Evaluation of camera trap sampling designs used to determine change in occupancy rate and abundance of feral cats

chocolatehookSecurity

Nov 30, 2013 (3 years and 9 months ago)

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3


C
ont
e
n
ts

L
i
st

o
f

t
a
b
l
e
s a
n
d

f
i
g
u
res

................................
................................
................................
................

i
v

A
c
kn
o
wl
e
d
g
e
me
n
ts

................................
................................
................................
...........................

v

Su
mm
a
ry

................................
................................
................................
................................
...........

1

1

I
n
tro
d
u
c
t
i
on

................................
................................
................................
............................

3

2

Met
h
o
d
s

................................
................................
................................
................................
...

5

2.1

S
t
udy

s
i
t
e

................................
................................
................................
................................
..

5

2.2

P
a
i
r
ed
c
a
m
era sur
v
e
y
s, 20
0
8

................................
................................
................................
....

5

2.3

S
i
n
g
l
e ca
m
era

sur
v
e
y
s, 20
0
9

................................
................................
................................
....

6

2.4

F
er
a
l

c
a
t

c
o
n
t
ro
l
,
LGNP
-
sou
t
h

................................
................................
................................
.

8

2.5

O
ccupa
n
cy

es
ti
m
a
t
i
on

................................
................................
................................
..............

8

2.6

P
o
w
er

a
n
a
l
y
s
i
s

................................
................................
................................
.......................

10

2.7

F
er
a
l

c
a
t

a
b
unda
n
ce

................................
................................
................................
................

10

3

R
es
u
l
t
s

................................
................................
................................
................................
...

12

3.1

D
i
f
f
er
e
nce

i
n o
c
cup
a
ncy

ra
t
e


p
a
i
r
ed ca
m
er
a
s, 2008

................................
..........................

12

3.2

D
i
f
f
er
e
nce

i
n o
c
cup
a
ncy

ra
t
e


s
i
n
g
l
e
c
a
m
era, 2009

................................
............................

12

3.3

D
e
t
e
c
ti
o
n p
r
oba
b
i
l
i
t
i
es

f
o
r

occup
a
ncy

m
ode
lli
ng

................................
................................
...

14

3.3.1

P
a
i
r
ed
c
a
m
eras, 2008

................................
................................
..............................

14

3.3.2

S
i
n
g
l
e ca
m
era,

2009

................................
................................
...............................

14

3.4

P
o
w
er

a
n
a
l
y
s
i
s

................................
................................
................................
.......................

15

3.5

F
er
a
l

c
a
t

a
b
unda
n
ce
a
nd c
o
n
t
r
o
l

................................
................................
.............................

16

4

D
i
sc
u
s
s
i
on

................................
................................
................................
.............................

18

R
e
f
e
r
e
n
ces

................................
................................
................................
................................
.......

21

App
e
nd
i
x

1

................................
................................
................................
................................
......

23

i
v


L
i
s
t

o
f

tab
l
e
s

a
n
d

f
i
gur
e
s


L
i
st

o
f

t
a
b
l
e
s

T
a
b
l
e

1.
E
s
ti
m
a
t
ed
p
rob
a
b
il
it
y

of

s
i
t
e o
c
cupa
n
cy

for

s
p
ec
i
e
s d
e
t
e
c
t
ed

at

LGNP
-
so
u
t
h and
LGNP
-

nor
t
h

s
i
t
e
s and

t
he

pro
b
ab
ili
t
y

t
hat

s
i
t
e
o
ccu
p
ancy

i
s
h
i
g
her

i
n
t
h
e
t
r
e
a
t
e
d s
i
t
e.
S
E

s
ho
w
n
i
n
pare
n
t
h
e
ses

................................
................................
................................
.............................

12

T
a
b
l
e

2.

D
e
t
a
i
l
s
o
f

f
e
r
al

ca
t
s
r
e
m
o
v
ed dur
i
ng

t
he
c
on
tr
ol

op
e
r
a
ti
o
n.

................................
...............

13

T
a
b
l
e

3.
D
e
t
a
i
l
s
o
f

t
he
m
odel

o
u
t
co
m
es r
a
n
k
ed acc
o
r
d
i
ng

t
o
l
o
w
e
s
t

D
I
C

................................
........

13

T
a
b
l
e

4.
D
e
t
e
c
ti
on

pro
b
ab
il
i
t
i
es

i
n 2
0
09 by

co
m
b
i
na
t
i
o
ns of

ca
m
era
and

ba
i
t
-
ho
l
d
e
r

t
y
pe
f
rom
m
odel

ps
i
(
.)
p
(ca
m
era+
b
a
i
t

ho
l
d
e
r)

................................
................................
.........................

15

T
a
b
l
e

5.
E
s
ti
m
a
t
es

of

a
bu
n
dance

for

ea
c
h a
r
ea

from

t
h
e be
s
t

m
ode
l
,
a
l
ong

w
it
h

s
t
a
ndard

de
v
i
a
t
i
on
.
17
T
a
b
l
e
A
1.

Mo
d
el

sc
o
res

for

each
m
odel

o
f

f
er
a
l

c
at

ab
u
ndance

i
n
L
o
w
er

G
l
en
e
l
g

N
a
t
i
on
a
l

P
ark



sou
t
h.

................................
................................
................................
................................
......

23

T
a
b
l
e
A
2.

Mo
d
el

sc
o
res

for

each
m
odel

o
f

f
er
a
l

c
at

ab
u
ndance

i
n
L
o
w
er

G
l
en
e
l
g

N
a
t
i
on
a
l

P
ark



nor
t
h

................................
................................
................................
................................
.......

23





L
i
st

o
f
f
i
g
u
r
e
s

F
i
g
ure 1.
L
o
ca
t
i
on
o
f

t
he
L
o
w
er

G
l
e
ne
l
g

N
a
t
i
o
n
al

P
a
r
k
-
sou
t
h and n
o
r
t
h

s
i
t
es

us
e
d
i
n

t
h
i
s
s
t
udy

......

5

F
i
g
ure 2.
L
o
ca
t
i
on
o
f

72

p
a
i
red

ca
m
eras

at

LGNP
-
sou
t
h (
n
=

42)

and
LGNP
-
nor
t
h

(
n
=
3
0)

............

6

F
i
g
ure 3.
L
o
ca
t
i
on
o
f

49

s
i
n
g
l
e ca
m
eras
s
et

u
p
a
t

LGN
P
-
sou
t
h b
e
fo
r
e a
n
d a
f
t
e
r

f
e
r
al

c
at

c
on
t
rol

.....

7

F
i
g
ure 4.
B
a
i
t

ho
l
d
ers

us
e
d

i
n
t
h
i
s

s
t
u
d
y
:

(
a
)

s
m
a
l
l

w
i
re

ca
g
e, (b)

P
V
C

t
ube

................................
.....

7

F
i
g
ure 5.
L
o
ca
t
i
on
o
f

V
i
c
t
o
r

1.5
s
o
f
t

j
aw

t
r
aps

set

i
n
L
GN
P
-
sou
t
h
i
n
O
c
t
o
b
er

2
00
9.

........................

8

F
i
g
ure 6.
O
c
c
upa
n
cy

ra
t
e

f
or

f
e
r
a
l

c
a
t
s

be
f
ore

and
a
f
t
e
r

co
n
t
r
o
l
,
a
nd
t
h
e
t
re
a
t
m
ent

ef
f
ect

of

con
t
r
o
l
on

occ
u
pancy

f
r
om

m
odel
ψ
(pd)
p
(
c
a
m
era).
B
a
rs

a
re
9
5%
c
re
d
i
b
l
e
i
n
t
e
r
v
a
l
s

........................

13

F
i
g
ure 7.
C
u
m
u
l
a
t
i
v
e
m
ean de
t
e
c
t
i
on
p
rob
a
b
i
l
i
t
i
es
f
or

f
er
a
l

c
a
t
s

i
n 2
0
08 u
s
i
ng

R
e
c
on
y
x (so
l
i
d

li
n
e)
and

T
r
a
i
l
M
a
c (
d
ash
e
d
l
i
n
e
)

ca
m
eras

................................
................................
.......................

14

F
i
g
ure 8.
C
u
m
u
l
a
t
i
v
e
m
ean de
t
e
c
t
i
on
p
rob
a
b
i
l
i
t
i
es
f
or

f
er
a
l

c
a
t
s

at

LGNP
-
sou
t
h
i
n

2009 u
s
i
ng
R
econ
y
x (s
o
li
d

l
i
ne)

and
Sc
out

G
u
a
rd
(
das
h
ed
l
i
n
e
)

ca
m
eras

................................
................

14

F
i
g
ure 9.
R
e
su
l
t
s
o
f

t
he p
o
w
er

an
a
l
y
s
i
s

f
o
r

d
e
t
e
c
ti
ng

c
han
g
e
i
n o
c
cup
a
ncy

ra
t
e f
o
r

fe
r
al

cat

co
n
t
r
o
l
.
15
F
i
g
ure 10.
R
e
l
a
ti
o
ns
h
i
p b
e
t
w
een
t
h
e c
o
ef
f
i
c
i
e
n
t

o
f

v
ar
i
a
t
i
on (
C
V
)

and
c
u
m
u
l
a
ti
v
e

de
t
e
c
t
i
on

proba
b
i
li
t
y

for

d
i
f
fe
r
ent

l
e
v
e
l
s
o
f

o
c
cup
a
ncy

ra
t
e,
f
or

2
2 s
i
t
es

(
l
e
f
t
)

and 49

s
i
t
es

(
ri
g
h
t
)

.......

16

F
i
g
ure 11.
E
s
t
i
m
a
t
ed pr
o
b
a
b
i
l
it
y

of

abun
d
ance

of

fe
r
al

ca
t
s

and
LGNP
-
sou
t
h and

L
GN
P
-
nor
t
h.

....

17

5


A
c
k
n
o
wl
e
dg
e
m
e
nts


O
ur

t
h
an
k
s
t
o

Jus
t
i
n
C
ook

(
DSE
),

J
u
l
i
e
Q
u
i
nn

(
DE
W
H
A
)

and
G
uy

B
a
l
l
ard

(
DP
I
,

NS
W)

f
o
r

t
h
e
i
r
suppo
r
t

a
nd a
s
s
i
s
t
a
nce

i
n

t
h
i
s
p
r
o
j
ec
t
.

We

pa
r
t
i
cu
l
a
r
l
y

t
hank

D
on
P
ra
t
t

(
DS
E
)

a
n
d
t
he
f
i
e
l
d s
t
a
f
f

of
G
l
en
e
l
g

A
rk

for

t
h
e use

of

t
he
i
r

re
m
o
t
e
c
a
m
eras a
n
d a
s
s
i
s
t
an
c
e
i
n
t
h
e
f
i
e
l
d.
M
i
c
ae
l
a M
a
i
n a
n
d
M
i
c
h
a
e
l

J
o
h
ns
t
on
a
l
so

as
s
i
s
t
ed

i
n
t
he
f
i
e
l
d.

T
h
e
D
ep
a
r
t
m
ent

of

E
n
v
i
ron
m
en
t
,
W
a
t
e
r,
H
e
r
i
t
a
g
e and
t
he
A
r
t
s

(
DE
W
HA
)

fund
e
d

t
h
i
s pr
o
j
e
ct

(co
n
t
r
act

no. 4
8
592).

T
h
e pr
o
j
e
ct

w
a
s
a
l
so

par
t
l
y

fun
d
ed by
t
he
G
l
en
e
l
g

A
rk

pr
o
j
e
c
t

(
DSE
), and

t
he
D
ep
a
r
t
m
ent

of

P
r
i
m
ary
I
ndus
t
r
i
es,
A
r
m
i
da
l
e
N
S
W
pro
v
i
ded
v
eh
i
c
l
es a
n
d
i
n
v
a
l
uab
l
e

a
s
s
i
s
t
a
n
ce d
u
r
i
ng

t
he

pr
o
j
ec
t
. W
o
rk

w
as cond
u
c
t
ed und
e
r

DS
E
AE
C

per
m
i
t

05
/
09.



E
v
a
lu
at
io
n

o
f

c
a
m
e
r
a

t
r
a
p s
a
mpli
n
g

d
e
s
ign
s
t
o
d
eter
min
e

c
h
a
ng
e
s
i
n

f
e
r
a
l c
a
t

popul
at
ion
s

A
r
t
hu
r

R
yl
a
h

I
n
s
t
i
t
u
te

fo
r

E
nviro
n
m
e
n
ta
l

R
e
s
ea
r
ch

Te
c
hni
c
a
l

R
e
por
t

No

2
0
1

1





S
u
m
mary


A
lt
hou
g
h
m
any

a
g
enc
i
es a
n
d or
g
an
i
s
a
t
i
ons

co
m
m
i
t

r
e
s
ourc
e
s
t
o
m
ana
g
i
ng

feral

c
a
t
s,

t
he
r
e
r
e
m
a
i
ns
a h
i
g
h de
g
ree
o
f

u
n
ce
r
t
a
i
n
t
y

about

our

a
b
i
l
it
y

t
o
a
cc
u
r
a
t
e
l
y

and p
r
ec
i
s
e
l
y

es
t
i
m
a
t
e
t
he

re
l
a
t
i
v
e or
abso
l
u
t
e

abu
n
dan
c
e of

f
e
r
a
l

ca
t
s, or

t
he

k
il
l

r
a
t
es

ob
t
a
i
n
ed
i
n

con
t
r
o
l

op
e
r
a
ti
o
ns.


I
n 2007
t
he
C
o
m
m
on
w
ea
l
t
h
D
epa
r
t
m
ent

of

E
n
v
i
ron
m
en
t
,

Wa
t
er,
H
e
r
it
a
g
e a
n
d
t
h
e
A
r
t
s (
DE
W
HA
)
co
m
m
i
ss
i
oned

t
he

A
r
t
h
ur

R
y
l
ah
I
ns
tit
u
t
e
f
or

E
n
v
i
r
on
m
en
t
a
l

R
e
s
e
a
rch

(
AR
I
ER
)

t
o unde
r
t
a
k
e
res
e
a
r
ch
t
o

e
v
a
l
u
a
t
e
d
e
t
ec
ti
on
m
e
t
hods and

sa
m
p
li
ng

d
es
i
g
ns u
s
ed
t
o d
e
t
e
r
m
i
ne
t
h
e abun
d
ance

of
fe
r
al

c
a
t
s (
F
e
l
i
s c
a
t
u
s
)

t
h
a
t

ha
v
e es
t
ab
l
i
s
h
ed
w
i
l
d po
p
u
l
a
t
i
ons

i
n
A
u
s
t
r
a
l
i
a.
S
t
a
g
e
o
ne of

t
he

pr
o
j
e
c
t
,
unde
r
t
a
k
en
a
t

A
n
g
l
es
e
a
i
n

V
i
c
t
o
r
i
a
i
n

S
e
p
t
e
m
ber

200
7
,
i
n
v
es
t
i
g
a
t
ed

t
he

de
t
e
c
ti
on

proba
b
i
li
t
y

of
ca
g
e
t
r
a
ps,

l
e
g
ho
l
d

t
r
aps,

a

DN
A

sa
m
p
li
ng

de
v
i
ce, he
a
t
-
i
n
-
m
o
ti
on
a
c
t
i
v
a
t
ed
d
i
g
it
a
l

ca
m
eras a
n
d
sand
p
l
o
t
s (
R
o
b
l
ey

et

a
l
.

2
0
08).

T
h
i
s

req
u
i
r
e
d
t
h
e c
a
p
t
u
re of

f
e
r
a
l

c
a
t
s,

f
i
t
t
i
ng

GP
S

da
t
a
-
l
o
gg
i
ng
co
l
l
a
r
s,
m
app
i
ng

t
h
e
i
r

a
r
e
as

of

a
c
ti
v
i
t
y

and
m
on
it
o
r
i
ng

t
h
e
i
r

e
ncou
n
t
e
r

w
i
t
h
t
he
v
a
r
i
ous
d
e
v
i
ces.
D
i
g
it
al

ca
m
eras
p
ro
v
i
ded

t
h
e
m
ost

robu
s
t

d
e
t
e
c
t
i
on
d
a
t
a for

f
e
r
a
l

c
a
t
s.

Mo
d
e
l
li
ng

o
f

co
n
t
r
o
l
ef
f
i
c
a
cy

de
t
e
r
m
i
ned
t
h
at

t
h
e pro
b
ab
i
l
i
t
y

of

c
o
r
r
ec
t
l
y

c
o
nc
l
u
d
i
ng

t
h
a
t

a

cat

pop
u
l
a
t
i
on had
d
ec
r
ea
s
ed
w
as h
i
g
he
s
t

f
o
r

t
he
h
i
g
hest

l
e
v
el

o
f

m
on
it
o
r
i
ng

(49
ca
m
eras for

20 n
i
g
h
t
s, s
e
t

a
t

o
ne ca
m
era
p
er

2

k
m
2
).


A
n

a
t
t
e
m
pt

w
as
m
ade
t
o
va
li
d
a
t
e

t
he

use

of

h
ea
t
-
i
n
-
m
o
ti
on

d
i
g
i
t
al

ca
m
eras

i
n
t
he

G
ra
m
p
i
ans
N
a
ti
o
n
al

P
ark

i
n

ce
n
t
r
a
l

w
e
s
t
e
rn

V
i
c
t
o
r
i
a
i
n
F
eb
r
uary

2
008, b
u
t

no
f
e
r
al

c
a
t
s
w
e
r
e

cap
t
u
re
d
. A
second

a
t
t
e
m
pt

w
as
m
ade
t
o
v
a
li
d
a
t
e

t
he

app
r
oach

at

A
n
g
l
esea

i
n
M
ar
c
h
2008,

b
ut

o
n
l
y

one f
e
r
a
l
cat

w
a
s c
a
p
t
u
red.
F
u
r
t
her

d
e
v
e
l
op
m
ent

of

t
he
p
r
o
t
oc
o
l

w
as a
t
t
e
m
p
t
ed
a
s p
a
rt

of

a

r
ese
a
rch
p
r
o
j
e
c
t
i
n
v
es
t
i
g
a
ti
ng

t
he

i
n
t
e
ra
c
ti
on
s be
t
w
een
w
i
l
d do
g
s

(
C
an
i
s

f
a
m
i
li
a
r
i
s
),
R
ed

F
ox
e
s (
V
u
l
pes

vu
l
pe
s
),
fe
r
al

c
a
t
s and
S
po
t
-
t
a
i
l
ed
Q
uo
l
l
s (
D
a
syu
r
us
m
ac
u
l
a
t
u
s
)

i
n

T
u
gg
o
l
o
S
t
a
t
e
F
o
re
s
t
,
N
ew

S
ou
t
h

W
a
l
es
(
R
ob
l
ey

200
9
a).
B
u
t

a
lt
h
o
ug
h s
i
x f
e
r
a
l

c
a
t
s
w
e
re

ca
p
t
u
red,
c
o
l
l
a
r
ed a
n
d r
e
l
e
ase
d
,

none
w
e
r
e
de
t
e
c
t
e
d on

t
he
d
i
g
it
a
l

c
a
m
eras.


I
n
J
u
l
y

2008
i
n

so
u
t
h
-
w
es
t
e
rn

Vi
c
t
o
r
i
a
w
e a
s
se
s
sed

t
w
o

d
i
f
f
e
re
n
t

sp
a
t
i
al

con
f
i
g
ur
a
t
i
ons
o
f

c
a
m
eras
as p
a
rt

o
f

t
he

fu
r
t
h
e
r

de
v
e
l
o
p
m
ent

of

t
h
e ca
m
era
m
on
i
t
or
i
ng

pr
o
t
o
c
o
l
.
I
n
t
he

f
i
rst

c
onf
i
g
ur
a
t
i
on,
ca
m
eras
w
e
r
e s
e
t

i
n p
a
i
r
s
a
t

se
l
ec
t
ed
s
i
t
es.
I
n
t
he
s
eco
n
d con
f
i
g
ur
a
ti
on,

one

ca
m
era
w
as
s
et

b
u
t

a
t
m
ore s
it
e
s.
U
s
i
ng

t
he

f
i
rst

c
onf
i
g
ur
a
t
i
on,
w
e
c
o
m
pared

s
i
t
e o
c
cupa
n
cy

ra
t
es
o
f

f
e
r
a
l

c
a
t
s
w
h
e
re

t
he
nu
m
ber of

f
o
xes
h
ad b
e
en
r
educed

(u
s
i
ng

F
ox
O
ff
®

b
a
it
i
ng

o
v
er

t
he
p
re
v
i
o
u
s
f
i
v
e year
s
)

t
o a

p
a
i
red
s
i
t
e
w
h
e
re no

fox

con
t
r
o
l

h
ad
t
a
k
en
p
l
a
c
e (
R
o
b
l
ey

et

a
l
. 2009b
)
. We

ap
p
li
e
d
t
h
e s
e
cond
con
f
i
g
ura
t
i
on

t
o
a
ss
e
ss
d
i
ff
ere
n
ces

i
n
o
ccup
a
ncy

of

f
e
r
al

c
a
t
s

be
f
ore

and
a
f
t
er

a c
o
n
t
r
o
l

o
p
er
a
t
i
on
on
t
he

s
i
t
e
w
it
h

t
he

h
i
g
he
s
t

l
e
v
el

o
f

f
e
r
a
l

c
a
t

o
ccup
a
nc
y
.


