction)


Point
-
Source Pollution sites

Additional habitat
measures

Potential data layers to add to
LEVEL 1 map:

LEVEL 2


Map Projects that collect
specific Habitat Variables and
Enhancements in subbasins

Projects that collect or conduct
:


Water temperature


Sedimentation


Large Woody Debris (LWD)


Fence Installation/Removal


Vegetation Plantings


Invasive species Control


Instream flow


Nutrient inputs

What habitat data to
map?
Wildlife Managers should
be the leader here!

What habitat data to
map?

LEVEL 3


Map Surrogates for specific
Habitat Variables subbasins

Variables



Surrogates
:


Sedimentation



areas susceptible to
landslides, mining locations, recent logged
areas


Large Woody Debris (LWD)



recent logged
areas, and riparian areas with medium to large
trees


Nutrients



salmon carcass/spawning areas,
agricultural land use


Why were these LEVEL 2 habitat
variables chosen?


Large Woody Debris


Found often in habitat classification systems


Influences other instream elements with high occurrence in classification systems
(e.g. pools, riffles)


Included in Lower Columbia Salmon Recovery and Subbasin Plan (Dec 2004)


Included as habitat actions in NOAA report



Temperature


Although not occurring frequently in classification systems (likely this is captured in
water quality assessments), a critical habitat element for salmonids and wildlife


Influences other water quality variables, and strongly associated with riparian habitat


Included in Lower Columbia Salmon Recovery and Subbasin Plan (Dec 2004)



Sedimentation


Although not occurring frequently in classification systems (likely this is captured in
water quality assessments), a critical habitat element for salmonids and wildlife


Acts as surrogate for turbidity and embeddedness


Strongly associated with riparian and upland habitat and land
-
use practices


Included in Lower Columbia Salmon Recovery and Subbasin Plan (Dec 2004)


Included as habitat actions in NOAA report



Instream Flow


Included in Lower Columbia Salmon Recovery and Subbasin Plan (Dec
2004)


Included as habitat actions in NOAA report



Nutrient Inputs


Included in Lower Columbia Salmon Recovery and Subbasin Plan (Dec
2004)


Included as habitat actions in NOAA report


Associated with riparian and upland habitat and land
-
use practices



Habitat Enhancements


These are part of recorded projects, therefore would be fairly easy to
map (i.e. should already be recorded)



Why were these LEVEL 2 habitat
variables chosen? (con’t.)

Other habitat variables could be added,
such as obstructions to fish passage,
including:


Dams (natural and man
-
made)


Culverts


Water diversion structures


Large waterfalls


Channel gradient


Additional LEVEL 2
habitat variables

Photo courtesy of Dr. Richard Forbes

LEVEL 4


Map Focal Habitat and Species
information in subbasins


Components:




Big Game Winter Range



Focal Species Range Maps



Location of Focal Habitats



Link Population Information


e.g. Breeding Bird

Survey

What habitat
data to map?

Temperature

Sedimentation

Large Woody
Debris

Riparian Veg.

Pools, Riffles, Glides

Sediment Sorting

Dissolved
Oxygen

Turbidity

Embeddedness

Higher Level
Indicators

Influencing

Habitat
Variables of
Interest

Very Fine
-
scale
Variables

Fine to Coarse
-
scale Variables

Habitat Mapping

Habitat
Enhancements

Riparian Veg.

Riparian Veg.

Upland habitat

Grazing

Tillage/Ag.
Practices

Soil erodability

Soil compaction

Topography/
gradient

Recent logging

Veg. Planting

Recent
logging

Install / Remove
Fencing

Effluent
(point
-
source
pollution)

Veg. Planting

Invasive
Species
Control

Recent
logging

Veg. Planting

Invasive
Species
Control

Water
withdrawal

Roads

Nutrient
Input

Riparian Veg.

Upland
habitat

Grazing

Tillage/Ag.
Practices

Water Quality

Recent
logging

Veg. Planting

Install /
Remove
Fencing

Riparian Veg.

Instream
flow

In
-
stream habitat
complexity

Instream
habitat

Instream
habitat

Invasive
Species
Control

Upland influences


Include a Buffer Strip ranging form
½ mile to 3 miles adjacent to the
Floodplain to address direct and
indirect influences that may be
occurring


Upland habitat data could be used
to determine desired riparian
condition in adjacent areas


E.g. Upland area with clear
-
cut,
compacted soils, high erosion
potential, steep gradient


requires
greater (i.e. wider) riparian corridor to
offset impact

Habitat Mapping Needs

Data we have or can
get:


DEM


FEMA flood plain


Hydric soils


Channels


Grazing


Some upland
habitat types


Some coarse
-
scale
physical
obstructions


Habitat
enhancements


Data we need:


Riparian habitats


Wetland habitats


Instream
temperature


Instream
sedimentation


Instream LWD


Fine
-
scale physical
obstructions


Point
-
source
pollution


Logging

Unknowns (potential
gaps):


Soil erodability


Soil compaction


Non
-
point source
pollution

Habitat Elements occurring most frequently
in Classification Systems

The top 1/3 of all habitat elements in each category are:

Aquatic


Pools


Instream
coarse
woody
debris


Riffles


Channel
width


Runs/glides


Terrestrial


Down wood

Anthropogenic


Water diversion
structures


Culverts


Irrigation
ditches/canals


Bridges


Roads


Habitat Types occurring
most frequently in
Classification Systems


Lakes, ponds, reservoirs and rivers


Bays and estuaries


Riparian
-
wetlands


Herbaceous wetlands


Ponderosa pine & eastside oak
forests and woodlands


Lodgepole pine forests and
woodlands


Westside oak and dry Douglas
-
fir
forests and woodlands


Westside lowland conifer
-
deciduous forests

PNW Habitat Classification
Systems

http://icontoo.com/PHaCS/PHaCS.aspx