We u
s
ed a
B
a
y
e
s
i
an
m
ode
ll
i
ng

appr
o
ach
a
nd a
m
ar
k

r
e
cap
t
u
re
m
odel

t
o
a
ss
e
ss
w
h
e
t
h
e
r

t
he
r
e
w
as
a d
i
ff
e
re
n
ce

i
n
l
e
v
e
l
s
o
f

s
it
e

occu
p
ancy

and a
b
unda
n
ce

of

f
e
r
a
l

c
a
t
s

be
t
w
een
si
t
es

w
here

fox
e
s had
been

redu
c
ed co
m
par
e
d
t
o

a s
i
t
e
w
h
e
re

t
hey

had
n
o
t
.

We u
s
ed o
n
l
y

t
he
B
a
y
e
s
i
an

m
ode
lli
ng
appr
o
ach

t
o
a
ss
e
ss
d
i
f
fe
r
e
n
ces
b
ef
o
re a
n
d
a
f
t
e
r

c
o
n
t
rol

as
i
n
su
f
f
i
c
i
ent

f
e
ral

c
a
t
s
w
ere
d
e
t
e
c
t
ed
t
o
unde
r
t
a
k
e a
m
ark
-
recap
t
u
re

es
t
i
m
a
t
e d
u
r
i
ng

t
h
i
s p
h
ase.


B
o
t
h

ca
m
era

con
f
i
g
ur
a
ti
o
n
s

pro
v
i
ded

rob
u
st

e
s
t
i
m
a
t
es

of

o
c
cupa
n
cy

(
ψ
)

f
or

fe
r
al

c
a
t
s.

We

w
e
re
ab
l
e

t
o

a
ss
e
ss

a

d
i
f
f
ere
n
ce

i
n

occu
p
ancy

r
a
t
e

b
e
t
w
e
en
s
it
e
s

w
i
t
h

a

h
i
s
t
ory

of

fox

c
o
n
t
r
o
l (
ψ

=

0.
6
9

±

0.10

SE
)

and

w
i
t
ho
u
t

(
ψ

=

0.50

±

0.13

S
E
),

b
u
t

n
o
t

b
e
f
ore

(
ψ

=

0.
5
3

±

0.129

S
E
)

a
nd

a
f
t
e
r

(
ψ

=

0.45 ±

0.137
S
E
)

a

l
e
t
h
a
l

c
a
t

co
n
t
r
o
l

o
p
er
a
t
i
on
(
bec
a
use

on
l
y

four

c
a
t
s
w
e
re

k
i
l
l
e
d
).

We
e
s
t
i
m
a
t
ed
t
h
a
t
, f
o
r

t
he
g
i
v
en sa
m
p
li
ng

eff
o
r
t

(1

ca
m
era
a
t

49
si
t
es

for

2
8 da
y
s),
w
e
w
o
u
l
d

h
av
e on
l
y

been a
b
l
e
t
o
m
easure

a
s
i
g
n
i
f
i
ca
n
t

c
ha
n
g
e had
t
h
e
re
b
een

a
r
edu
c
t
i
on
i
n oc
c
upa
n
cy

of

4
4
%



m
uch
m
ore
t
han
w
a
s a
c
h
i
e
v
ed by

t
h
e
c
on
t
r
o
l

o
p
e
r
a
t
i
on
(
15
%
).


T
he

s
i
t
e
-
l
e
v
el

d
a
il
y

de
t
e
c
ti
o
n pro
b
ab
i
l
i
t
i
es

for

t
he
p
a
i
r
e
d con
f
i
g
ur
a
ti
on

(
p
=

0.07
7
)

and
t
h
e
s
i
n
g
l
e
con
f
i
g
ura
t
i
on

(
p
=
0
.06
0
)

w
ere
s
i
m
il
a
r, b
u
t

a
c
o
m
par
i
s
o
n be
t
w
e
en
t
w
o

d
i
ff
e
re
n
t

b
r
a
nds of

ca
m
era

E
v
a
lu
at
io
n

o
f

c
a
m
e
r
a

t
r
a
p

s
a
mpli
n
g

d
e
s
ign
s

u
s
e
d

t
o

d
ete
rmin
e

c
h
a
ng
e

i
n

o
cc
up
a
n
cy

r
at
e

a
n
d

a
bund
a
n
ce

o
f

f
e
r
a
l

c
at
s

2

A
r
t
hu
r

R
yl
a
h

I
n
s
t
i
t
u
te

fo
r

E
nviro
n
m
e
n
ta
l

R
e
s
ea
r
ch

Te
c
hni
c
a
l

R
e
por
t

N
o
.

2
0
1





and o
t
her

ca
m
eras

sho
w
ed

t
hat

d
e
t
e
c
t
i
on
p
rob
a
b
i
l
i
t
i
es
v
ar
i
ed
m
ar
k
ed
l
y
.
T
h
e
re
w
a
s

a
l
so

a
re
l
a
t
i
ons
h
i
p
b
e
t
w
e
en
c
a
m
era and
b
a
i
t
-
ho
l
der

t
y
pe:

w
i
re

ca
g
e ba
i
t
-
ho
l
ders
w
it
h

R
e
c
on
y
x ca
m
eras
had a
h
i
g
h de
t
ec
t
i
on

r
a
t
e.
F
or

a
d
a
i
l
y

de
t
e
c
t
i
on
p
roba
b
i
l
i
t
y

of

0.05,

t
he

po
s
t

co
n
t
r
o
l

occu
p
ancy

r
a
t
e
w
ou
l
d n
o
t

ha
v
e
t
o ex
c
eed
0
.3
t
o
d
e
t
e
ct

a c
h
an
g
e
w
it
h
8
0%

po
w
e
r.


U
nce
r
t
a
i
n
t
y

abo
u
t

t
h
e e
st
i
m
a
t
ed

r
a
t
e
o
f

o
c
cupa
n
cy

i
s
r
e
l
a
t
ed
t
o d
e
t
e
c
t
i
on p
r
oba
b
i
l
i
t
y
,
t
he
l
e
v
el

of
occup
a
ncy

i
t
se
l
f, a
n
d
t
h
e
n
u
m
ber

of

s
i
t
e
s sa
m
p
l
ed.

We

used

t
he

coe
f
f
i
c
i
ent

of

v
a
ri
a
t
i
on
t
o

a
s
sess
t
he
d
i
f
f
e
ren
c
e
i
n

pr
e
c
i
s
i
on

of

o
c
cupa
n
cy

ra
t
e
s.
W
h
i
l
e

t
he o
v
er
a
l
l

d
e
t
e
c
t
i
on
p
rob
ab
i
l
it
y

at

2
2
s
it
e
s
w
it
h

t
w
o ca
m
eras

s
e
t

f
o
r

21

da
y
s
w
as h
i
g
her

(8
1
%
)
,
t
ha
n at

t
he
4
9
s
it
e
s
w
i
t
h a

s
i
n
g
l
e ca
m
era
s
et
for

2
8 da
y
s (7
3
%
),
t
h
e o
c
c
u
pancy

es
t
i
m
a
t
e
w
as
m
ore
p
r
ec
i
s
e
w
i
t
h a
g
r
e
a
t
e
r

nu
m
ber

of

s
it
e
s.


B
y

c
o
m
par
i
ng

t
he

t
w
o ca
m
era
c
on
f
i
g
ura
t
i
o
n
s and

us
i
n
g

d
i
ff
e
re
n
t

ca
m
era

and b
a
i
t

ho
l
d
e
r

t
y
pes,

w
e
ha
v
e sho
w
n
t
h
at

t
he

ca
m
era

pro
t
oc
o
l

i
s
f
l
e
x
i
b
l
e and



i
m
por
t
a
n
tl
y



t
h
at

ca
r
e n
e
eds
t
o be

t
a
k
en
i
n
t
h
e ap
p
l
i
c
a
ti
o
n of

t
h
i
s

t
o
ol

i
n

t
h
e
f
i
e
l
d.
C
a
m
era p
e
r
f
or
m
ance
i
s

a
c
r
i
t
i
cal

f
a
c
t
o
r,

as
w
e
l
l

a
s
t
h
e
ph
y
s
i
cal

s
e
t
-
up of

t
he

ca
m
era
i
n
t
h
e
f
i
e
l
d.

T
he
m
on
i
t
o
ri
ng

pro
t
oc
o
l

i
s a
b
l
e

t
o
d
e
t
e
ct

chan
g
es
i
n
t
h
e
abunda
n
ce
o
f

f
er
a
l

c
a
t
s r
e
s
u
l
t
i
ng

from

con
t
rol

p
oe
r
a
t
i
o
n
s, ho
w
e
v
er

t
he
a
b
i
l
i
t
y

t
o
k
i
l
l

c
a
t
s

i
s

li
m
it
ed
by

t
he cu
r
re
n
tl
y

a
v
a
i
l
a
b
l
e
t
oo
l
s,

such

as
c
a
g
e
t
r
app
i
n
g
,
w
h
i
ch

i
s

l
abo
u
r

i
n
t
e
ns
i
v
e
a
nd
ti
m
e
consu
m
i
n
g
.


We ha
v
e de
m
ons
t
r
a
t
ed

t
h
a
t

t
he
c
o
m
b
i
na
t
i
on
o
f

he
a
t
-
i
n
-
m
o
ti
on ac
t
i
v
a
t
ed

d
i
g
i
t
al

c
a
m
eras and
s
t
a
t
i
s
t
i
c
a
l

t
ech
n
i
qu
e
s
t
hat

h
a
v
e been de
v
e
l
oped

for

t
he

unb
i
a
sed

es
t
i
m
a
ti
on

of

ra
t
e
s of

o
ccu
p
ancy
under

con
d
i
t
i
ons

of

i
m
perf
e
ct

d
e
t
e
c
t
i
on
(
M
a
c
K
en
z
i
e
e
t

a
l
. 20
0
2,

T
y
re
e
t

a
l
. 200
3
)

c
an

ro
b
us
t
l
y
de
t
e
r
m
i
ne d
i
f
f
ere
n
ces

i
n

f
e
r
al

c
at

p
o
pu
l
a
t
i
ons

i
n

t
e
m
pe
r
a
t
e

euc
a
l
y
pt

w
oo
d
l
an
d
s and

for
e
s
t
s.
W
e
ha
v
e a
l
so

de
m
ons
t
r
a
t
e
d
t
h
at

d
i
g
it
a
l

c
a
m
eras c
a
n be
u
s
e
d
t
o

i
de
n
t
i
fy

i
nd
i
v
i
d
u
al

ca
ts
, so
t
h
at

f
e
ral

c
a
t
abunda
n
ce
c
an be

d
e
t
er
m
i
n
ed.

T
he
s
e
m
e
t
hods

can
b
e
u
sed
t
o a
s
se
s
s ch
a
n
g
es
i
n

f
e
r
al

c
at
popu
l
a
t
i
ons o
v
er

t
i
m
e, and
t
o a
s
se
s
s
t
h
e s
u
cc
e
ss
o
f

f
er
a
l

c
a
t

co
n
t
r
ol

o
pe
r
a
t
i
ons.

A
r
t
hu
r

R
yl
a
h

I
n
s
t
i
t
u
te

fo
r

E
nviro
n
m
e
n
ta
l

R
e
s
ea
r
ch

Te
c
hni
c
a
l

R
e
por
t

No

2
0
1

3

E
v
a
lu
at
io
n

o
f

c
a
m
e
r
a

t
r
a
p

s
a
mpli
n
g

d
e
s
ign
s

u
s
e
d

t
o

d
ete
rmin
e

c
h
a
ng
e

i
n

o
cc
up
a
n
cy

r
at
e

a
n
d

a
bund
a
n
ce

o
f

f
e
r
a
l

c
at
s





1

In
t
r
o
d
u
c
t
i
o
n


F
er
a
l

c
a
t
s

(
F
e
li
x

c
a
t
us
)

pr
o
bab
l
y

be
c
a
m
e es
t
a
b
l
i
shed

i
n
A
us
t
ra
l
i
a

soon
a
f
t
er

t
he

a
r
r
i
v
al

o
f
E
urop
e
ans,

and
w
i
l
d p
o
pu
l
a
ti
o
n
s now

o
c
cupy

m
ost

pa
rt
s of

t
he
m
a
i
n
l
and,

T
as
m
an
i
a and
s
o
m
e
off
s
ho
r
e
i
s
l
a
n
ds

(
A
bbo
t
t

2
0
02).
C
a
t
s
k
i
l
l

a
w
i
de

ran
g
e

of

n
a
ti
v
e
w
i
l
d
l
i
f
e
(
re
v
i
e
w
ed

i
n
R
o
b
l
ey

et

a
l
.
2004),

and
f
or

t
h
i
s
r
eas
o
n
a
re
t
hou
g
ht

t
o r
e
duce

t
he

d
is
t
r
i
bu
t
i
on

and
a
bunda
n
ce
o
f

m
a
n
y

na
ti
v
e
spe
c
i
es,

es
p
ec
i
a
l
l
y

on
i
s
l
a
n
ds.
P
r
e
da
t
i
on

by

fer
a
l

c
a
t
s

i
s
l
i
s
t
ed
a
s a
k
no
w
n or

p
er
ce
i
v
ed
t
h
r
e
a
t
e
n
i
ng
proc
e
ss

for

58 n
a
ti
v
e s
p
ec
i
e
s und
e
r

t
h
e
A
u
s
t
r
a
l
i
an
G
o
v
ern
m
en
t
’s

E
n
v
i
ron
m
e
n
t

P
r
o
t
e
c
ti
o
n and
B
i
od
i
ve
r
s
i
t
y
C
o
n
se
r
va
t
i
on

A
ct

19
9
9
.


A
lt
hou
g
h
m
any

a
g
enc
i
es a
n
d or
g
an
i
s
a
t
i
ons

co
m
m
i
t

r
e
s
ourc
e
s
t
o
m
ana
g
i
ng

feral

c
a
t
s (
R
edd
i
ex
e
t
a
l
. 20
0
4),

t
h
e
re

re
m
a
i
ns a

h
i
g
h de
g
ree of

unc
e
r
t
a
i
n
l
y

a
bout

t
he
a
b
i
l
i
t
y

t
o a
c
cu
r
a
t
e
l
y

and pre
c
i
s
e
l
y
es
t
i
m
a
t
e
t
h
e r
e
l
a
ti
v
e
o
r

ab
s
o
l
u
t
e ab
u
nda
n
ce
o
f

f
e
r
a
l

c
a
t
s, or

t
he
k
i
l
l

ra
t
es o
b
t
a
i
ned

i
n con
t
r
o
l
oper
a
t
i
ons.

T
h
i
s

li
m
i
t
s
t
h
e
a
b
i
l
it
y

of

p
o
l
i
c
y
-
m
a
k
ers and

m
ana
g
ers
t
o

j
ud
g
e

t
he
e
f
f
e
c
ti
v
ene
s
s of
con
t
rol

op
e
ra
t
i
o
n
s or

j
u
s
t
i
fy

t
he

i
n
v
es
t
m
ent

o
f

r
e
so
u
rc
e
s
i
n

fu
r
t
h
e
r

op
e
r
a
ti
o
ns.


D
e
t
er
m
i
n
i
ng

t
h
e s
u
cc
e
ss
o
f

fe
r
al

c
at

co
n
t
r
o
l

op
e
r
a
ti
o
ns

i
s
p
rob
l
e
m
a
ti
c.
C
o
mm
on
l
y used
m
on
it
o
r
i
ng
t
ech
n
i
q
u
es

(e.
g
., sp
o
t
l
i
g
h
ti
ng
, scat

c
o
un
t
s and

sand
-
p
l
ot

m
on
it
or
i
n
g
)

for

i
n
d
ex
i
ng

c
han
g
es
i
n
popu
l
a
t
i
ons
o
f

o
t
h
e
r

c
a
r
n
i
v
ores

such

as
R
ed

F
oxes

(
V
u
l
pes

vu
l
pe
s
)

or

D
i
n
g
os (
C
a
n
i
s

l
upus

d
i
n
go
)
are
e
i
t
her

i
n
acc
u
r
a
t
e
o
r

l
i
m
it
ed

(
i
n

t
h
e
i
r

ap
p
li
c
a
t
i
on

t
o
f
er
a
l

c
a
t
s
)

t
o

i
s
l
a
n
ds
o
r

sa
nd
y

en
v
i
ron
m
en
t
s
(Ma
h
on
e
t

a
l
. 199
8
,
E
d
w
a
r
ds et

a
l
.

2000,
S
aund
e
rs

a
n
d Mc
L
e
od 200
7
).
F
e
r
a
l

c
a
t
s

t
end
n
ot

t
o

l
ook
t
o
w
ar
d
s sp
o
t
li
g
h
t
s

and do

n
ot

p
r
e
f
ere
n
t
i
a
l
l
y

use
r
oads

o
r

t
rac
k
s
(
Mah
o
n et

a
l
.

1998,

E
d
w
ards

et

a
l
.
2000).

T
h
e p
r
opo
rt
i
on
o
f

t
o
x
i
c
b
a
i
t
s

t
a
k
en
i
s

a
l
so co
mm
on
l
y

used
t
o r
e
po
r
t

t
h
e s
u
cce
s
s of

fox

and
w
il
d dog

co
n
t
r
o
l

o
p
e
r
a
t
i
on
s
.
T
h
e c
u
es u
s
ed by

c
a
t
s
t
o
l
oca
t
e f
o
od
a
re
v
i
su
a
l

a
nd
a
ud
i
t
ory

r
a
t
h
e
r
t
han
o
l
f
a
c
t
or
y
, so b
u
r
i
ed b
a
it
s

a
r
e s
e
l
dom

t
a
k
en by

a f
e
ral

c
a
t
,
w
h
i
ch
s
i
g
n
i
f
i
ca
n
tl
y

li
m
it
s

t
he
u
se
o
f
ba
i
t

t
a
k
e

i
n
m
on
it
o
r
i
ng

f
e
r
a
l

c
a
t
s

i
n
e
as
t
ern
A
u
s
t
r
a
li
a
w
here

t
h
e
se
b
a
i
t
s
m
ust

be

bu
r
i
ed

(
S
ee
b
eck
and
C
l
u
n
i
e

1997,
DE
W
H
A

2008).


I
n 2007
t
he
C
o
m
m
on
w
ea
l
t
h
D
epa
r
t
m
ent

of

E
n
v
i
ron
m
en
t
,

Wa
t
er,
H
e
r
it
a
g
e a
n
d
t
h
e
A
r
t
s (
DE
W
HA
)
co
m
m
i
ss
i
oned

t
he

A
r
t
h
ur

R
y
l
ah
I
ns
tit
u
t
e
f
or

E
n
v
i
r
on
m
en
t
a
l

R
e
s
e
a
rch

(
AR
I
ER
)

t
o unde
r
t
a
k
e
res
e
a
r
ch
t
o

e
v
a
l
u
a
t
e
d
e
t
ec
ti
on
m
e
t
hods and

sa
m
p
li
ng

d
es
i
g
ns u
s
ed
t
o d
e
t
e
r
m
i
ne
t
h
e abun
d
ance

of
fe
r
al

c
a
t
s
t
h
at

ha
v
e e
s
t
a
b
li
s
hed
w
i
l
d
pop
u
l
a
t
i
ons

i
n
A
u
s
t
r
a
l
i
a.
S
t
a
g
e one
o
f

t
he
p
r
o
j
e
c
t

w
as
unde
r
t
a
k
en
a
t

A
n
g
l
es
e
a,

V
i
c
t
o
r
i
a,

i
n
S
ep
t
e
m
ber

2007
a
nd
i
n
v
es
t
i
g
a
t
ed

t
h
e d
e
t
e
c
ti
o
n pro
b
ab
i
l
i
t
y

of
ca
g
e
t
r
a
ps,

l
e
g
ho
l
d

t
r
aps,

a

DN
A

sa
m
p
li
ng

de
v
i
ce, he
a
t
-
i
n
-
m
o
ti
on
a
c
t
i
v
a
t
ed
d
i
g
it
a
l

ca
m
eras a
n
d
sand
p
l
o
t
s (
R
o
b
l
ey

et

a
l
.

2
0
08).

T
h
i
s

req
u
i
r
e
d
f
er
a
l

c
a
t
s

t
o be

ca
p
t
u
r
ed,
fi
tt
e
d
w
i
t
h

GP
S

da
t
a
-
l
o
gg
er
co
l
l
a
r
s and
m
on
i
t
or

t
h
e
i
r

i
n
t
era
c
t
i
ons
w
it
h

t
he
v
a
r
i
o
u
s
d
e
v
i
ces.
D
i
g
i
t
a
l

ca
m
eras

pr
ov
i
ded
t
he
m
ost
robu
s
t

d
e
t
e
c
t
i
on d
a
t
a

for

f
e
r
al

c
a
t
s,

w
i
t
h a
p
er

c
a
m
era
d
a
il
y

d
e
t
e
c
ti
o
n p
r
oba
b
i
l
it
y

of

0.013.
D
a
t
a
co
l
l
e
c
t
ed

from

d
i
g
it
a
l

c
a
m
eras
a
t

A
n
g
l
e
s
ea
w
a
s us
e
d
t
o

s
i
m
u
l
a
t
e

v
ar
i
o
u
s
m
on
it
o
r
i
n
g

i
n
t
en
s
i
t
i
es

and
t
h
e
i
r

a
b
i
l
i
t
y

t
o c
o
rr
e
c
t
l
y

i
d
e
n
t
i
fy

a 50%

de
c
re
a
se
i
n c
a
t

abunda
n
ce,

i
.e.

t
he

e
f
f
i
c
acy

of

co
n
t
r
o
l
.
O
f
t
he
n
i
ne
m
on
i
t
o
r
i
ng

i
n
t
en
s
i
t
i
es
m
ode
l
l
ed,

a
l
l

i
n
d
i
c
a
t
ed

a po
s
t
-
con
t
rol

de
c
re
a
se

i
n
c
at

a
b
unda
n
ce.
T
he

po
t
en
t
i
a
l

t
o c
o
rr
e
c
t
l
y

conc
l
u
d
e
t
hat

t
h
e c
a
t

pop
u
l
a
t
i
on h
a
d de
c
r
e
ased
w
as
h
i
g
hest

for

t
he
h
i
g
hest

l
e
v
el

o
f

m
on
it
o
r
i
ng

(49
c
a
m
eras f
o
r

20
n
i
g
h
t
s

s
et

a
t

one

ca
m
era
p
er

2
k
m
2
)
,
w
h
i
ch
w
a
s
cor
r
e
c
t

8
5
%

of

t
he

t
i
m
e.

I
n

F
ebru
a
ry

2008 an

a
t
t
e
m
pt

w
as
m
ade
t
o
v
a
l
i
da
t
e
t
h
i
s

a
ppro
a
ch
i
n
t
h
e
G
ra
m
p
i
ans
N
a
t
i
o
n
al

P
ark

i
n ce
n
t
r
a
l
-
w
es
t
ern

V
i
c
t
o
r
i
a,

w
here
h
ab
i
t
a
t

and

l
o
c
al

k
n
o
w
l
ed
g
e
su
gg
es
t
ed
t
h
at

fe
r
al

cat

ab
u
ndance

w
as
s
uf
f
i
c
i
e
n
t

t
o e
x
pect

t
he

ca
p
t
u
r
e of

f
e
r
a
l

c
a
t
s.
H
o
w
e
v
er,
desp
i
t
e

945

t
rap

n
i
g
h
t
s,

no

fe
r
al

c
a
t
s
w
e
r
e cau
g
h
t
.

A

s
e
cond
a
t
t
e
m
pt

w
as
m
ade
t
o

v
a
li
d
a
t
e
t
he
appr
o
ach
a
t

A
n
g
l
e
s
ea

i
n
M
arch

2008

(852

t
r
a
p n
i
g
h
t
s),

but

o
n
l
y

one
f
er
a
l

c
at

w
a
s
t
rapp
e
d.


I
n May

2008
t
he pr
o
j
e
ct

co
n
ti
n
ued
w
i
t
h

t
he

a
i
m

of

f
i
r
s
tl
y

con
t
i
n
u
i
ng

t
he

de
v
e
l
o
p
m
ent

of

t
he
ca
m
era
m
on
it
o
r
i
ng

pro
t
oc
o
l
, and
s
econ
d
l
y

t
o
a
sse
s
s
i
t
s

ab
i
l
i
t
y

t
o
m
easure

a ch
a
n
g
e
i
n c
a
t
abunda
n
ce

fo
l
l
o
w
i
ng

a
c
on
t
rol

o
pe
r
a
t
i
on.

4

A
r
t
hu
r

R
yl
a
h

I
n
s
t
i
t
u
te

fo
r

E
nviro
n
m
e
n
ta
l

R
e
s
ea
r
ch

Te
c
hni
c
a
l

R
e
por
t

N
o
.

2
0
1

E
v
a
lu
at
io
n

o
f

c
a
m
e
r
a

t
r
a
p

s
a
mpli
n
g

d
e
s
ign
s

u
s
e
d

t
o

d
ete
rmin
e

c
h
a
ng
e

i
n

o
cc
up
a
n
cy

r
at
e

a
n
d

a
bund
a
n
ce

o
f

f
e
r
a
l

c
at
s





F
ur
t
h
er

d
e
v
e
l
op
m
ent

of

t
h
e

pro
t
o
col

w
as
a
t
t
e
m
p
t
ed
i
n

c
o
l
l
abo
r
a
t
i
on
w
i
t
h

a
N
ew

S
o
u
t
h
W
a
l
es
D
epa
r
t
m
ent

of

P
r
i
m
ary
I
ndus
t
r
i
e
s
r
ese
a
rch

pr
o
j
e
c
t

i
n
v
es
t
i
g
a
ti
ng

t
h
e
i
n
t
e
ra
c
t
i
ons
b
e
t
w
een

w
i
l
d do
g
s
(
C
an
i
s
l
u
p
us

f
a
m
i
li
a
r
i
s

/

C
an
i
s

l
up
u
s d
i
ngo
),

fo
x
es,

f
e
ral

c
a
t
s a
n
d
S
p
o
tt
e
d
-
t
a
il
ed

Q
uo
l
l
s (
D
a
s
yur
u
s
m
acu
l
a
t
u
s
)

i
n

T
u
gg
o
l
o
S
t
a
t
e
F
or
e
s
t
,

app
r
ox
i
m
a
t
e
l
y

150 km

sou
t
h
-
east

of

A
r
m
i
da
l
e,
N
ew

S
ou
t
h
Wa
l
es. A

co
m
b
i
n
a
t
i
on of

l
eg
ho
l
d and
c
a
g
e
t
r
a
ps
w
e
re
s
et

c
o
n
t
i
nuo
u
s
l
y

for

22 da
y
s

(755

l
e
g
ho
l
d
t
rap

n
i
g
h
t
s

and
2
20 ca
g
e

t
r
a
p n
i
g
h
t
s
),
r
es
u
l
t
i
ng

i
n
s
i
x
f
e
ral

c
a
t
s b
e
i
ng

cau
g
h
t
.
F
o
l
l
o
w
i
ng

t
he
cap
t
u
re,

co
l
l
a
r
i
ng

(
w
i
t
h
G
P
S
-
da
t
a
l
o
gg
ers)

and

r
e
l
e
a
se

of

t
h
e
f
er
a
l

c
a
t
s
, 39 h
e
a
t
-
i
n
-
m
o
ti
on ca
m
eras
w
ere

d
e
p
l
o
y
ed
f
or

an a
v
er
ag
e of

28 da
y
s
a
t

a
d
en
s
it
y

of

one

ca
m
era p
e
r

1.7
k
m
2
.
T
he
v
ar
i
a
t
i
on
i
n
t
h
i
s
f
rom

t
he pr
o
t
o
c
ol

res
u
lt
ed f
r
om

li
m
it
ed a
c
ce
s
s
i
n

r
u
g
g
ed
t
e
r
r
a
i
n.
N
o
f
er
a
l

c
a
t
s

w
ere d
e
t
e
c
t
e
d
on
t
he

d
i
g
i
t
al

ca
m
eras

i
n
t
h
at

s
t
ud
y
.
F
u
r
t
h
e
r

d
e
t
a
i
l
s

a
r
e

pro
v
i
ded

i
n
R
o
b
l
ey

(200
9
a
)
.


T
h
i
s

rep
o
rt

o
u
t
li
n
es

t
he

re
s
u
l
t
s of

a f
u
r
t
her

s
t
u
dy

unde
r
t
a
k
en
t
o

as
s
ess
h
ow

d
e
t
e
c
t
i
on pro
b
ab
i
l
i
t
i
es
v
ary

w
it
h d
i
f
f
e
re
n
t

ca
m
era

t
y
pes and s
p
a
t
i
al

a
r
ran
g
e
m
en
t
s’

of

ca
m
eras.
I
n sou
t
h
-
w
es
t
e
rn

V
i
c
t
o
r
i
a
w
e ass
e
ss
e
d
t
w
o
d
i
f
f
e
re
n
t

s
pa
t
i
al

co
n
f
i
g
ur
a
ti
o
ns
o
f

c
a
m
eras:

(
1
)

c
a
m
eras s
e
t

i
n
p
a
i
r
s o
v
er

f
e
w
er
s
i
t
es,
a
nd
(
2)

a

s
i
n
g
l
e ca
m
e
r
a s
e
t

at

a
g
re
a
t
e
r

nu
m
ber

of

s
i
t
es.

We

f
i
rst

co
m
pared
sit
e occ
u
pancy

of
fe
r
al
c
a
t
s
a
t

a
s
i
t
e
w
h
e
re
f
o
xes h
a
d be
e
n r
e
duc
e
d u
s
i
ng

F
ox
O
ff
®

b
a
i
t
i
ng

o
v
er

t
h
e
p
re
v
i
ous

f
i
v
e
y
ears
t
o

a p
a
i
r
ed
s
i
t
e
w
he
r
e

no fox

con
t
r
o
l

had

t
a
k
en
p
l
ace (
R
ob
l
ey

et

a
l
. 2009
b
).

We h
y
po
t
h
es
i
sed
t
h
a
t

f
e
r
a
l

c
a
t

o
c
cup
a
ncy

ra
t
es
w
ou
l
d be
h
i
g
her

on

s
i
t
es

w
it
h a

re
d
uced

nu
m
ber

of

f
oxes.
H
a
v
i
ng
es
t
i
m
a
t
ed
t
h
e o
c
cupa
n
cy

ra
t
e of

fe
r
al

ca
t
s
a
t

t
h
ese

s
i
t
e
s,

w
e app
l
i
ed

t
h
e s
e
cond
c
a
m
era
con
f
i
g
ura
t
i
on

t
o
a
ss
e
ss
d
i
ff
ere
n
ces

i
n
o
ccup
a
ncy

r
a
t
es

bef
o
re a
n
d a
f
t
e
r

a

con
t
r
o
l

o
per
a
ti
o
n on

t
he
s
i
t
e
w
i
t
h
t
he
h
i
g
hest

r
a
t
e
o
f

fe
r
al

c
at

occ
u
panc
y
.


We
r
epo
r
t

on

t
he

r
e
su
l
t
s
o
f

t
he
s
e a
c
ti
v
i
ti
e
s a
n
d pro
v
i
d
e

reco
mm
enda
ti
ons

for

ap
p
l
y
i
ng

t
he
c
a
m
era
m
on
it
or
i
ng

pr
o
t
o
c
o
l
.

A
r
t
hu
r

R
yl
a
h

I
n
s
t
i
t
u
te

fo
r

E
nviro
n
m
e
n
ta
l

R
e
s
ea
r
ch

Te
c
hni
c
a
l

R
e
por
t

No

2
0
1

5

E
v
a
lu
at
io
n

o
f

c
a
m
e
r
a

t
r
a
p

s
a
mpli
n
g

d
e
s
ign
s

u
s
e
d

t
o

d
ete
rmin
e

c
h
a
ng
e

i
n

o
cc
up
a
n
cy

r
at
e

a
n
d

a
bund
a
n
ce

o
f

f
e
r
a
l

c
at
s





2

Me
th
o
ds


2
.
1

S
t
u
dy

s
i
te

T
he

s
t
udy

s
i
t
e

w
as

l
o
c
a
t
e
d

i
n

sou
t
h
-
w
es
t
ern

V
i
c
t
o
r
i
a

(
1
41
°
15

39

E
,

38
°
07

39

S
)

b
e
t
w
een

t
h
e
t
o
w
ns
h
i
p
o
f

P
o
r
t
l
and
a
nd
t
h
e
V
i
c
t
o
r
i
a


S
ou
t
h
A
u
s
t
r
a
l
i
a bor
d
er,

and
w
i
t
h
i
n
t
he
G
l
ene
l
g

A
rk
P
r
o
j
e
ct

a
r
ea (
F
i
g
. 1).

T
h
e
G
l
en
e
l
g

A
rk

pr
o
j
e
ct

i
s a

l
a
r
g
e
-
sca
l
e, co
n
ti
n
u
ous

fox
b
a
i
t
i
ng

i
n
i
t
i
a
ti
v
e
us
i
ng

bu
r
i
ed
F
o
x
O
ff
®

b
a
i
t
s

acr
o
ss 100

000
h
a of

s
t
a
t
e

f
ore
s
t

a
n
d n
a
ti
o
n
al

par
k
.
W
i
t
h
i
n
t
h
i
s

a
r
ea

a
re
t
hr
e
e
m
on
it
o
r
i
ng

s
i
t
e
s
t
h
at

r
ece
i
v
e c
o
n
t
i
nuo
u
s f
o
x co
n
t
r
ol

(
t
r
ea
t
m
en
t
), and

t
h
ree

ar
e
as
t
h
at

re
c
e
i
v
e
no fox

con
t
r
o
l

(n
o
n
-
t
rea
t
m
en
t
).

We

condu
c
t
ed

t
h
i
s
p
r
o
j
ect

i
n o
n
e of

t
h
e
se
p
a
i
red

s
i
t
es,

t
he
L
o
w
er
G
l
en
e
l
g

N
a
ti
o
n
al

P
ark



s
o
u
t
h (
LGNP
-
sou
t
h, 89
5
4 h
a
;

t
r
e
a
t
m
en
t
)

and
n
o
r
t
h (
LG
N
P
-
nor
t
h, 4
6
59
ha;

n
o
n
-
t
rea
t
m
en
t
)

w
h
i
ch

a
r
e ph
y
s
i
c
a
ll
y

se
p
a
r
a
t
e
d by

t
h
e
G
l
e
n
e
l
g

R
i
v
er.




S
A



#








L
G
N
P
-
N
o
r
t
h



L
G
N
P
-
S
ou
t
h




L
E
G
E
N
D

T
r
e
a
t
m
e
n
t

A
r
ea
s

T
MA

N
T
MA

R
o
a
d
s


L
a
n
d

T
e
n
u
r
e

P
a
r
k
s

a
n
d

R
e
se
r
v
e
s

S
t
a
t
e

F
o
r
e
s
t

S
o
f
t
w
o
o
d

P
l
an
t
a
t
io
n

Ot
h
e
r

P
ub
l
i
c

L
a
n
d










P
o
r
t
l
a
n
d










0

5

1
0

K
m


F
i
gu
r
e

1.

L
o
c
a
t
i
o
n

o
f

th
e

L
o
w
e
r

G
l
e
n
e
lg

Na
t
i
on
al

P
a
r
k
-
s
out
h

a
n
d

no
r
t
h

s
i
t
e
s

u
s
e
d

in

th
is

s
tudy
.

T
MA



T
r
e
a
t
m
ent

(
fox

co
n
t
r
o
l
)

Mo
n
it
o
r
i
ng

A
r
e
as,

N
T
MA



N
on
-
t
rea
t
m
ent

Mon
it
or
i
ng

A
re
a
s.

S
o
li
d

b
l
a
ck

li
n
e



o
u
t
l
i
ne

of

G
l
en
e
l
g

A
rk

pr
o
j
e
c
t

a
re
a
.




2.2

Pa
ir
e
d

ca
m
e
r
a

s
ur
v
e
y
s
,

2008

We co
m
pared

occ
u
pancy

r
a
t
es

for

f
e
r
a
l

c
a
t
s
a
t

t
he
L
o
w
er

G
l
en
e
l
g

N
a
ti
o
n
al

P
a
rk



sou
t
h

and n
o
r
t
h
s
i
t
es

i
n

J
u
l
y

2008 u
s
i
ng

he
a
t
-
i
n
-
m
o
ti
on d
i
g
i
t
al

ca
m
eras

(
F
i
g
. 2). A

p
o
ol

o
f

72

ca
m
eras
w
a
s
a
v
a
il
a
b
l
e
: 35
R
e
con
y
x
R
ap
i
d
F
i
re

P
ro
PC
9
0
s
1

and 37

T
r
a
i
l
Mac
s
2
.
I
n

LGN
P
-
sou
t
h
w
e dep
l
o
y
ed 42
ca
m
eras (
1
9
R
econ
y
x a
n
d
2
3
T
r
a
i
l
Ma
c
)

a
t

22
s
i
t
es
a
nd

i
n
LGNP
-
nor
t
h
w
e de
p
l
o
y
ed 30 ca
m
eras
(14
R
e
c
on
y
x and 16

T
r
a
i
lM
ac)

a
t

15

s
i
t
e
s (
F
i
g
. 2).

T
w
o

ca
m
eras
o
f

t
h
e sa
m
e
t
y
pe

w
ere

l
oc
a
t
ed



1

R
ec
on
yx
,

H
o
l
m
e
n
,

W
is
c
on
s
i
n
,

U
S
A

2

Tra
ils
e
n
s
e

E
n
g
i
n
eer
i
ng
,

M
i
d
d
l
e
t
o
w
n
,

De
l
a
w
are,

U
S
A

6

A
r
t
hu
r

R
yl
a
h

I
n
s
t
i
t
u
te

fo
r

E
nviro
n
m
e
n
ta
l

R
e
s
ea
r
ch

Te
c
hni
c
a
l

R
e
por
t

N
o
.

2
0
1

E
v
a
lu
at
io
n

o
f

c
a
m
e
r
a

t
r
a
p

s
a
mpli
n
g

d
e
s
ign
s

u
s
e
d

t
o

d
ete
rmin
e

c
h
a
ng
e

i
n

o
cc
up
a
n
cy

r
at
e

a
n
d

a
bund
a
n
ce

o
f

f
e
r
a
l

c
at
s



#

#

#

#

#

#



w
it
h
i
n

a

rando
m
l
y

se
l
e
c
t
ed

1 k
m
2

g
r
i
d as

i
ns
u
ra
n
ce a
ga
i
n
s
t

a
s
i
n
g
l
e
c
a
m
era f
a
i
l
ure.

C
a
m
eras
w
ere
oper
a
t
ed

f
o
r

an

a
v
era
g
e of

21 da
y
s.


R
econ
y
x ca
m
eras
r
ec
o
rd 3
.
1
m
e
g
a
-
p
i
xel

c
o
l
o
u
r

i
m
a
g
es dur
i
ng

da
y
li
g
ht

and 3
.
1
m
e
g
a
-
p
i
xel

i
n
f
r
a
-

red

i
m
a
g
es at

n
i
g
h
t
.

T
h
ese

ca
m
eras
w
e
r
e s
e
t

t
o
r
ec
o
rd

t
hr
e
e
i
m
a
g
es as
f
a
s
t

as

pos
s
i
b
l
e on
c
e
m
o
ti
on
w
as d
e
t
e
c
t
ed

and
t
o
k
eep
r
e
cor
d
i
ng

i
m
a
g
es un
ti
l

m
o
t
i
o
n ce
a
sed.

T
ra
i
l
M
ac
g
a
m
e
t
r
a
i
l

ca
m
eras
rec
o
rded

a
s
i
x
m
e
g
a
-
p
i
xel

c
o
l
our

i
m
a
g
e and use

a
w
h
it
e f
l
ash

acc
o
r
d
i
ng

t
o
l
i
g
h
ti
n
g

cond
i
t
i
ons.
Im
a
g
es are r
e
cor
d
ed 30

se
c
onds
a
f
t
er

m
o
ti
on

i
s
d
e
t
ec
t
e
d un
t
i
l

m
o
ti
on

ce
a
se
s
.
A
l
l

i
m
a
g
es
w
ere
t
i
m
e
and

d
a
t
e
s
t
a
m
ped.

A

s
m
a
l
l

w
i
re

ca
g
e (15

×

15

c
m
)

co
n
t
a
i
n
i
ng

a
f
re
s
h c
h
i
c
k
en

m
ar
y
l
and, 1

or

2
p
i
l
cha
r
ds
a
nd
t
u
na
o
i
l

w
a
s
f
i
xed

t
o

t
he

t
op
o
f

a 1
.
5 m

s
t
a
k
e and p
l
aced

3 m

i
n fr
o
nt

of

e
a
ch
c
a
m
era.
Whe
r
e n
e
ce
s
sar
y
,
v
e
g
e
t
a
t
i
o
n
w
as
c
l
e
a
red

from

t
he

f
i
e
l
d of

v
i
ew

of

t
h
e ca
m
era

t
o
r
educe

f
a
l
se
t
r
i
gg
er
i
ng

of

t
he

ca
m
era a
n
d
i
m
pro
v
e
i
m
a
g
e
i
den
t
i
f
i
c
a
t
i
on.












#

#

#

#

#

#

#


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#

#



#



#


#


#

#





#



#



#



#

#

#

#

#

#

#

#

#

#

#

#

#
#
#



#



#

#

#

#

#

#

#

#

#

#

#

#

#

#

#



#



#



#

L
E
G
E
N
D



L
G
N
P
-
s
o
u
t
h



L
G
N
P
-
n
o
r
t
h

R
o
a
d
s

#

#

#


#

L
a
n
d

T
e
n
u
re

P
a
r
k
s

a
n
d

R
e
s
e
r
v
e
s

S
t
a
t
e

F
o
r
e
st

S
o
f
t
w
o
o
d

P
l
a
n
t
a
t
i
o
n

O
t
he
r
P
u
b
l
i
c

L
a
n
d




N

0

3

6

K
m


F
i
gu
r
e

2.

L
o
c
a
t
i
o
n

o
f

72

p
a
ir
e
d

c
a
m
e
r
a
s

at

LGN
P
-
s
o
ut
h

(
n

=

42)

a
n
d

LGN
P
-
n
o
r
t
h

(
n

=

30
)
.



2.3

S
in
g
l
e

cam
e
r
a

s
ur
v
e
y
s
,

2009

B
efo
r
e
-
con
t
rol

occ
u
pancy

s
ur
v
e
y
s
w
ere con
d
uc
t
ed
a
t

L
GN
P
-
sou
t
h
i
n
S
ep
t
e
m
ber

2009 and

a
f
t
er
-

con
t
rol

occ
u
pancy

s
u
r
v
e
y
s
i
n
N
o
v
e
m
ber

2009.
E
i
t
h
e
r

a

s
i
n
g
l
e
R
e
con
y
x ca
m
era
(
n

= 20)

o
r

a

s
i
n
g
l
e
S
cout
G
u
ard
SG
5
5
0
V
3

ca
m
era (
n

= 2
9
)

w
as

p
l
a
ced

at

a

rando
m
l
y

se
l
e
c
t
e
d

l
o
ca
t
i
on

w
it
h
i
n a 2
k
m
2

g
r
i
d (
F
i
g
. 3).

C
a
m
eras
w
e
r
e

ope
r
a
t
e
d on a
v
e
r
a
g
e for

2
8

da
y
s.







3

H
C
O,

N
o
rcr
o
ss
,

Ge
o
r
g
i
a,

U
S
A

A
r
t
hu
r

R
yl
a
h

I
n
s
t
i
t
u
te

fo
r

E
nviro
n
m
e
n
ta
l

R
e
s
ea
r
ch

Te
c
hni
c
a
l

R
e
por
t

No

2
0
1

7

E
v
a
lu
at
io
n

o
f

c
a
m
e
r
a

t
r
a
p

s
a
mpli
n
g

d
e
s
ign
s

u
s
e
d

t
o

d
ete
rmin
e

c
h
a
ng
e

i
n

o
cc
up
a
n
cy

r
at
e

a
n
d

a
bund
a
n
ce

o
f

f
e
r
a
l

c
at
s



#

#












#

#

#

#

#

#

#

#

#

#


#

#

#

#

#

#

#

#

#

#
#

#

#

#

#

#

#



#

#



#

#

#

#

#

#


L
E
G
E
N
D



C
a
m
e
ra

l
o
c
at
i
on
s

R
o
a
ds

#

#

#

#

#

#

#

#



#


Lo
w
e
r

G
l
en
e
l
g

N
a
t
i
o
n
a
l

P
a
r
k

-

S
o
ut
h

L
a
n
d

T
e
n
u
r
e

P
a
r
k
s

a
n
d

R
e
s
e
r
v
e
s

S
t
a
t
e

F
o
r
e
s
t

S
o
f
t
w
o
o
d

P
l
a
n
ta
t
i
o
n

O
t

h
e
r

P
u
b
l
i
c

L
a
n
d





N

0

3

6

K
m


F
i
gu
r
e

3.

L
o
c
a
t
i
o
n

o
f

49

s
i
n
g
le

c
a
m
e
ras

se
t

u
p

at

L
G
N
P
-
s
out
h

b
e
f
o
re

a
n
d

af
t
e
r

f
e
ral

c
at

c
ont
r
o
l.



R
econ
y
x ca
m
eras o
p
er
a
t
ed

as d
e
sc
r
i
bed

abo
v
e.
S
co
u
t

G
uard
c
a
m
eras
r
ec
o
rded

a

3.1
m
e
g
ap
i
xel
co
l
o
u
r

i
m
a
g
e dur
i
ng

t
h
e d
a
y

and a 3.1
m
e
g
ap
i
xel

i
n
f
r
a
-
red
i
m
a
g
e at

n
i
g
h
t
.
I
m
a
g
es

w
ere

rec
o
rded
w
it
h
i
n
t
w
o

sec
o
nds
o
f

m
o
t
i
on be
i
ng

de
t
e
c
t
e
d
, and

re
co
rd
i
ng

co
n
ti
n
ued u
n
t
i
l

m
o
ti
o
n ce
a
sed.
A
l
l
i
m
a
g
es
w
ere
ti
m
e and
d
a
t
e

s
t
a
m
ped.


T
w
o
b
a
i
t

h
o
l
der

t
y
pes
w
e
re

used

i
n
t
h
i
s

sur
v
ey



e
i
t
h
er

a

s
m
a
l
l

w
i
re
c
a
g
e as u
s
ed

i
n 20
0
8, or

a
P
V
C

p
i
pe
(
25

cm

l
ong

×

90

m
m

d
i
a
m
e
t
er)

cap
p
ed

a
t

b
o
t
h

e
n
ds a
n
d
w
i
t
h

nu
m
ero
u
s ho
l
es

d
r
i
l
l
ed
i
n
t
o

t
he

s
i
des

(
F
i
g
. 4a,
b
).
E
ach b
a
i
t

ho
l
der

co
n
t
a
i
ned a

fr
e
sh c
h
i
c
k
en
m
ar
y
l
and, 1
o
r

2 p
i
l
c
h
ar
d
s
and so
m
e
t
una

o
i
l
, a
n
d
w
as

f
i
x
e
d
t
o

t
he

t
op

of

a 1.5 m

s
t
a
k
e p
l
a
ced 3

m

i
n fro
n
t

o
f

each
c
a
m
era.




F
i
gu
r
e

4.

B
ait

h
o
l
d
e
rs

u
se
d

in

th
is

s
tudy
:

(
a)

s
m
a
l
l

wi
r
e

c
a
g
e
,

(b
)

P
VC

tub
e
.

8

A
r
t
hu
r

R
yl
a
h

I
n
s
t
i
t
u
te

fo
r

E
nviro
n
m
e
n
ta
l

R
e
s
ea
r
ch

Te
c
hni
c
a
l

R
e
por
t

N
o
.

2
0
1

E
v
a
lu
at
io
n

o
f

c
a
m
e
r
a

t
r
a
p

s
a
mpli
n
g

d
e
s
ign
s

u
s
e
d

t
o

d
ete
rmin
e

c
h
a
ng
e

i
n

o
cc
up
a
n
cy

r
at
e

a
n
d

a
bund
a
n
ce

o
f

f
e
r
a
l

c
at
s



i

i

(

)

%

%



2.4

Fe
r
al

cat

co
n
t
r
o
l
,

L
G
NP
-
s
o
u
th

A

prof
e
s
s
i
on
a
l

p
e
st

con
t
r
o
l

con
t
ra
c
t
or

(
O
u
t
fo
x
ed
P
e
s
t

C
on
t
r
o
l
,
I
v
anhoe,
V
i
c
t
o
r
i
a)

w
as e
m
p
l
o
y
ed
t
o
t
rap

f
e
r
a
l

c
a
t
s

i
n
O
c
t
ob
e
r

2
009
f
rom

LGN
P
-
sou
t
h.
S
e
v
en
t
y
-
t
w
o
Vi
c
t
or

nu
m
ber

1
.
5

rubb
e
r

j
aw

t
raps
w
ere
s
et

a
l
ong

r
o
ads
a
nd
tr
ac
k
s
t
h
r
ou
g
hout

LGNP
-
sou
t
h (
F
i
g
. 5).

T
r
aps
w
e
re
o
pe
r
a
t
ed
con
t
i
nuo
u
s
l
y

f
o
r

20
d
a
y
s, g
i
v
i
ng

1368
t
r
ap
n
i
g
h
t
s.

T
r
a
ps
w
ere

ch
e
c
k
ed e
v
ery

24 hours

and
r
es
e
t
af
t
er

ra
i
n or

be
i
ng

set

o
ff

b
y

t
ar
g
et

or

non
-
t
ar
g
et

a
n
i
m
a
l
s.
C
a
p
t
u
red

fe
r
al

ca
t
s
w
e
r
e

eu
t
h
e
n
i
s
ed
a
t
t
he p
o
i
n
t

of

ca
p
t
u
r
e.
E
a
c
h
c
at

h
a
d
i
t
s
w
e
i
g
h
t
, s
e
x, and

r
eprod
u
c
t
i
v
e con
d
i
t
i
on

rec
o
r
ded.







#






%



%

%

%

%

%

%



%

%

%

%

%

%

%

%

%

%



%



%

%

%

%


%


%

%

%



%

%

%

%

%

%

%

%

%

%

%

%

%

%

%

%

%

%

%

%



%



%

%

%

%

%

%

%

%

%

%

%

%



%

%


L
e
g
en
d



C
at

t
r
ap

l
o
c
a
t
i
on
R
oa
d
s

L
and

T
en
u
r
e

P
a
r
k
s a
n
d

R
e
s
e
r
v
e
s

St
a
t
e

F
o
r
e
s
t
S
o
f
t
w
o
o
d

P
l
a
n
t
a
t
i
on
O
t
h
e
r

P
u
b
li
c

L
a
nd


F
i
gu
r
e

5.

L
o
c
a
t
i
o
n

o
f

V
i
c
t
o
r

1
.
5

s
o
ft

j
aw

t
ra
p
s

se
t

in

L
GN
P
-
s
o
ut
h

in

O
c
t
o
b
e
r

2
00
9.



2.5

Occ
u
pa
n
cy

e
s
t
im
at
i
on

We u
s
ed
t
he
p
rop
o
r
t
i
on
o
f

ca
m
era s
i
t
e
s
w
i
t
h
i
n

a
m
on
i
t
or
i
ng

a
r
ea

(
i
.
e
.
LGNP
-
sou
t
h and
LGNP
-

nor
t
h
)

t
h
a
t

w
e
r
e oc
c
up
i
ed
t
o as
s
ess

t
he
d
i
f
f
e
re
n
ces
o
n

occup
a
ncy

ra
t
es.

T
h
e p
h
ra
s
e ‘o
c
cupa
n
c
y


i
s
used
h
ere

t
o
m
ean
t
h
e p
r
o
p
or
t
i
on
o
f

sa
m
p
l
i
ng

un
it
s

t
ha
t

co
n
t
a
i
n
f
er
a
l

c
a
t
s at

a
g
i
v
en po
i
n
t

i
n
t
i
m
e.


D
a
t
a

from

t
he
c
a
m
era sur
vey
s
w
ere su
m
m
ar
i
s
e
d
i
n
t
o
de
t
e
c
ti
o
n h
i
s
t
o
r
i
es

for

each

s
it
e,
w
he
r
e
y
i
j

= 1
i
nd
i
c
a
t
ed

t
h
a
t

t
h
e s
p
ec
i
es
w
as d
e
t
e
c
t
ed

at

s
i
t
e

i

on
d
ay

j
, and
y
i
j

= 0

o
t
h
er
w
i
se.
F
o
r

exa
m
p
l
e, f
o
r

a 5
day

sa
m
p
li
ng

pro
g
ra
m
,
t
he en
t
i
re

h
i
s
t
o
ry

for

a

pa
r
t
i
cu
l
a
r

s
i
t
e

y
i

=
[
1,0,0,1
,
1]

w
o
u
l
d

i
nd
i
c
a
t
e
t
hat
ca
t
s

w
ere

d
e
t
e
c
t
ed
o
n
t
h
e
1
s
t
,
4
t
h a
n
d 5
t
h day

but

n
ot

on
t
he

2nd
o
r

3
r
d da
y
.


I
t

i
s
t
y
p
i
c
a
l

of

pr
e
sen
c
e
/
ab
s
ence
d
a
t
a

t
h
at

a

sp
e
c
i
es
m
ay

be pres
e
nt

on

a
s
i
t
e,
y
et

n
ot

be
d
e
t
ec
t
ed on
a

g
i
v
en da
y
.
F
or

exa
m
p
l
e, a

de
t
e
c
t
i
on
h
i
s
t
ory

su
c
h as

y
i

= [0,0
,
0,0,
0
]

co
u
l
d

i
nd
i
c
a
t
e

t
h
a
t

t
h
e s
p
ec
i
es
w
as e
i
t
h
e
r

a
b
se
n
t

f
rom

s
it
e

i
, or

i
t

w
as
p
re
s
ent

but

not

de
t
e
c
t
e
d on
a
ny

of

t
h
e da
y
s.

We u
s
ed

t
he
occup
a
ncy

m
ode
lli
ng

ap
p
r
o
ach o
u
t
l
i
ned

by

Ma
c
K
en
z
i
e

et

a
l
.
(
200
6
)

t
o

e
s
ti
m
a
t
e
w
he
t
h
e
r

n
o
n
-

de
t
e
c
t
i
ons
w
ere

a
c
t
u
a
ll
y

t
r
u
e ab
s
enc
e
s.

T
h
i
s a
p
pro
a
ch
a
ll
o
w
s

us

t
o
r
e
m
o
v
e
t
he con
f
ound
i
ng
be
t
w
e
e
n
t
h
e o
c
cupa
n
cy

ra
t
e
s and

t
he
d
e
t
ec
t
i
on
p
ro
b
ab
il
it
y
.


A
ssu
m
i
ng

t
he da
i
l
y

de
t
e
c
ti
on pro
b
ab
i
l
i
t
y

(
P
r
)

i
s co
n
s
t
an
t
,

t
he o
v
e
r
a
l
l

p
r
oba
b
i
l
it
y

of

e
a
ch d
e
t
e
c
t
i
on
h
i
s
t
ory

can
b
e c
a
l
c
u
l
a
t
ed

a
s
:

P
r
(
y

|

z

o
b
s


o
b
s

=

1
)
=

ψ
p
n

T



n

1



p


T

P
r
(
y
i

|

z
i

=

0
)
=

(
1



ψ
)
+

ψ
(
1



p
)

A
r
t
hu
r

R
yl
a
h

I
n
s
t
i
t
u
te

fo
r

E
nviro
n
m
e
n
ta
l

R
e
s
ea
r
ch

Te
c
hni
c
a
l

R
e
por
t

No

2
0
1

9

E
v
a
lu
at
io
n

o
f

c
a
m
e
r
a

t
r
a
p

s
a
mpli
n
g

d
e
s
ign
s

u
s
e
d

t
o

d
ete
rmin
e

c
h
a
ng
e

i
n

o
cc
up
a
n
cy

r
at
e

a
n
d

a
bund
a
n
ce

o
f

f
e
r
a
l

c
at
s



i

i



w
here

ψ

i
s

t
he

occu
p
ancy

proba
b
i
li
t
y
,

p

i
s

t
he

d
e
t
ec
ti
on

pr
o
ba
b
i
l
it
y
,

n

i
s

t
h
e

n
u
m
ber

of

da
y
s
t
h
a
t

t
he

s
pe
c
i
es

w
a
s

de
t
ec
t
e
d,

T

i
s

t
he

t
o
t
al

nu
m
ber

of

da
y
s

ca
m
eras

w
ere

d
e
p
l
o
ye
d

at

t
h
e

s
i
t
e,

and

z

ob
s

=

1

i
nd
i
ca
t
es

t
h
a
t

t
he

sp
e
c
i
es

o
f

i
n
t
e
r
e
st

w
a
s

d
e
t
e
c
t
ed

at

l
e
a
s
t

on
c
e

on

s
i
t
e

i
,

a
n
d

z

ob
s

=

0 o
t
h
e
r
w
i
se.


I
n order

t
o
a
ss
e
s
w
h
e
t
h
e
r

t
h
e
m
on
it
o
r
i
ng

pro
t
oc
o
l

co
u
l
d de
t
ect

a
d
i
f
fe
r
ence

be
t
w
e
en
LGNP
-
sou
t
h
and
LGNP
-
nor
t
h, a
m
odel

w
as sp
e
c
i
f
i
e
d
t
h
at

a
l
l
o
w
ed

occup
a
ncy

t
o
d
i
f
fer

be
t
w
e
e
n ar
e
as.
F
ur
t
h
er
m
ore,
t
he
m
odel

w
a
s sp
e
c
i
f
i
e
d so

t
h
a
t

d
e
t
e
c
t
i
on

prob
a
b
i
l
i
ti
e
s
w
e
r
e co
n
s
t
ant

each
d
ay

and
be
t
w
e
e
n a
r
eas,

but

co
u
l
d
d
i
ff
e
r

b
e
t
w
een

ca
m
era
t
y
pe
s
.

N
o
t
e
t
hat

occ
u
pancy

i
s

a
s
s
u
m
ed
t
o be
cons
t
ant

i
n

each

a
r
ea o
v
er

t
he
m
on
it
o
r
i
ng

pe
r
i
od

(
i
.
e
.
2
1 da
y
s
i
n

Ju
l
y

2008
)
.


I
n ana
l
y
s
i
ng

t
he s
i
n
g
l
e ca
m
era
s
ur
v
e
y
, s
i
x
o
ccup
a
ncy

m
ode
l
s
w
ere

spe
c
i
f
i
ed.

O
c
c
upancy
proba
b
i
li
ti
e
s co
u
l
d
d
i
f
f
e
r

b
e
t
w
een
LGNP
-
sou
t
h and
L
G
N
P
-
nor
t
h, b
u
t

w
e
r
e a
s
su
m
ed
t
o be

co
n
s
t
a
nt
for

t
he
d
ur
a
t
i
on of

ea
c
h s
u
r
v
ey

(
i
.e. 30 da
y
s
i
n

S
e
p
t
e
m
ber

2
0
09 and

21 da
y
s
i
n
N
ov
e
m
ber

2009).


T
he

s
i
x
m
ode
l
s s
p
e
c
i
f
i
ed
w
er
e
:




occup
a
ncy

and d
e
t
e
c
t
i
on c
o
ns
t
a
n
t



occup
a
ncy

con
s
t
a
n
t

and

de
t
ec
t
i
on
v
a
r
i
es
w
it
h

ca
m
era
t
y
pe



occup
a
ncy

con
s
t
a
n
t
, and

d
e
t
e
c
ti
o
n
v
ar
i
e
s
w
i
t
h
c
a
m
era and b
a
i
t

h
o
l
d
er

co
m
b
i
na
t
i
o
n



occup
a
ncy

v
ar
i
es
w
it
h

sur
v
ey

per
i
od,

and
d
e
t
ec
t
i
on
v
a
r
i
es
w
it
h

ca
m
era
t
y
pe



occup
a
ncy

v
ar
i
es
w
it
h

sur
v
ey

per
i
od,

and
d
e
t
ec
t
i
on
v
a
r
i
es
w
it
h

ca
m
era and

b
a
i
t

h
o
l
der



occup
a
ncy

v
ar
i
es
w
it
h

sur
v
ey

per
i
od,

and
d
e
t
ec
t
i
on
v
a
r
i
es
w
it
h

ca
m
era and

b
a
i
t

h
o
l
der

and
per
i
od


O
ccupa
n
cy
m
ode
l
s
w
e
re
fit
t
ed
u
s
i
ng

W
i
n
BUG
S

1.4.3
(
L
unn et

a
l
.

200
0
), a
p
ro
g
r
a
m

for

der
i
v
i
ng
B
a
y
es
i
an
p
ara
m
e
t
e
r

e
s
ti
m
a
t
es u
s
i
ng

Mon
t
e
C
a
r
l
o

M
a
r
k
ov

cha
i
n up
d
a
t
ers.

A

M
a
r
k
ov

cha
i
n
w
as

run
for

5
000
i
t
e
r
a
ti
o
n
s
i
n or
d
er

t
o c
h
eck

for

con
v
er
g
ence

a
nd
t
o
e
ns
u
re
e
ach
p
ara
m
e
t
e
r

had

re
a
ched

a
s
t
a
b
l
e
d
i
s
t
r
i
b
u
ti
o
n.

T
he
s
e

b
urn
-
i
n’

sa
m
p
l
es
w
e
re
d
i
s
ca
r
ded and

t
he

a
l
g
o
r
it
hm

w
as
r
un f
o
r

a
f
u
r
t
h
e
r
40 000

it
e
r
a
ti
o
ns.

T
he

v
a
l
u
es
f
rom

each
i
t
e
ra
t
i
on

co
m
pr
i
s
ed
t
he p
o
s
t
e
r
i
or

d
i
s
t
r
i
b
u
t
i
on f
o
r

e
a
ch of
t
he
p
ara
m
e
t
e
rs.

T
h
e po
s
t
e
r
i
or

d
i
s
t
r
i
b
u
t
i
ons
w
e
re

su
mm
ar
i
sed

i
n
t
er
m
s of

p
ara
m
e
t
e
r

m
eans and
s
t
an
d
ard

de
v
i
a
ti
o
n
s (
S
D
).


C
o
m
pe
ti
ng
m
ode
l
s
t
hat

w
e
r
e used

t
o

ass
e
ss
o
ccu
p
ancy

bef
o
re a
n
d a
f
t
e
r

c
o
n
t
rol

i
n

2009
w
e
r
e
ass
e
ssed

us
i
ng

t
he de
v
i
a
nce

i
nf
o
r
m
a
ti
on

c
r
i
t
e
r
i
on (
D
I
C
).

T
he
m
odel

w
i
t
h

t
he

l
o
w
e
st

D
I
C

i
s
t
he o
n
e
t
h
a
t

i
s

t
h
e
m
ost

pa
r
s
i
m
on
i
o
us
m
ode
l
,
i
.
e.
t
h
e one

t
h
a
t

g
i
v
es
t
he

be
s
t

b
a
l
a
n
ce
b
e
t
w
e
en p
r
ec
i
s
i
o
n and

b
i
as.

T
he

D
I
C

i
s

g
i
v
en

as

D
I
C

=

D

+

pD

,

w
here

D

i
s

t
he
p
os
t
e
r
i
or
m
e
a
n

of

t
he

d
e
v
i
ance

and
pD

i
s

t
he

e
f
f
ec
t
i
v
e

nu
m
ber

of

pa
r
a
m
e
t
ers,

g
i
v
en

by

pD

=

D



D
ˆ

(
S
p
i
e
g
e
l
ha
l
t
er

et

a
l
.
2
002
)
.

D
ˆ

i
s

a p
o
i
nt

es
t
i
m
a
t
e of

t
he

de
v
i
an
c
e e
v
a
l
u
a
t
ed

at

t
he

po
s
t
e
r
i
o
r

m
eans of

t
he

pa
r
a
m
e
t
ers.
D
I
C

can be

re
w
r
i
t
t
en
as:

D
I
C

=

2
D



D
ˆ


I
n

g
eneral

W
i
n
BUG
S

r
e
t
u
r
ns
t
h
e
D
I
C

d
i
rec
t
l
y
, but

f
or

m
ode
l
s con
s
t
r
u
c
t
ed
f
rom

a
m
i
x
t
ure
o
f
d
i
s
t
r
i
bu
t
i
o
n
s, s
u
ch as

t
h
e o
n
e used

he
r
e,
t
h
i
s

i
s

not

t
he

c
ase.
H
o
w
e
v
er,

t
he

de
v
i
an
c
e

i
s a
b
l
e

t
o
b
e
m
on
it
ored,
w
h
i
ch

a
l
l
o
w
s

t
h
e c
a
l
c
u
l
a
t
i
on
o
f

D
I
C

for

ea
c
h
m
odel

us
i
ng

a

t
w
o
-
s
t
ep p
r
oces
s
.
F
i
rs
t
l
y
,
t
he

e
s
t
i
m
a
ti
on
m
odel

i
s

run

w
it
h

t
he
m
ean de
v
i
a
n
ce
g
i
v
i
ng

D

.

T
he

m
odel

i
s

t
h
e
n re
-
r
u
n
w
it
h

t
he

m
ean

para
m
e
t
er

es
t
i
m
a
t
es
p
l
u
gg
ed
i
n as
d
a
t
a.

T
he
m
ean of

t
he
d
e
v
i
ance

i
n

t
h
i
s c
a
s
e
g
i
v
es

D
ˆ

.


T
he

pr
o
ba
b
i
l
it
y

t
h
a
t

s
i
t
e o
c
cupancy

w
as
h
i
g
her

on

t
he

LGN
P
-
sou
t
h s
i
t
e
o
r

b
e
f
o
re

fe
r
al

c
at

co
n
t
r
o
l
w
as d
e
t
er
m
i
ned by

c
a
l
c
u
l
a
t
i
ng

occup
a
ncy

at

LGNP
-
sou
t
h
m
i
nus
LGNP
-
nor
t
h, a
n
d occu
p
ancy
bef
o
re
m
i
nus
a
f
t
er

c
on
t
ro
l
,

at

e
ach

it
e
r
a
ti
o
n of

t
he

W
i
n
BUG
S

upda
t
i
ng

proc
e
ss.

T
he pr
o
po
r
ti
o
n of
t
he p
o
s
t
e
r
i
or

d
en
s
it
y

of

t
h
i
s

d
i
f
f
e
ren
c
e
t
h
at

i
s
g
re
a
t
e
r

t
h
an
z
ero
g
i
v
es
t
he

pr
o
ba
b
i
l
i
t
y

t
hat

s
i
t
e
occup
a
ncy

i
s
h
i
g
her.

E
v
a
lu
at
io
n

o
f

c
a
m
e
r
a

t
r
a
p

s
a
mpli
n
g

d
e
s
ign
s

u
s
e
d

t
o

d
ete
rmin
e

c
h
a
ng
e

i
n

o
cc
up
a
n
cy

r
at
e

a
n
d

a
bund
a
n
ce

o
f

f
e
r
a
l

c
at
s

10

A
r
t
hu
r

R
yl
a
h

I
n
s
t
i
t
u
te

fo
r

E
nviro
n
m
e
n
ta
l

R
e
s
ea
r
c
h

Te
c
hni
c
a
l

R
e
por
t

N
o
.

2
0
1







2.6

Pow
e
r

a
n
a
l
y
s
i
s

T
he

po
w
er

of

a
s
t
a
t
i
s
t
i
cal

t
e
st

i
s
t
he
p
roba
b
i
li
t
y

of

not

f
a
l
s
e
l
y

con
c
l
u
d
i
ng

t
h
a
t

an
o
u
t
co
m
e has
occu
r
red
w
h
en
i
t

h
as n
o
t
;

i
n

t
h
i
s c
a
se,

t
h
a
t

t
h
e c
a
t

p
o
pu
l
a
t
i
on h
a
s de
c
r
e
ased
w
h
en
i
n fa
c
t

i
t

h
as n
o
t
.
A
s
t
he
p
o
w
er

o
f

a

t
e
st

i
n
c
r
e
ases,

t
he

cha
n
ce
o
f

m
a
k
i
ng
t
h
i
s e
r
r
o
r

de
c
re
a
se
s
. A

po
w
er

a
n
a
l
y
s
i
s
w
as
ca
r
r
i
e
d o
u
t

t
o

de
t
er
m
i
ne
w
h
at

l
e
v
el

of

po
w
er

w
e had

t
o

de
t
e
ct

an a
c
t
u
a
l

d
i
f
fe
r
en
c
e
i
n occu
p
ancy
ra
t
e f
o
l
l
o
w
i
ng

a c
a
t

c
o
n
t
rol

oper
a
t
i
on.
W
e b
a
sed

t
he
po
w
er

an
a
l
y
s
i
s

on
t
h
e
s
t
udy

des
i
g
n
i
n

2009,

i
.e.
c
a
m
eras
a
t

49

s
i
t
es
w
it
h

each

ca
m
era s
e
t

f
or

2
8 da
y
s.
T
he
p
re
-
con
t
r
o
l

o
c
cupa
nc
y

ra
t
e
w
as

he
l
d
cons
t
ant

at

0.53,
w
h
i
l
st

t
he

pos
t
-
con
t
r
o
l

o
ccup
a
ncy

r
a
t
e

w
as s
e
t

a
t

v
ar
i
o
us

l
e
v
e
l
s
be
t
w
een 0
.
1
and
0.5, r
e
pr
e
se
n
ti
ng

v
ar
i
o
u
s
l
ev
e
l
s of

c
on
t
rol

e
f
f
i
cac
y
.
F
or

each

l
e
v
el

w
e

ran
d
o
m
l
y
g
ener
a
t
ed

t
he

s
i
t
e
occup
a
ncy

and
t
he s
u
bse
qu
ent

d
e
t
e
c
t
i
on
h
i
s
t
ory

ba
s
ed

on a d
a
il
y

d
e
t
e
c
ti
o
n pr
o
ba
b
i
l
i
t
y

of

0.05.

T
h
e
occup
a
ncy

ra
t
e
w
as

e
s
ti
m
a
t
ed f
r
om

t
he r
e
su
l
t
i
ng

da
t
a,

a
l
ong

w
it
h

i
t
s c
o
r
r
esp
o
nd
i
n
g

conf
i
d
e
nce
i
n
t
er
v
a
l
.

When

t
he

co
n
f
i
d
e
n
ce
i
n
t
e
r
v
al

m
i
nus
t
h
e p
r
e
-
con
t
r
o
l

o
c
cup
a
ncy

ra
t
e e
x
c
l
u
d
ed
z
ero,

t
h
i
s
i
nd
i
c
a
t
ed

t
h
a
t

a
s
i
g
n
i
f
i
c
a
nt

d
i
f
fe
r
en
c
e
w
ou
l
d

ha
v
e been

de
t
e
c
t
ed.

T
h
i
s
p
roc
e
ss
w
a
s

rep
e
a
t
e
d 1000
ti
m
es,
w
i
t
h
t
h
e p
r
opo
r
t
i
on
o
f

t
i
m
es
t
h
a
t

a
d
i
f
fe
r
en
c
e
w
a
s de
t
e
c
t
ed
u
sed
a
s
t
he po
w
e
r

t
o
d
e
t
ect

t
h
at
d
i
f
fe
r
en
c
e.

T
h
i
s
w
as

re
p
ea
t
ed f
o
r

t
h
e
d
i
f
f
e
r
ent

l
e
v
e
l
s
o
f

oc
c
upancy

r
a
t
e,

and

at

d
i
f
fe
r
ent

l
e
v
e
l
s of
da
i
l
y

de
t
e
c
t
i
on
p
roba
b
i
l
it
y

(
0.02 and

0.1).


U
nce
r
t
a
i
n
t
y

aro
u
nd
t
he
e
s
ti
m
a
t
ed

ra
t
e of

occ
u
pancy

i
s

re
l
a
t
e
d
t
o

de
t
e
c
ti
on

pr
o
ba
b
i
l
i
t
y
,
t
he

l
e
v
el

o
f
occup
a
ncy

i
t
se
l
f, a
n
d
t
h
e
n
u
m
ber

of

s
i
t
e
s.
W
e us
e
d
t
h
e

co
-
eff
i
c
i
e
n
t

of

v
a
r
i
a
ti
o
n
(
t
h
e r
a
ti
o

of

t
he
s
t
an
d
ard

de
v
i
a
ti
on

of

t
he

e
s
ti
m
a
t
e

t
o
i
t
s
m
ean)

t
o
a
ss
e
s
s
t
he

d
i
ff
e
re
n
ce

i
n p
r
e
c
i
s
i
on

of

o
c
cupa
n
cy
ra
t
es

(0.3, 0.
5
, 0.7
a
nd 0.
9
)

o
v
er

a r
a
n
g
e of

d
e
t
e
c
t
i
on
p
r
obab
i
l
i
t
i
es

(0.2

t
o 1.
0
)

f
o
r

m
ore and
l
e
ss
s
i
t
es.




2.7

Fe
r
al

cat

a
bun
da
n
ce

We
a
sse
s
sed

f
e
ral

c
a
t

ab
un
dance

i
n 2
0
08
a
t

LGNP
-
sou
t
h and
LGNP
-
nor
t
h by

i
n
de
n
t
i
f
y
i
ng
i
nd
i
v
i
d
u
a
l
s ba
s
ed on
m
u
l
t
i
p
l
e

i
m
a
g
es of

fe
r
al

ca
t
s c
a
p
t
ured by

ca
m
eras

and n
o
t
i
ng

coat
co
l
o
u
r
a
ti
o
n
,
m
ar
k
i
n
g
s, and band
i
n
g
.
D
e
t
e
c
ti
o
n
s
o
f

c
a
t
s

at

c
a
m
era s
i
t
es

w
ere

i
n
c
l
u
d
ed
i
n

t
he
ana
l
y
s
i
s o
n
l
y

i
f

m
u
lt
i
p
l
e

i
m
a
g
es
w
ere

rec
o
rd
e
d sho
w
i
n
g

bo
t
h f
l
an
k
s,
t
he

he
a
d and

t
he
b
ack

of

t
he
ca
t
.


C
oat

c
o
l
o
u
r
a
ti
on

w
as
d
i
v
i
d
ed
i
n
t
o
f
our

ba
s
i
c

t
y
pes, b
l
a
c
k
,
g
i
n
g
er, and
t
abb
y
,
w
i
t
h

t
o
r
t
o
i
se
s
he
l
l
i
n
c
l
uded

as a

sub
s
et

of

t
ab
by
.
T
abb
i
es
w
e
re

fu
r
t
h
e
r

d
i
v
i
ded
i
n
t
o

f
i
v
e
t
y
pes
o
f

c
oat

p
a
t
t
ern,

ea
c
h
poss
e
ss
i
ng

un
i
que
m
ar
k
i
n
g
s.
I
nd
i
v
i
dua
l
s
w
i
t
h
i
n a

co
a
t

t
y
pe,
eg

c
l
a
s
s
i
c
t
a
bb
y
, cou
l
d be
i
d
en
t
i
f
i
e
d
from

i
nd
i
v
i
d
u
al

p
a
t
t
e
rns

fr
o
m

m
u
lti
p
l
e

i
m
a
g
es.


A

‘c
l
as
s
i
c

t
abb
y


h
a
s b
o
l
d,

s
w
i
r
li
ng

p
a
tt
e
rns

on
i
t
s

s
i
de
s.
T
he
p
a
t
t
e
r
n of

c
i
rc
u
l
ar

b
l
o
t
ch
e
s
(
or
s
m
ud
g
es)

on
t
he
b
ody

c
l
o
s
e
l
y

rese
m
b
l
es

a b
u
ll
s
e
y
e. A


m
a
c
k
erel

t
abb
y


h
as

n
a
r
r
ow

s
t
r
i
p
e
s r
u
nn
i
ng
do
w
n
t
he

s
i
d
es

i
n a
v
e
r
t
i
c
a
l

pa
t
t
er
n
.

T
he

s
t
r
i
p
es
a
re u
nb
ro
k
en
l
i
ne
s
;

e
v
en
l
y

sp
a
ced,

w
h
i
ch
b
ran
c
h
out

f
rom

one s
t
r
i
pe
t
hat

ru
n
s a
l
o
ng

t
he
t
op of

t
h
e c
a
t
'
s back

do
w
n
t
he

sp
i
n
e,
r
ese
m
b
li
ng

a
f
i
sh
s
k
e
l
e
t
o
n
. A

‘s
p
o
t
t
ed

t
abb
y


has s
p
o
t
s

a
l
l

o
v
er

it
s

s
i
des.

T
h
e
se

spo
t
s c
a
n be

l
a
r
g
e or

s
m
a
ll
, and
so
m
e
ti
m
es appe
a
r

t
o

be
b
r
ok
en

m
ac
k
erel

s
t
r
i
p
e
s.

T
hey

can be

rou
n
d, o
v
al

o
r

r
o
se
tt
es. A


t
i
c
k
ed
t
abb
y


(
so
m
e
ti
m
es ca
l
l
ed

A
b
y
ss
i
n
i
an
t
abby

or

a
g
ou
t
i

t
a
bb
y
)

does n
o
t

ha
v
e

t
he

t
r
a
d
i
ti
o
n
al

s
t
r
i
p
es
o
r
spo
t
s on

it
s

bod
y
.
H
o
w
e
v
er,
li
k
e
a
l
l

t
ab
b
i
e
s,
t
h
i
s

co
a
t

p
a
t
t
ern

has

t
abby

m
ar
k
i
n
g
s on
t
he

fa
c
e and
a
g
ou
t
i

h
a
i
r
s on

t
he
b
od
y
. A


t
o
r
t
o
i
se
-
she
l
l

t
abb
y


h
a
s s
e
par
a
t
e
p
a
t
c
hes

of

b
ro
w
n
t
a
b
by

and red
t
abby

on
t
he
s
a
m
e an
i
m
a
l
.
T
o
r
t
o
i
se
-
she
l
l

t
ab
b
i
es

can

s
how

any

one of

t
he

abo
v
e
f
our

d
i
s
t
i
n
c
t

t
abby
pa
t
t
er
n
s.

T
he

m
ar
k
i
n
g
s are

usua
l
l
y

m
ore appa
r
ent

on
t
h
e
l
e
g
s and

hea
d
.

E
v
a
lu
at
io
n

o
f

c
a
m
e
r
a

t
r
a
p

s
a
mpli
n
g

d
e
s
ign
s

u
s
e
d

t
o

d
ete
rmin
e

c
h
a
ng
e

i
n

o
cc
up
a
n
cy

r
at
e

a
n
d

a
bund
a
n
ce

o
f

f
e
r
a
l

c
at
s

A
r
t
hu
r

R
yl
a
h

I
n
s
t
i
t
u
te

fo
r

E
nviro
n
m
e
n
ta
l

R
e
s
e
a
r
ch

Te
c
hni
c
a
l

R
e
por
t

No

2
0
1

11





F
or

e
a
ch
s
i
t
e s
u
r
v
ey

a cap
t
u
re
h
i
s
t
ory

m
a
t
r
i
x

X

w
as

co
n
s
t
r
u
c
t
ed
w
h
e
re
X
i
j

= 1

i
n
d
i
c
a
t
es

ca
p
t
u
re
o
f
cat

i

d
u
r
i
ng

p
e
r
i
od

j
,
a
nd
X
i
j

= 0 de
n
o
t
e
s non
-
cap
t
u
re.
A
l
l

i
n
d
i
v
i
dua
l
s
i
n

t
h
e pop
u
l
a
t
i
on
w
e
re
assu
m
ed
t
o
b
e p
r
ese
n
t

t
hr
oug
hout

t
he

dur
a
t
i
on
o
f

t
h
e s
u
r
v
e
y
,
i
.e.
t
he

pop
u
l
a
t
i
on
w
a
s as
s
u
m
ed
t
o be
c
l
o
s
ed
t
o b
i
r
t
hs, d
e
a
t
h
s a
n
d

m
i
g
ra
ti
o
n. A

br
o
ad
c
l
a
s
s of

cap
t
u
re
-
reca
p
t
u
r
e
m
ode
l
s,

c
a
l
l
ed
c
l
o
s
ed
popu
l
a
t
i
on
m
ode
l
s,

can
b
e

used

t
o a
n
a
l
y
se

t
h
i
s
t
y
pe
o
f

da
t
a

(
O
t
i
s
e
t

a
l
.
1
9
78).

T
he

s
i
m
p
l
est

m
odel
(M
0
)

assu
m
es
t
hat

ea
c
h
i
n
d
i
v
i
dual

h
a
s a

con
s
t
a
n
t

c
a
p
t
u
r
e pro
b
ab
i
l
i
t
y

acr
o
ss

ti
m
e p
e
r
i
o
d
s
t
h
at

i
s
i
nde
p
ende
n
t

o
f

w
h
e
t
h
e
r

i
t

h
as b
e
en c
a
p
t
u
red
b
ef
o
re.
G
e
ner
a
l

m
ode
l
s
e
x
i
s
t

t
h
a
t

a
ll
o
w

cap
t
u
re
proba
b
i
li
ti
e
s
t
o

d
i
f
f
er

w
i
t
h

t
i
m
e (M
t
),
w
i
t
h a

beha
v
i
o
u
r
a
l

r
e
spo
n
se
t
o ca
p
t
u
re

(M
b
),

w
it
h

t
he
i
nd
i
v
i
d
u
al

cat

be
c
ause

of

he
t
ero
g
en
e
ous
c
ap
t
ure

pro
b
a
b
i
l
i
t
i
es

(M
h
), or

co
m
b
i
na
t
i
o
n
s of

t
he
s
e
fa
c
t
o
r
s
(
M
t
h
, M
tb
, M
b
h
, M
t
b
h
)
. We
u
sed

t
he
m
e
t
hod
o
f

f
i
n
it
e
m
i
x
t
ur
e
s
t
h
at

a
l
l
o
w
s

for

i
nd
i
v
i
d
u
a
l
s
t
o
be
l
ong

t
o

one
o
f

t
h
e
e
i
g
ht

c
l
as
s
es
o
f

c
ap
t
u
re
p
ro
b
ab
i
l
i
t
i
es
l
i
s
t
ed
a
bo
v
e (
P
l
ed
g
er

2
0
00).

E
v
a
lu
at
io
n

o
f

c
a
m
e
r
a

t
r
a
p

s
a
mpli
n
g

d
e
s
ign
s

u
s
e
d

t
o

d
ete
rmin
e

c
h
a
ng
e

i
n

o
cc
up
a
n
cy

r
at
e

a
n
d

a
bund
a
n
ce

o
f

f
e
r
a
l

c
at
s

12

A
r
t
hu
r

R
yl
a
h

I
n
s
t
i
t
u
te

fo
r

E
nviro
n
m
e
n
ta
l

R
e
s
ea
r
c
h

Te
c
hni
c
a
l

R
e
por
t

N
o
.

2
0
1





3

R
e
s
u
l
ts


3
.
1

D
iff
e
r
e
n
ce

i
n

occ
u
p
a
n
cy

r
ate



pa
ir
e
d

c
a
m
e
r
a
s
,

2008

Wh
i
l
e
p
r
i
m
ar
i
l
y

focu
s
ed on

t
he
a
b
i
l
i
t
y

of

t
h
e ca
m
era
m
on
i
t
o
r
i
ng

pro
t
o
col

t
o

as
s
ess

d
i
f
f
e
ren
c
es

i
n
t
he
o
ccu
p
ancy

r
a
t
e
o
f

f
e
r
a
l

ca
t
s

b
e
t
w
een
LGNP
-
sou
t
h

and
LGNP
-
nor
t
h,
w
e a
l
so

i
nc
l
u
d
ed
s
i
x
na
t
i
v
e spe
c
i
es

and

t
he

red

f
ox as
w
e
h
ad
s
uf
f
i
c
i
e
n
t

d
e
t
e
c
t
i
ons

t
o un
d
e
r
t
a
k
e
t
h
e an
a
l
y
ses.


T
he

m
on
it
o
r
i
ng

pr
o
t
oc
o
l

d
e
t
e
c
t
ed

a d
i
f
f
er
e
nce

i
n o
c
cu
p
ancy

ra
t
e of

f
e
r
a
l

c
a
t
s
b
e
t
w
een
t
he
t
w
o
s
i
t
es.

T
h
e

e
s
ti
m
a
t
ed

pro
b
a
b
i
l
it
y

of
o
ccu
p
ancy

for

f
e
r
a
l

ca
t
s

w
as

g
re
a
t
e
r
a
t
LGNP
-
s
ou
t
h

(
ψ

=

0
.
69

±

0.10

SE
)

co
m
pared

t
o

LGN
P
-
nor
t
h

(
ψ

=

0.
5
0

±

0.13

S
E
) du
r
i
ng

2008.

T
h
e

pr
o
ba
b
i
l
it
y

t
h
a
t

occup
a
ncy

ra
t
es
w
e
re
h
i
g
her

at

LGNP
-
sou
t
h
w
as

0.88

(
i
.e. 8
8
%
;

T
a
b
l
e
1
)

su
gg
es
t
i
ng

t
hat

t
he
c
at
popu
l
a
t
i
on
w
as
m
ore
p
re
v
a
l
ent

a
t

LGNP
-
sou
t
h.


T
he

m
on
it
o
r
i
ng

pr
o
t
oc
o
l

a
l
so

e
s
ti
m
a
t
ed

t
he

pro
b
ab
i
l
i
t
y

of o
c
cupa
n
cy

for

fox
e
s

at

LGN
P
-
sou
t
h

(
ψ

=

0.24

±

0.17

S
E
)

as

m
uch

l
o
w
er

t
h
an

t
hat

f
o
r

LGNP
-
nor
t
h

(
ψ

=

0.60

±

0
.
21

SE
;

T
a
b
l
e

1
).

T
he
proba
b
i
li
t
y

t
hat

s
i
t
e
o
ccu
pa
ncy

w
as h
i
g
her

a
t

LGNP
-
sou
t
h
w
as
v
ery

l
ow

for

fo
x
es

(0.04
o
r

4
%),
su
gg
es
ti
ng

t
hat

fo
x
es
a
re

s
i
g
n
i
f
i
c
a
n
t
l
y

m
ore co
m
m
on
i
n
LGN
P
-
nor
t
h.


S
ou
t
h
e
rn
B
r
o
w
n
B
an
d
i
co
o
t
s (
I
soodon

ob
e
su
l
u
s
)

w
e
re

s
i
g
n
i
f
i
ca
n
tl
y

m
ore
w
i
des
p
r
e
ad
i
n
LGNP
-

sou
t
h,

w
he
r
eas
R
e
d
-
nec
k
ed

Wa
l
l
a
b
i
e
s
(
Ma
c
ropus

ru
f
o
gr
i
s
eu
s
)

and
C
o
mm
on
R
i
ng
t
a
i
l

P
o
s
su
m
s
(
P
seu
d
och
e
i
r
u
s p
e
reg
r
i
n
u
s
)

w
ere
s
i
g
n
i
f
i
c
a
n
t
l
y

m
ore co
m
m
on
i
n
LGN
P
-
nor
t
h
(
T
a
b
l
e
1
).

T
he
res
u
l
t
s
f
rom

o
t
her

spe
c
i
e
s

w
ere
m
ore eq
u
i
v
oca
l
.


Ta
b
le

1.

E
s
t
i
m
a
t
e
d

p
r
o
b
a
b
ili
t
y

o
f

s
i
t
e

o
cc
up
a
n
c
y

f
o
r

s
p
ec
i
e
s

d
e
t
ec
t
e
d

at

LGN
P
-
s
o
ut
h

a
n
d

LGN
P
-

n
o
r
t
h

s
i
t
e
s

a
n
d

th
e

p
r
o
b
a
b
ili
t
y

th
at

s
i
t
e

o
c
c
up
a
n
c
y

i
s

h
i
gh
e
r

in

t
h
e

t
r
e
a
t
e
d

s
i
t
e
.

S
E

s
h
o
wn

in
p
ar
e
nth
e
ses
.


S
p
e
c
i
e
s

LGN
P
-
s
out
h

LGN
P
-
no
r
t
h

P
r
(
s
ou
t
h

>

no
r
t
h
)

Fe
ra
l

C
a
t

0.69

(0.10)

0.50

(0.13)

0.88


Sou
t
h
e
r
n

B
r
own

Ba
n
d
i
coot


0.67

(0.18)


0.15

(0.11)


0
.
99


Sw
a
mp

W
all
a
b
y


0.57

(0.16)


0.50

(0.17)


0.65


C
ommon

B
r
u
s
h
tai
l

P
o
ss
um


0.58

(0.08)


0.56

(0.09)


0.
5
9


W
e
s
t
e
r
n

G
r
e
y

K
a
n
g
ar
oo


0.34

(0.11)


0.
43

(0.13)


0.27


R
e
d

F
ox


0.24

(0.17)


0.60

(0.21)


0.04


R
ed
-
n
e
c
k
e
d

W
a
ll
a
b
y


0.38

(0.11)


0.71

(0.13)


0.02


C
ommon

R
i
n
g
tai
l

P
o
s
s
um


0.13

(0.11)


0.52

(0.21)


0.01



3
.
2

D
iff
e
r
e
n
ce

i
n

occ
u
p
a
n
cy

r
ate



s
in
g
l
e

ca
m
e
r
a,

2009

I
n
O
c
t
ober

2009
w
e

re
m
oved
t
w
o

fe
m
a
l
e and

t
w
o
m
a
l
e f
e
ral

c
a
t
s

from

t
he
LGN
P

sou
t
h a
f
t
e
r

1368
t
rap

n
i
g
h
t
s

-

acap
t
u
r
e
r
a
t
e

o
f

0.3
c
a
t
s p
e
r

100

t
r
ap n
i
g
h
t
s
(
T
a
b
l
e
2
).


O
f

t
he

s
i
x

occ
u
pancy

m
ode
l
s
t
e
s
t
ed

for

t
he

2009
d
a
t
a,
t
he
m
ost

pa
r
s
i
m
on
i
ous
m
odel

w
as

f
o
r
cons
t
ant

oc
c
upancy

(
ψ

=

0
.
336)
a
nd

co
n
s
t
ant

de
t
ec
t
i
on

prob
a
b
i
l
i
t
y

(
p

=

0.
0
45)

b
e
f
ore

a
nd

a
f
t
e
r

c
at
con
t
rol

(
T
a
b
l
e
3
).

E
v
a
lu
at
io
n

o
f

c
a
m
e
r
a

t
r
a
p

s
a
mpli
n
g

d
e
s
ign
s

u
s
e
d

t
o

d
ete
rmin
e

c
h
a
ng
e

i
n

o
cc
up
a
n
cy

r
at
e

a
n
d

a
bund
a
n
ce

o
f

f
e
r
a
l

c
at
s

A
r
t
hu
r

R
yl
a
h

I
n
s
t
i
t
u
te

fo
r

E
nviro
n
m
e
n
ta
l

R
e
s
e
a
r
ch

Te
c
hni
c
a
l

R
e
por
t

No

2
0
1

13



R
e
l
a
t
ive

o
c
c
u
pan
cy

r
a
te
s



Ta
b
le

2.

D
e
t
a
i
ls

o
f

f
e
ral

c
a
t
s

r
e
m
o
v
e
d

du
ri
n
g

th
e

c
o
n
t
r
o
l

o
p
e
ra
t
i
o
n
.


Da
t
e

Se
x

W
e
i
gh
t

(k
g
)

11/10/09

F

5.0


14/10/09


F


3.0


15/10/09


M


3.5


25/10/09


M


5.0




Ta
b
le

3.

D
e
t
a
i
ls

o
f

t
h
e

m
o
d
e
l

o
ut
c
o
m
e
s

ra
n
k
e
d

a
c
c
o
r
d
i
n
g

t
o

l
o
w
es
t

D
I
C
.


M
od
e
l

D
e
s
c
ri
pt
i
o
n

P
aram
e
t
e
rs

D
I
C

ψ
(.
)
,

p
(.)

O
ccu
pa
ncy

a
nd

d
e
t
e
c
ti
on

con
s
t
a
nt

2

320.5

ψ
(.
)
,

p
(c
a
m
e
r
a
)

D
e
t
e
c
ti
on

v
a
ri
e
s

w
it
h

c
a
m
e
r
a

t
y
p
e

3

331.5

ψ
(.
)
,

p
(c
a
m
e
r
a
+
ba
i
t

ho
l
d
e
r
)

D
e
t
e
c
ti
on

v
a
ri
e
s

w
it
h

c
a
m
e
r
a
a
nd
ba
i
t

ho
l
d
e
r

4

332.6

ψ
(
pd
),

p
(c
a
m
e
r
a
)

O
ccu
pa
ncy

v
a
r
i
e
s

w
it
h

p
e
ri
od

a
nd

d
e
t
e
c
ti
on
v
a
ri
e
s

w
it
h

c
a
m
e
r
a

4

333.1

ψ
(
pd
),

p
(c
a
m
e
r
a
+
b
a
i
t

ho
l
d
e
r
)

O
ccu
pa
ncy

v
a
r
i
e
s

w
it
h

p
e
ri
od

a
nd

d
e
t
e
c
ti
on
v
a
ri
e
s

w
it
h c
a
m
e
r
a

a
nd

b
a
i
t

h
o
l
d
e
r

5

337.8

ψ
(
pd
),

p
(c
a
m
e
r
a
+
b
a
i
t

ho
l
d
e
r

+
pd
)

O
ccu
pa
ncy

v
a
r
i
e
s

w
it
h

p
e
ri
od

a
nd

d
e
t
e
c
ti
on
v
a
ri
e
s

w
it
h c
a
m
e
r
a

a
nd

b
a
i
t

h
o
l
d
e
r

a
nd

p
e
ri
od

6

341.2



T
he

h
i
g
he
s
t

r
an
k
ed
m
odel

t
hat

a
l
l
o
w
ed
f
or

a

d
i
ff
e
re
n
ce

be
t
w
e
en b
e
fo
r
e and

a
f
t
e
r

c
on
t
r
o
l
occup
a
ncy

ra
t
es

w
a
s

m
odel

ψ
(pd),

p
(
ca
m
era),

w
it
h

e
s
t
i
m
a
t
es

of

o
c
cup
a
ncy

bef
o
re

of

ψ

=

0
.
53

±

0.129

S
E

a
n
d

a
f
t
e
r of

ψ

=

0
.45

±

0
.137
SE
.

B
a
sed

o
n

t
h
i
s

m
ode
l
,

t
h
e
re

w
as

a

6
8
%

chan
c
e of

a

dec
r
ea
s
e
i
n

occu
p
ancy

by

fer
a
l

c
a
t
s

fo
l
l
o
w
i
ng

con
t
r
ol

(
F
i
g
. 6).
H
o
w
e
v
er,
t
he 9
5
%

cre
d
i
b
l
e
l
i
m
it
s
o
f
t
he

t
r
e
a
t
m
ent

e
f
f
ect

o
v
er
l
a
p

z
ero
i
n
d
i
c
a
t
i
ng

t
hat

a
s
i
g
n
i
f
i
c
ant

e
f
fe
c
t

o
f

t
re
a
t
m
ent

w
as n
o
t
de
t
e
c
t
a
b
l
e
;

.
e
. re
m
o
v
i
ng

four

i
n
d
i
v
i
du
a
l
s
w
a
s n
o
t

en
oug
h
t
o show

a
s
i
g
n
i
f
i
c
a
nce
d
i
f
f
e
r
ence

i
n
occup
a
ncy

ra
t
es.


1


0.
8


0.
6


0.
4


0.
2


0


-
0.
2


-
0.
4


-
0.
6



B
e
f
o
r
e

c
ont
r
o
l

A
f
te
r

c
o
nt
r
o
l

T
r
eat
m
en
t

e
f
fe
ct


F
i
gu
r
e

6.

O
cc
up
a
n
c
y

ra
t
e

fo
r

f
e
r
al

c
a
t
s

b
e
f
or
e

a
n
d

af
t
e
r

c
o
nt
r
o
l,

a
n
d

th
e

t
r
e
a
t
m
e
n
t

e
ff
e
c
t

o
f

c
o
nt
r
o
l

o
n

o
cc
up
a
n
c
y

f
r
o
m

m
o
d
e
l

ψ
(pd
)
p
(
c
a
m
e
ra
)
.

B
ars

a
re

9
5%

c
r
e
d
i
b
l
e

i
nt
e
r
v
al
s
.

E
v
a
lu
at
io
n

o
f

c
a
m
e
r
a

t
r
a
p

s
a
mpli
n
g

d
e
s
ign
s

u
s
e
d

t
o

d
ete
rmin
e

c
h
a
ng
e

i
n

o
cc
up
a
n
cy

r
at
e

a
n
d

a
bund
a
n
ce

o
f

f
e
r
a
l

c
at
s

14

A
r
t
hu
r

R
yl
a
h

I
n
s
t
i
t
u
te

fo
r

E
nviro
n
m
e
n
ta
l

R
e
s
ea
r
c
h

Te
c
hni
c
a
l

R
e
por
t

N
o
.

2
0
1



D
e
t
ection

P
r
o
ba
bi
l
i
t
y

D
e
t
e
c
t
i
o
n

Pr
obabili
t
y



3.3

D
e
t
e
ct
i
on

p
r
o
b
a
bili
t
i
e
s

f
or

occ
u
pa
n
cy

m
od
e
llin
g

3.3.1

P
a
i
r
e
d

c
a
m
e
ras,

2008

T
he

s
i
t
e

l
e
v
el

d
a
i
l
y

de
t
e
c
t
i
o
n pro
b
ab
i
l
i
t
i
es

for

fe
r
al

c
a
t
s

per

s
i
t
e
i
n 2008

d
i
ff
e
red

b
e
t
w
een
R
e
con
y
x
ca
m
eras (
p

= 0.0
7
7)

and

T
r
a
i
l
Mac

ca
m
eras

(
p
=

0.05
4
).

T
he
s
e d
a
il
y

d
e
t
e
c
ti
o
n pr
o
bab
i
l
i
t
i
es
t
ra
n
s
l
a
t
e

i
n
t
o
a
n 8
1
%

and

6
9%

c
h
ance

of

at

l
e
a
st

o
ne
f
er
a
l

c
a
t

a
t

an

occ
u
p
i
e
d s
i
t
e

be
i
ng

de
t
e
c
t
ed
o
v
er

21 da
y
s f
o
r

R
ec
o
n
y
x and
T
r
a
i
l
Mac

ca
m
eras

re
s
p
e
c
ti
v
e
l
y

(
F
i
g
. 7).


0
.
9


0
.
8


0
.
7



R
e
c
o
n
y
x

T
r
a
i
l
M
a
c


0
.
6


0
.
5


0
.
4


0
.
3


0
.
2


0
.
1


0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

1
0

1
1

1
2

1
3

1
4

1
5

1
6

1
7

1
8

1
9

2
0

2
1


D
a
y
s


F
i
gu
r
e

7.

C
u
m
u
la
t
i
v
e

m
e
an

d
e
t
ec
t
i
o
n

p
r
o
b
a
b
ili
t
i
e
s

f
o
r

f
e
r
a
l

c
a
t
s

in

2
0
08

u
s
i
n
g

R
ec
o
n
y
x

(
s
o
lid

li
n
e
)

a
n
d

T
rail
M
ac

(d
a
s
h
e
d

li
n
e
)

c
a
m
e
r
a
s
.



3.3.2

S
ingl
e

ca
m
e
ra,

2009

T
he

s
i
t
e
-
l
e
v
el

d
a
il
y

de
t
e
c
ti
o
n pro
b
ab
i
l
i
t
i
es

for

fe
r
al

c
a
t
s

per

s
i
t
e
i
n 2009

d
i
ff
e
red

s
i
g
n
i
f
i
c
a
n
t
l
y
be
t
w
e
e
n
R
econ
y
x ca
m
er
a
s

(
p
=

0
.
060

±

0.018

SE
)

a
nd

S
cout

G
u
ard

ca
m
eras

(
p

=

0.017

±

0.029
SE
).
A
f
t
er

28

da
y
s
t
h
ese
d
a
i
l
y

proba
b
i
l
i
t
i
e
s c
o
rr
e
spond

t
o cu
m
u
l
a
ti
v
e d
e
t
e
c
t
i
on pro
b
ab
i
l
i
t
i
es

of

8
2
%

and

37%

f
o
r

R
ec
on
y
x and
S
cout

G
u
ard

re
s
pe
c
t
i
v
e
l
y

(
F
i
g
. 8).


0
.
9


0
.
8


0
.
7



R
e
c
on
y
x
S
co
u
t
G
u
a
r
d


0
.
6


0
.
5


0
.
4


0
.
3


0
.
2


0
.
1


0

1

2

3

4

5

6


7

8

9

1
0

11

12

1
3

1
4

1
5

1
6

17

18

1
9

2
0

2
1

2
2

23

24

2
5

2
6

2
7

2
8

D
a
ys


F
i
gu
r
e

8.

C
u
m
u
la
t
i
v
e

m
e
an

d
e
t
ec
t
i
o
n

p
r
o
b
a
b
ili
t
i
e
s

f
o
r

f
e
r
a
l

c
a
t
s

at

LGN
P
-
s
o
ut
h

in

2009

u
s
i
n
g

R
ec
o
n
y
x

(
s
o
lid

li
n
e
)

a
n
d

S
c
o
u
t

G
u
ard

(d
a
s
h
e
d

li
n
e
)

c
a
me
r
as

E
v
a
lu
at
io
n

o
f

c
a
m
e
r
a

t
r
a
p

s
a
mpli
n
g

d
e
s
ign
s

u
s
e
d

t
o

d
ete
rmin
e

c
h
a
ng
e

i
n

o
cc
up
a
n
cy

r
at
e

a
n
d

a
bund
a
n
ce

o
f

f
e
r
a
l

c
at
s

A
r
t
hu
r

R
yl
a
h

I
n
s
t
i
t
u
te

fo
r

E
nviro
n
m
e
n
ta
l

R
e
s
e
a
r
ch

Te
c
hni
c
a
l

R
e
por
t

No

2
0
1

15



P
o
w
er



T
he

h
i
g
he
s
t

r
an
k
ed
m
odel

t
hat

c
on
s
i
d
e
red
b
a
i
t
-
ho
l
der

w
as
m
odel

ps
i
(.
)
p
(
c
a
m
era
+
ba
i
t

ho
l
de
r
)
(
T
ab
l
e
4
).
F
rom

t
h
i
s
m
ode
l
,

R
econ
y
x ca
m
eras
h
ad a
h
i
g
her

de
t
ec
t
i
on
p
ro
b
ab
i
l
i
t
y

t
han
S
co
u
t

G
u
a
rd
ca
m
eras.

T
h
e
re
w
a
s an

e
f
f
e
ct

o
f

b
a
it
-
ho
l
der

t
y
pe,
w
i
t
h

w
i
re

ca
g
es ha
v
i
ng

a h
i
g
her

de
t
e
c
t
i
on
proba
b
i
li
t
y

t
han
P
V
C

p
i
pe.

T
he

h
i
g
he
s
t

co
m
b
i
n
a
ti
o
n of

da
i
l
y

de
t
e
c
t
i
on
p
roba
b
i
li
t
y

w
as f
r
om

a
co
m
b
i
na
t
i
on of

R
econ
y
x c
a
m
eras and
w
i
re
c
a
g
e
(
T
a
b
l
e

4).




Ta
b
le

4.

D
e
t
e
c
t
i
o
n

p
r
o
b
a
b
i
l
i
t
i
e
s

in

2
0
09

b
y

c
o
m
b
i
n
a
t
i
o
n
s

o
f

c
a
m
e
r
a

a
n
d

b
ai
t
-
h
o
l
d
e
r

typ
e

f
r
o
m

m
od
e
l

p
s
i
(.)
p
(
c
a
m
e
ra
+b
ait

ho
l
d
e
r)

S
E

s
h
o
w
n

i
n

pa
r
e
n
t
he
s
i
s.


C
am
e
r
a

B
ait

h
o
l
d
e
r

D
e
t
ec
t
i
o
n

p
r
o
b
a
b
ili
t
y

R
e
con
y
x

w
ir
e

c
a
g
e

0.071

(0.018)


R
e
con
y
x


P
VC


0.043

(0.016)


Scout

G
u
ar
d


w
ir
e

c
a
g
e


0.019

(0.010)


Scout

G
u
ar
d


P
VC


0
.011

(0.005)



3.4

Pow
e
r

a
n
a
l
y
s
i
s

F
or

e
a
ch
l
e
v
el

of

d
a
il
y

de
t
e
c
t
i
on p
r
oba
b
i
l
it
y

(0.
1
0, 0.
0
5, 0.01)

t
he

po
w
er

t
o
d
e
t
ect

a re
d
uc
t
i
on

i
n
occup
a
ncy

i
n
c
re
a
ses

as

t
he

d
i
f
fe
r
en
c
e b
e
t
w
een
p
re
-
con
t
r
o
l

and

po
s
t
-
con
t
rol

i
n
cr
ea
sed.
H
i
g
her
de
t
e
c
t
i
on
p
rob
a
b
i
l
i
ti
e
s h
a
d

an
i
n
cr
e
a
s
i
ng

po
w
er

t
o d
e
t
e
ct

a
d
i
f
f
e
re
n
ce (
F
i
g
. 9).


I
n
t
he 2009 s
t
udy

at

LGNP
-
sou
t
h

t
he

i
n
i
t
i
a
l

p
r
e
-
con
t
rol

occup
a
ncy

ra
t
e
w
as

0.53,
a
nd f
o
ll
o
w
i
ng
con
t
rol

i
t

w
as 0.
4
5,
a
lt
h
o
u
g
h
t
h
i
s
d
i
f
fe
r
ence
w
as n
o
t

st
a
t
i
s
t
i
c
a
ll
y

s
i
g
n
i
f
i
ca
n
t

(
F
i
g
. 6).
B
a
s
ed on

t
he
po
w
er

a
n
a
l
y
s
i
s,
t
h
e
r
e
w
as
o
n
l
y

a 20%

cha
n
ce
o
f

d
e
t
e
c
t
i
ng

a s
i
g
n
i
f
i
ca
n
t

d
e
cr
e
ase

i
n

occup
a
ncy

as
m
easured
a
f
t
e
r

t
he
c
at

con
tr
ol

op
e
r
a
ti
o
n.




1
.
0




0
.
8

p
=
0
.
1
0

p
=
0
.
0
5

p
=
0
.
0
2



0
.
6




0
.
4




0
.
2




0
.
0


0
.
0

0
.
1

0
.
2

0
.
3

0
.
4

0
.
5

0
.
6

0
.
7


O
cc
u
pa
n
cy

R
a
t
e


F
i
gu
r
e

9.

R
es
u
l
t
s

o
f

t
h
e

p
o
w
e
r

a
n
a
l
y
s
i
s

f
o
r

d
e
t
ec
t
in
g

c
h
a
ng
e

in

o
c
c
up
a
n
c
y

r
a
t
e

fo
r

f
e
r
al

c
at

c
o
nt
r
o
l.

E
v
a
lu
at
io
n

o
f

c
a
m
e
r
a

t
r
a
p

s
a
mpli
n
g

d
e
s
ign
s

u
s
e
d

t
o

d
ete
rmin
e

c
h
a
ng
e

i
n

o
cc
up
a
n
cy

r
at
e

a
n
d

a
bund
a
n
ce

o
f

f
e
r
a
l

c
at
s

16

A
r
t
hu
r

R
yl
a
h

I
n
s
t
i
t
u
te

fo
r

E
nviro
n
m
e
n
ta
l

R
e
s
ea
r
c
h

Te
c
hni
c
a
l

R
e
por
t

N
o
.

2
0
1



C
o
e
ff
ic
i
e
n
t

o
f

v
a
r
i
a
t
i
o
n

f
o
r

o
cc
u
p
a
n
cy

C
o
e
ff
i
c
i
e
n
t

o
f

v
a
r
i
a
t
i
o
n

f
o
r

o
cc
u
p
a
n
cy



T
he

r
e
su
l
t
s
o
f

t
he po
w
er

an
a
l
y
s
i
s

i
n
d
i
c
a
t
e

t
h
a
t
,
f
or

a
n
av
era
g
e da
il
y

d
e
t
e
c
ti
o
n pr
ob
ab
i
l
i
t
y

of

0.05,
pos
t
-
con
t
r
o
l

o
ccup
a
ncy

r
a
t
e
s nee
d
ed
t
o be

red
u
ced

t
o
(
a
t

m
os
t
)

0.3

i
n
o
rd
e
r

t
o

ha
v
e

an 8
0
%

po
w
e
r
of

d
e
t
e
c
t
i
ng

a s
i
g
n
i
f
i
c
ant

d
i
ff
e
re
n
ce.


T
he

un
c
e
r
t
a
i
n
t
y

aro
u
nd
t
h
e

es
t
i
m
a
t
ed
r
a
t
e

of

o
ccu
p
an
c
y

i
s re
l
a
t
ed
t
o d
e
t
e
c
t
i
on p
r
o
bab
i
l
i
t
y
,
t
he

l
e
v
el
of

o
c
cupa
n
cy

it
s
e
l
f, and

t
he

nu
m
ber

of

s
i
t
es.
A
n
e
xp
l
o
r
a
t
i
on of

t
he

p
r
ec
i
s
i
o
n of

o
c
cupancy
es
t
i
m
a
t
es
(
i
.e.

l
o
w
e
r

C
V
)

s
h
o
w
ed
t
h
at

p
re
c
i
s
i
on

i
m
proves
w
i
t
h
h
i
g
her

d
e
t
e
c
t
i
on p
r
o
bab
i
l
i
t
y
, as
w
e
l
l
as
w
i
t
h
h
i
g
her

oc
c
upa
n
cy

ra
t
e.
H
o
w
e
v
er,

t
he

p
r
ec
i
s
i
o
n

m
ar
k
ed
l
y

i
m
pro
v
es
w
it
h
a
n
i
n
c
re
a
se

i
n
t
he
nu
m
ber

of

s
it
e
s
f
rom

22
t
o

49 (
F
i
g
. 1
0
), re
g
a
r
d
l
e
ss
o
f

t
he nu
m
ber

of

ca
m
eras
s
et

a
t

a
s
i
t
e.

F
o
r
exa
m
p
l
e, f
o
r

an

o
v
era
l
l

d
e
t
ec
t
i
on
p
rob
a
b
i
l
i
t
y

of

0.8
an
d an o
c
cupa
n
cy

ra
t
e of

0.5

t
he
C
V

o
f
occup
a
ncy

for

2
2
s
it
e
s
i
s 0
.
26 and

for

4
9
s
it
e
s 0.17.

T
h
i
s
r
ep
r
ese
n
t
s

an
i
nc
r
ea
s
e
i
n

pre
c
i
s
i
on
o
f
33%.


1
.
0

1
.
0




0
.
8

O
c
c
u
p
an
c
y

R
a
t
e

0
.
3

0
.
5

0
.
7

0
.
9



0
.
8

O
cc
u
p
a
n
c
y

R
a
t
e

0
.
3

0
.
5

0
.
7

0
.
9


0
.
6


0
.
6



0
.
4

0
.
4



0
.
2

0
.
2



0
.
0

0
.
0


0
.
0

0
.
2

0
.
4

0
.
6

0
.
8

1
.
0

0
.
0

0
.
2

0
.
4

0
.
6

0
.
8

1
.
0


O
v
e
r
a
l
l

d
e
t
e
c
t
i
o
n

p
r
o
b
a
b
i
l
i
t
y

a
f
t
e
r

2
1

d
a
y
s


O
v
e
r
a
l
l

d
e
t
e
c
t
i
o
n

p
r
o
ba
b
i
l
i
t
y

a
ft
e
r

2
1

d
a
y
s


F
i
gu
r
e

10.

R
e
la
t
i
o
n
s
h
ip

b
e
t
w
ee
n

th
e

c
o
e
f
f
i
c
i
e
n
t

o
f

v
a
r
ia
t
i
o
n

(
C
V)

a
n
d

c
u
m
u
la
t
i
v
e

d
e
t
ec
t
i
o
n
p
r
o
b
a
b
ili
t
y

f
o
r

d
i
f
f
e
r
e
n
t

l
e
v
e
ls

o
f

o
c
c
up
a
n
c
y

ra
t
e
,

f
o
r

2
2

s
i
t
e
s

(
l
e
f
t
)

a
n
d

49

s
i
t
e
s

(
ri
ght)
.



3.5

Fe
r
al

cat

a
bun
da
n
ce

a
n
d

co
n
t
r
ol

I
n 2008, a
m
i
n
i
m
u
m

of

15
i
nd
i
v
i
du
a
l

c
a
t
s
w
e
re

i
de
n
t
i
fi
ed f
r
om

pho
t
o
g
raphs

i
n
L
G
N
P
-
sou
t
h and

6
i
n
LGNP
-
nor
t
h.

T
he
m
ost

a
ppro
p
r
i
a
t
e
m
odel

for

abun
d
ance
a
t

LGNP
-
sou
t
h
w
as

M
h

(
i
nd
i
v
i
du
a
l
s
m
a
y

ha
v
e d
i
ff
e
re
n
t

ph
o
t
o
-
cap
t
u
re
p
roba
b
i
l
i
ti
e
s
f
rom

one an
o
t
h
e
r, b
u
t

t
h
ese

re
m
a
i
n
t
he

sa
m
e acr
o
ss
ti
m
e pe
r
i
od
s
).
F
o
r

LGNP
-
n
or
t
h

t
he

s
e
l
e
c
t
ed
m
odel

w
a
s

M
0

(
a
l
l

i
n
d
i
v
i
du
a
l
s
h
a
v
e
t
h
e sa
m
e
proba
b
i
li
t
y

of

ca
p
t
u
r
e
i
n a
l
l

ti
m
e pe
r
i
od
s
).
D
e
t
a
i
l
s

of

m
odel

o
u
t
c
o
m
es are
p
ro
v
i
ded

i
n
A
ppe
n
d
i
x

1.


B
ased on

t
he

m
odel

s
e
l
e
c
t
i
on ou
t
co
m
es
w
e as
s
es
s
ed
a
bundan
c
e of

f
e
r
a
l

c
a
t
s

i
n
L
GN
P
-
sou
t
h and
LGN
P
-
nor
t
h (
F
i
g
ure 1
1
;

T
a
b
l
e
5
).

T
h
e
re
w
e
re

s
i
g
n
i
f
i
ca
n
tl
y

m
ore fe
r
al

c
a
t
s on

t
he

s
ou
t
h
s
i
t
e
(
n
=

19 ±

4
.
82
SD
)

co
m
pared
t
o

t
he n
o
r
t
h

(
n

= 6.7

±

1.
0
8

S
D
).

E
v
a
lu
at
io
n

o
f

c
a
m
e
r
a

t
r
a
p

s
a
mpli
n
g

d
e
s
ign
s

u
s
e
d

t
o

d
ete
rmin
e

c
h
a
ng
e

i
n

o
cc
up
a
n
cy

r
at
e

a
n
d

a
bund
a
n
ce

o
f

f
e
r
a
l

c
at
s

A
r
t
hu
r

R
yl
a
h

I
n
s
t
i
t
u
te

fo
r

E
nviro
n
m
e
n
ta
l

R
e
s
e
a
r
ch

Te
c
hni
c
a
l

R
e
por
t

No

2
0
1

17


















1
0

1
5

2
0

2
5

3
0

3
5

4
0

5

1
0

1
5

2
0



E
sti
m
a
t
e
d

A
b
u
nd
a
n
ce





E
s
t
i
m
a
t
e
d

A
b
u
nd
a
n
ce




F
i
gu
r
e

11.

E
s
t
i
ma
t
e
d

p
r
ob
a
b
ili
t
y

o
f

a
bund
a
n
c
e

o
f

f
er
a
l

c
a
t
s

a
n
d

LGN
P
-
s
out
h

a
n
d

LGN
P
-
no
r
th
.

I
n
t
hese p
l
o
t
s,

t
he
v
a
l
ues

l
e
ss
t
h
an 15

and 6

from

t
he

s
ou
t
h
a
nd n
o
r
t
h

p
l
o
t

a
re n
o
t

sa
m
p
l
ed
i
n

t
he
W
i
nbu
g
s
m
ark
-
recap
t
u
re
m
ode
l
.

T
h
ese

v
a
l
ues

are

l
e
ss

t
han
t
h
e
m
i
n
i
m
u
m

n
u
m
ber

k
no
w
n, so

t
hey
w
ou
l
d be

an

i
m
poss
i
b
l
e
v
a
l
ue.



Ta
b
le

5.

E
s
t
i
m
a
t
e
s

o
f

a
bu
n
d
a
n
c
e

f
o
r

e
a
c
h

a
r
e
a

fr
o
m

th
e

b
es
t

m
o
d
e
l,

al
o
n
g

wi
t
h

s
t
a
nd
ard

d
e
v
ia
t
i
o
n
.


A
r
e
a

M
od
e
l

M
e
an

S
D

Sou
t
h

M
h

19.87

4.82

N
o
rt
h

M
0

6.7

1.08

E
v
a
lu
at
io
n

o
f

c
a
m
e
r
a

t
r
a
p

s
a
mpli
n
g

d
e
s
ign
s

u
s
e
d

t
o

d
ete
rmin
e

c
h
a
ng
e

i
n

o
cc
up
a
n
cy

r
at
e

a
n
d

a
bund
a
n
ce

o
f

f
e
r
a
l

c
at
s

18

A
r
t
hu
r

R
yl
a
h

I
n
s
t
i
t
u
te

fo
r

E
nviro
n
m
e
n
ta
l

R
e
s
ea
r
c
h

Te
c
hni
c
a
l

R
e
por
t

N
o
.

2
0
1





4

D
i
s
cu
ss
io
n


O
ur

a
i
m

w
as
t
o

f
u
r
t
h
er

d
e
v
e
l
op

t
he

ca
m
era
m
on
it
o
r
i
ng

pro
t
oc
o
l

e
s
t
a
b
l
i
shed

i
n
e
a
rl
i
er

w
o
rk
(
R
ob
l
ey

e
t

a
l
. 200
8
)

a
n
d
t
o

ass
e
ss

it
s

ab
il
it
y

t
o
m
easu
r
e

chan
g
e
i
n

a
f
er
a
l

c
at

p
o
pu
l
a
t
i
on b
e
fo
r
e and
af
t
er

l
e
t
h
a
l

co
n
t
r
o
l
.


T
he

m
on
it
o
r
i
ng

pr
o
t
oc
o
l

d
ev
e
l
oped
e
a
r
li
e
r

i
nd
i
ca
t
ed 49

ca
m
eras
s
et

for

2
0 da
y
s
a
t

one ca
m
era
p
er
s
i
t
e
w
ou
l
d be

su
f
f
i
c
i
e
nt

t
o
d
e
t
e
c
t

a

50%

de
c
re
a
se

i
n
f
e
r
al

c
a
t
s

15%

of

t
he

ti
m
e.
I
n
t
he
f
i
r
s
t

p
a
rt

of
t
h
i
s c
u
rr
e
nt

w
o
rk

w
e set

4
4

ca
m
eras
a
t

22
si
t
es

(
t
w
o

c
a
m
eras per

s
i
t
e)

f
o
r

an

a
v
er
ag
e of

21 da
y
s
t
o
i
n
v
es
t
i
g
a
t
e
i
f

d
u
al

ca
m
eras

at

a

l
o
w
e
r

nu
m
ber

of

s
i
t
es

w
ou
l
d d
e
t
e
ct

a
nd a
s
se
s
s
d
i
f
fe
r
enc
e
s
i
n

s
i
t
e
occup
a
ncy

ra
t
es
o
f

f
er
a
l

c
a
t
s.
D
ual

ca
m
eras
h
a
v
e been

used

t
o s
u
cc
e
ss
f
u
l
l
y

de
t
e
c
t

S
po
t
t
ed
-
t
a
i
l
ed
Q
uo
l
l

(
N
e
l
son
a
nd
S
c
ro
gg
i
e 200
9
).

I
n add
i
t
i
on

t
o
i
nc
r
eas
i
ng

de
t
e
c
t
i
on
p
roba
b
i
li
t
y
, ha
v
i
ng

t
w
o
ca
m
eras p
e
r

s
i
t
e a
l
l
o
w
s

for

ca
m
era f
a
il
u
re

at

a
s
it
e.

I
n
t
he s
e
cond
p
a
r
t

of

t
h
i
s c
u
r
r
e
nt

w
ork

w
e
a
t
t
e
m
p
t
ed
t
o
v
a
l
i
d
a
t
e

t
he

i
n
i
ti
a
l

m
on
it
o
r
i
ng

pr
o
t
o
c
ol

by

ass
e
ss
i
ng

chan
g
es
i
n

occ
up
ancy

bef
o
re a
n
d
af
t
er

a

f
e
r
a
l

c
a
t

c
o
n
t
rol

op
e
r
a
t
i
on.
W
e u
s
ed an
o
ccu
p
a
n
cy
m
ode
ll
i
ng

appro
a
ch a
n
d

a
m
ark
-

rec
a
p
t
u
re
m
odel

i
n
t
he
f
i
r
st

par
t
, and

an o
c
cupa
n
cy

m
o
de
l
li
ng

ap
p
roa
c
h on
l
y

i
n

t
h
e se
c
ond p
a
rt

t
o
ass
e
ss

i
f

t
h
e
re
w
as

a
d
i
f
f
e
r
e
nce
i
n
l
e
v
e
l
s

o
f

s
i
t
e

occu
pa
ncy

and abun
d
ance

of

f
e
ral

ca
t
s

b
e
t
w
een
s
i
t
es.


T
he

m
on
it
o
r
i
ng

pr
o
t
oc
o
l

u
s
i
ng

pa
i
r
ed
c
a
m
eras
w
as

su
c
ces
s
ful

at

as
s
es
s
i
ng

a d
i
f
f
e
r
ence

i
n
s
i
t
e
occup
a
ncy

ra
t
e b
e
t
w
een

a
s
it
e

t
h
a
t

h
ad b
e
en su
b
j
e
ct

t
o

sus
t
a
i
n
ed
f
ox co
n
t
r
ol

for

t
h
e pre
v
i
o
u
s
f
i
v
e
y
ears

(
LGNP
-
sou
t
h:

ψ

=

0
.
69

±

0
.
10

SE
)

and

o
n
e

t
hat

had

n
o
t

(
LGNP
-
nor
t
h:
ψ

=

0.50

±

0.13

S
E
),
and d
i
d so
w
it
h

a h
i
g
h de
g
r
ee of

co
n
f
i
d
ence

(8
8
%).

W
e
w
ere

a
l
so a
b
l
e

t
o
a
ss
e
ss a

s
i
g
n
i
f
i
ca
n
t
d
i
f
fe
r
en
c
e
i
n

occu
p
ancy

r
a
t
es f
o
r

f
oxes

be
t
w
een
s
i
t
es,

w
it
h

l
o
w
er

l
e
v
e
l
s of

occ
u
p
a
ncy

on
t
he

s
i
t
e
su
b
j
e
ct

t
o

fox
c
on
t
ro
l
.

We

h
a
v
e no pre
-
fox co
n
t
r
o
l

d
a
t
a

on f
e
r
a
l

c
a
t

o
c
cupa
n
cy

ra
t
e

t
o
i
n
d
i
c
a
t
e
i
f
t
he
d
i
f
f
e
ren
c
e
i
n

occ
u
pancy

i
s
a
sso
c
i
a
t
ed
w
it
h

a d
e
c
l
i
ne

i
n f
o
xes.
I
t

i
s

pos
s
i
b
l
e

t
he

r
e
m
o
v
al

of

a
do
m
i
nant

or

apex

pr
e
da
t
or

can

r
es
u
l
t

i
n

t
he

re
l
ea
s
e of

a

subdo
m
i
nant

or

m
esop
r
ed
a
t
or,
w
h
i
ch

i
n
t
urn

can

l
e
a
d
t
o

i
n
c
r
e
ased

r
a
t
es

of

p
re
d
a
t
i
on on

sh
a
red

food

reso
u
r
c
es
(
re
v
i
e
w
e
d
b
y

R
i
ch
i
e a
n
d
J
o
hnson

200
9
).
H
o
w
e
v
er,

t
hese

au
t
h
ors

do n
o
t

c
it
e

e
v
i
dence

for

m
esopred
a
t
o
r

r
e
l
ease

be
t
w
e
en
foxes

and

fe
r
al

c
a
t
s, b
u
t

do

no
t
e

t
h
a
t

m
esopre
d
a
t
o
r

r
e
l
e
ase

i
s
w
i
d
es
p
re
a
d
g
eo
g
raph
i
c
a
ll
y

and
t
axono
m
i
c
a
ll
y
.


T
he

m
on
it
o
r
i
ng

pr
o
t
oc
o
l

u
s
i
ng

a s
i
n
g
l
e

ca
m
era
a
t

49

s
it
es
w
as

ab
l
e
t
o

su
c
ces
s
f
u
ll
y

es
t
i
m
a
t
e
occup
a
ncy

ra
t
es

for

f
e
ral

c
a
t
s

b
e
f
o
re

(
ψ

=

0.53

±

0
.129

SE
)

and

a
f
t
er

(
ψ

=

0.45

±

0
.
137

SE
)

c
at
con
t
ro
l
.
H
o
w
e
v
er,
t
h
i
s
w
a
s

not

t
he
m
ost

p
a
r
s
i
m
on
i
ous

ou
t
co
m
e f
r
om

t
he
m
ode
lli
ng
,
w
h
i
ch
w
as
t
h
a
t

oc
c
upa
n
cy

w
as con
s
t
a
n
t

b
e
t
w
een
p
e
r
i
ods.

T
he

fa
c
t

t
h
a
t

w
e
w
e
r
e un
a
b
l
e

t
o
d
e
t
e
ct

a

s
i
g
n
i
f
i
c
ant
d
i
f
fe
r
en
c
e
i
n

f
e
ral

c
a
t

o
c
c
u
pancy

a
f
t
er

t
he

f
e
r
a
l

c
a
t

c
on
t
r
o
l

op
e
r
a
ti
o
n
w
as
p
rob
a
b
l
y

beca
u
se
o
f

t
h
e
s
m
a
l
l

nu
m
ber

of

fe
r
al

c
a
t
s

k
ill
ed

(
n
=

4),
d
es
p
i
t
e 1368

t
rap

n
i
g
h
t
s
.
P
o
w
er

an
a
l
y
s
i
s

i
nd
i
c
a
t
ed

t
h
a
t

w
e
had
l
i
t
t
l
e po
w
e
r

t
o

d
e
t
e
c
t

t
h
e s
m
a
l
l

c
h
an
g
e
i
n
o
ccu
p
an
c
y

t
hat

w
as
m
eas
u
red.
H
o
w
ev
er,
t
he

an
a
l
y
s
i
s
a
l
so

i
n
d
i
c
a
t
ed

t
h
at

a

re
d
uc
ti
on
i
n

fe
r
al

c
a
t

oc
c
upancy

fr
om

0.53
t
o 0.3
w
o
u
l
d ha
v
e

had
g
re
a
t
er

t
h
a
n
80%

po
w
e
r

t
o d
e
t
e
c
t

a

s
i
g
n
i
f
i
c
ant

re
d
uc
t
i
on.


I
n pest

con
t
rol

i
t

i
s
g
ener
a
l
l
y

assu
m
ed
t
hat

a r
e
du
c
ti
on

i
n ab
u
nda
n
ce
l
ea
d
s
t
o

a
r
e
d
uc
t
i
on
i
n
t
h
e
da
m
a
g
e caused by

t
he
p
e
s
t

(
B
ra
y
sh
e
r

1993,
H
o
ne 19
94
). W
h
ere

e
r
ad
i
ca
t
i
on

i
s
n
ot

fea
s
i
b
l
e,

t
he
redu
c
t
i
on
i
n abu
n
dan
c
e
i
s
a
ch
i
e
v
ed by

s
t
o
pp
i
ng

pop
u
l
a
ti
on
g
ro
w
t
h f
o
l
l
o
w
i
ng

i
n
i
t
i
a
l

co
n
t
r
o
l
.
H
o
w
e
v
er, af
t
er

a pop
u
l
a
ti
o
n red
u
c
t
i
on a

h
i
g
her

r
a
t
e
o
f

popu
l
a
t
i
on
g
ro
w
t
h
g
en
e
r
a
l
l
y

occurs.

T
h
u
s,
t
h
i
s h
i
g
her

g
ro
w
t
h
r
a
t
e ne
e
ds
t
o

be
p
re
v
en
t
ed

a
f
t
e
r

co
n
t
r
o
l

i
n

or
d
er

t
o
m
a
i
n
t
a
i
n

t
he

l
o
w
er
abunda
n
ce

(
H
one 1
9
94).

M
ana
g
e
m
ent

oper
a
t
i
ons

t
o
st
op sub
s
eque
n
t

g
ro
w
t
h

f
o
ll
o
w
i
ng

t
he
i
n
i
ti
a
l
con
t
rol

w
o
u
l
d

a
i
m

t
o
k
eep
t
he pop
u
l
a
ti
on

at

or

b
e
l
ow

t
he
l
o
w
e
r

l
e
v
el

(
H
o
n
e 199
4
)
.
I
t

i
s pos
s
i
b
l
e
t
o
es
t
i
m
a
t
e
t
h
e p
o
i
nt

at

w
h
i
ch

t
he p
o
pu
l
a
t
i
on
w
o
u
l
d be
ke
pt

a
t

or

be
l
ow

t
h
i
s

t
h
r
esh
o
l
d
l
e
v
el

u
s
i
ng

t
h
e
equa
t
i
on

E
v
a
lu
at
io
n

o
f

c
a
m
e
r
a

t
r
a
p

s
a
mpli
n
g

d
e
s
ign
s

u
s
e
d

t
o

d
ete
rmin
e

c
h
a
ng
e

i
n

o
cc
up
a
n
cy

r
at
e

a
n
d

a
bund
a
n
ce

o
f

f
e
r
a
l

c
at
s

A
r
t
hu
r

R
yl
a
h

I
n
s
t
i
t
u
te

fo
r

E
nviro
n
m
e
n
ta
l

R
e
s
e
a
r
ch

Te
c
hni
c
a
l

R
e
por
t

No

2
0
1

19





p
= 1


e

r


w
here
r

i
s

t
he

i
n
s
t
a
n
t
a
neo
u
s

ra
t
e of

ann
u
al

i
n
c
re
a
se
.
4

A
s an exa
m
p
l
e,
S
h
o
r
t

and

T
ur
n
er

(
2
005)
es
t
i
m
a
t
ed
t
h
e a
n
nu
a
l

r
a
t
e
o
f

i
n
c
re
a
se
f
or

t
w
o pop
u
l
a
ti
o
ns of

f
e
ral

c
a
t
s

i
n se
m
i
-
ar
i
d

coa
s
t
al

W
e
s
t
ern
A
us
t
r
a
l
i
a.
U
s
i
ng

t
he

a
v
era
g
e of

t
h
e
i
r

es
t
i
m
a
t
es

(0.98
5
),

t
he
a
nnu
a
l

p
ropo
rt
i
on
a
l

t
h
r
esho
l
d
r
edu
c
ti
o
n
i
n
f
er
a
l

c
a
t
s

nee
d
ed
w
o
u
l
d

be 1


(
e

0
.
985
)

=
0
.63,
o
r

6
3
%.

T
he
m
on
i
t
o
r
i
ng

pro
t
o
c
o
l

used

i
n
t
h
i
s
s
t
udy

w
ou
l
d
b
e c
a
pa
b
l
e
o
f

m
easur
i
ng

such

a
l
e
v
el

of

c
han
g
e
i
n o
c
cup
a
ncy

ra
t
e.
C
au
t
i
on
i
s
r
eq
u
i
red
ho
w
e
v
er, as

a 6
3
%

r
e
du
c
ti
o
n
i
n o
c
cup
a
ncy

i
s n
o
t

t
he
s
a
m
e as a 63%

red
u
c
t
i
on

i
n
a
bundan
c
e.


S
it
e
-
l
e
v
el

d
a
il
y

d
e
t
e
c
ti
o
n p
r
obab
i
l
i
t
i
es
d
i
f
f
e
red
b
e
t
w
e
en

ca
m
era s
e
t

ups

(
t
w
o p
e
r

s
it
e
v
ersus
o
ne p
e
r
s
i
t
e)

and
c
a
m
era
t
y
pes.

T
h
e

de
t
e
c
t
i
on
p
rob
a
b
i
l
i
t
y

for

pa
i
red

R
econ
y
x ca
m
eras

w
as

s
li
g
h
t
l
y

h
i
g
her
(
p
= 0
.
077)

t
h
a
n f
o
r

a

s
i
n
g
l
e
R
econ
y
x (
p

= 0.06
0
).

T
he
re
w
as

a
l
so an

i
n
t
e
r
ac
t
i
on

b
e
t
w
een

ca
m
era
and b
a
i
t

h
o
l
d
e
r
;

t
h
e co
m
b
i
n
a
t
i
on of

R
econ
y
x ca
m
eras

a
nd ca
g
e b
a
it
-
ho
l
de
r
s ha
v
i
ng

a h
i
g
her
de
t
e
c
t
i
on
p
rob
a
b
i
l
i
t
y

t
han
a
ny

o
t
her

c
a
m
era


b
a
it
-
ho
l
d
er

co
m
b
i
n
a
ti
o
n. A

r
a
n
g
e of

fa
c
t
o
r
s can
con
t
r
i
b
u
t
e

t
o

suc
c
es
s
ful

d
e
t
ec
t
i
on
o
f

a

spe
c
i
e
s
, r
e
l
a
ti
ng

t
o ca
m
era

fun
c
t
i
on and

op
e
ra
t
i
on

(
N
e
l
son
and
S
c
ro
gg
i
e 2009).
I
n
t
h
i
s

s
t
ud
y
, c
a
re
w
as

t
a
k
en

t
o e
n
s
ure
a
l
l

ca
m
era
t
y
pes

w
ere

s
et

up

i
n

t
he
sa
m
e

m
anner

e
ach

ti
m
e, so

t
he
d
i
f
f
e
ren
c
es

i
n d
e
t
e
c
t
i
on

ra
t
es
o
f

f
er
a
l

c
a
t
s

w
ere
m
o
r
e
li
k
e
l
y

ca
u
sed
by

d
i
ff
e
re
n
ces

i
n
c
a
m
era p
e
rf
o
r
m
ance and n
o
t

t
he

sp
a
t
i
al

a
rr
a
n
g
e
m
ent

of

ca
m
eras

or

un
d
e
r
l
y
i
ng
beha
v
i
ou
r
al

d
i
ff
e
re
n
ce
i
n
c
a
t
s.
I
n pa
r
ti
c
u
l
a
r,

t
he
s
peed

at

w
h
i
ch a

ca
m
era c
a
n po
w
er

up

and
c
ap
t
u
re
an
i
m
a
g
e once
m
o
ti
on

i
s d
e
t
e
c
t
ed

i
s a

c
r
i
t
i
c
al

fa
c
t
o
r
.


T
he

co
s
t

a
n
d su
b
seq
u
ent

p
e
rf
o
r
m
ance of

d
i
g
it
a
l

c
a
m
eras a
c
ti
v
a
t
e
d by

hea
t
-
i
n
-
m
o
ti
on
v
ar
i
e
s
g
rea
t
l
y
be
t
w
e
e
n b
r
ands.
C
ar
e
f
u
l

c
o
ns
i
d
e
r
a
ti
o
n n
e
eds

t
o be
g
i
ve
n
t
o

t
he
p
e
r
for
m
ance
p
ara
m
e
t
e
rs
o
f

ca
m
eras
used

for

es
t
i
m
a
ti
ng

chan
g
es

i
n o
c
cupa
n
cy

ra
t
es
w
hen

a
sse
s
s
i
ng

t
h
e e
f
f
e
c
t
i
v
eness
o
f

m
ana
g
e
m
ent
ac
t
i
ons.


We e
x
a
m
i
ned
t
h
e un
c
e
r
t
a
i
n
t
y

around

t
he

e
s
ti
m
a
t
ed
o
c
c
upancy

r
a
t
es
w
h
en
r
unn
i
ng

pa
i
r
ed
c
a
m
eras
for

2
1 da
y
s at

22
s
i
t
es
c
o
m
pared

t
o

s
i
n
g
l
e

ca
m
eras

at

4
9 s
i
t
es

for

t
h
e sa
m
e
l
en
g
t
h

of

t
i
m
e.
D
esp
i
t
e
t
he
r
e b
e
i
ng

a
s
li
g
h
tl
y

b
e
t
t
er

chan
c
e of

de
t
e
c
ti
ng

a
f
e
r
al

cat

at

a
n oc
c
up
i
ed
s
i
t
e
w
i
t
h

pa
i
r
ed
c
a
m
eras,
t
he
p
re
c
i
s
i
on
o
f

t
he o
c
cup
a
ncy

es
ti
m
a
t
e
w
a
s
h
i
g
her

w
it
h a s
i
n
g
l
e ca
m
era

at

m
ore
si
t
es.

Wh
i
l
e

t
h
e
re
w
ou
l
d be

so
m
e add
i
ti
o
nal

c
ost

for

o
pe
r
a
t
i
ng

m
ore s
i
t
e
s
,
t
h
i
s
w
ou
l
d be
o
f
f
s
e
t

by

t
he

i
n
c
re
a
sed
pre
c
i
s
i
on

i
n
t
he
e
s
t
i
m
a
t
e of

occup
a
ncy

and
t
he
i
m
pro
v
ed po
w
er

t
o d
e
t
e
ct

any

cha
ng
e
t
hat

h
as
occu
r
red.


B
y

c
o
m
par
i
ng

t
he

t
w
o s
p
a
ti
al

c
o
n
f
i
g
ura
t
i
ons

of

c
a
m
er
a
s and
u
s
i
ng

d
i
ff
e
re
n
t

c
a
m
era and
b
a
i
t
-
ho
l
der
t
y
pes,
w
e ha
v
e
s
h
o
w
n
t
h
at

t
he ca
m
era
p
ro
t
oc
o
l

i
s

f
l
e
x
i
b
l
e a
n
d
t
h
at

ca
r
e n
e
eds

t
o be

t
a
k
en
i
n
app
l
y
i
ng

t
h
i
s
t
ool

i
n

t
he

f
i
e
l
d.
F
ac
t
ors

o
t
h
er

t
han

t
h
e s
p
a
t
i
al

a
r
ran
g
e
m
ent

of

c
a
m
eras c
a
n ha
v
e a
s
i
g
n
i
f
i
ca
n
t

i
m
pact

on
d
e
t
e
c
t
i
on
p
roba
b
i
l
it
y
.

T
he

ab
i
l
i
t
y

of

t
h
e
m
on
it
o
r
i
ng

pr
o
t
oc
o
l

t
o de
t
ect

chan
g
e
i
n a
c
at

pop
u
l
a
t
i
on

i
s
n
ot

l
i
m
it
ed by

t
he p
r
o
t
o
co
l
,

as

s
h
o
w
n by

t
he
c
l
e
a
r

d
i
f
f
er
e
nce

be
t
w
e
en
t
h
e
LGN
P
-
sou
t
h and
LGNP
-
nor
t
h

s
i
t
es

and

t
he

res
u
l
t
s
o
f

t
he po
w
er

an
a
l
y
s
i
s,

but

e
i
t
h
e
r

by

t
he
a
b
i
l
i
t
y
t
o
k
i
l
l

su
b
s
t
a
n
t
i
al

nu
m
bers

of

f
e
r
a
l

c
a
t
s
w
it
h

t
h
e c
u
rr
en
t

m
e
t
hods,
o
r

by

t
he

re
s
ou
r
c
es a
v
a
i
l
a
b
l
e.
H
o
w
e
v
er, a r
e
du
c
ti
on

of

5
0
%

i
n

a
f
er
a
l

c
at

p
opu
l
a
t
i
on

i
s pro
b
ab
l
y

t
h
e
l
o
w
er

li
m
i
t

o
f

w
hat

co
u
l
d be
dee
m
ed a su
c
ces
s
f
u
l

co
n
t
r
o
l

op
e
r
a
ti
on.


T
he

an
a
l
y
ti
c
al

app
r
oach

u
s
ed
i
n

t
h
i
s
s
t
udy

a
l
l
o
w
s

for

t
he

de
g
ree

of

c
han
g
e
t
o

be
a
sse
s
sed
a
nd
t
he
con
f
i
de
n
ce
w
i
t
h
w
h
i
ch

t
h
i
s

has o
c
cu
r
red,

ena
b
l
i
ng

m
a
n
a
g
ers
t
o

as
s
ess

t
he

e
f
fe
c
ti
ve
ness
o
f

t
he
i
r
con
t
rol

pro
g
ra
m
.


T
he

ch
o
i
ce

of

w
h
i
ch
c
a
m
era co
n
f
i
g
ur
a
ti
o
n
t
o

use
w
o
u
l
d
i
n p
a
rt

be
d
e
t
e
r
m
i
ned by

t
he r
e
sou
r
ces
a
v
a
il
a
b
l
e
;

w
e
r
eco
mm
end
o
ne ca
m
era o
v
er

at

l
e
a
st

5
0
s
it
e
s f
o
r

a
re
a
s of

t
i
s
s
i
z
e op
e
ra
t
ed o
v
er

a
t
l
ea
s
t

21

da
y
s.

T
he

sp
a
ti
a
l

s
e
par
a
ti
o
n of

ca
m
eras

i
s

a su
b
j
e
c
t

t
h
at

req
u
i
r
es

fu
r
t
h
e
r

i
n
v
es
t
i
g
a
ti
o
n.



4

F
o
r

m
o
re

d
e
t
a
il
s

a
n
d

a

fu
l
l

d
i
s
c
u
s
si
o
n

o
n

t
h
i
s

t
op
i
c,

s
ee

C
a
u
g
h
l
e
y

(
1980
)

a
n
d

H
o
n
e

(
1
9
94
)
.

E
v
a
lu
at
io
n

o
f

c
a
m
e
r
a

t
r
a
p

s
a
mpli
n
g

d
e
s
ign
s

u
s
e
d

t
o

d
ete
rmin
e

c
h
a
ng
e

i
n

o
cc
up
a
n
cy

r
at
e

a
n
d

a
bund
a
n
ce

o
f

f
e
r
a
l

c
at
s

20

A
r
t
hu
r

R
yl
a
h

I
n
s
t
i
t
u
te

fo
r

E
nviro
n
m
e
n
ta
l

R
e
s
ea
r
c
h

Te
c
hni
c
a
l

R
e
por
t

N
o
.

2
0
1





H
o
w
e
v
er, from

t
h
i
s
s
t
udy

i
t

w
ou
l
d a
p
pe
a
r

t
h
at

a
r
and
o
m
l
y

se
l
e
c
t
ed

ca
m
era
s
i
t
e
w
i
t
h
i
n

a 1

t
o 2
k
m
2
b
l
ock

w
ou
l
d
b
e s
u
f
f
i
c
i
e
n
t
.


T
h
e
re

app
e
ar
e
d
t
o

be no

d
if
fe
r
ence

i
n

t
he

a
t
t
r
a
c
t
i
v
eness

of

t
h
e
l
ure
w
e us
e
d
i
n

t
h
e
s
e
t
r
i
a
l
s.
D
e
t
e
c
ti
o
n p
r
oba
b
i
l
i
t
i
es

be
f
o
re a
n
d a
f
t
e
r

t
h
e co
n
t
r
ol

o
pe
r
a
t
i
on
w
e
r
e
s
i
m
il
ar,

su
gg
es
t
i
ng

t
hat

f
e
r
al
ca
t
s

w
ere

equ
a
l
l
y

a
t
t
ra
c
t
ed

t
o
t
he

l
u
r
e
a
f
t
er

p
re
v
i
ous

e
x
posu
r
e se
v
e
r
al

w
e
e
k
s ea
r
l
i
e
r.
H
o
w
e
v
er,
t
he
se
l
e
c
t
i
on
o
f

b
a
i
t
-
ho
l
der

t
yp
e and
c
a
m
era had

a
s
i
g
n
i
f
i
c
ant

i
n
f
l
ue
n
ce on

d
e
t
e
c
ti
o
n.

We
r
eco
mm
end
t
h
a
t

s
m
a
l
l

w
i
re

ca
g
es be
u
s
ed, r
a
t
h
e
r

t
han

c
l
o
sed
P
V
C

t
ube
s
.
I
t

w
as found

t
h
a
t

A
u
s
t
r
a
l
i
an
R
a
v
ens
(
C
orv
u
s co
r
on
o
i
de
s
)

v
i
s
i
t
e
d
t
he

ca
g
es
a
l
m
ost

co
n
ti
n
uo
us
l
y

un
t
i
l

a
l
l

t
h
e c
h
i
c
k
en
w
as re
m
o
v
ed.
A
lt
hou
g
h
t
h
e
P
V
C

t
u
b
es
e
li
m
i
na
t
ed
t
h
i
s

i
n
t
e
r
f
e
ren
c
e,
t
hey

appear

t
o
h
a
v
e red
u
ced

t
he
d
e
t
e
c
t
i
on
ra
t
es
o
f

f
er
a
l

c
a
t
s.

Mo
d
i
f
i
ca
ti
on

of

t
he

ca
g
es,
i
nc
l
ud
i
ng

us
i
ng

a s
m
a
l
l
er

m
esh s
i
z
e

a
nd p
l
a
c
i
ng

s
t
i
ff
b
l
ack

p
l
as
t
i
c

at

t
he

bo
t
t
om

and a s
m
a
l
l

w
ay

up
t
he

s
i
d
e

of

t
h
e
c
a
g
e,
i
s

l
i
k
e
l
y

t
o
p
r
ev
ent

b
i
r
ds
f
rom
re
m
o
v
i
ng

t
he ch
i
c
k
en.


We ha
v
e de
m
ons
t
r
a
t
ed

t
h
a
t

t
he
c
o
m
b
i
na
t
i
on
o
f

d
i
g
i
t
al

c
a
m
eras and

s
t
a
t
i
s
t
i
c
a
l

t
ec
hn
i
ques

t
h
at

h
a
v
e
been
d
e
v
e
l
oped

for

t
h
e un
b
i
ased

es
t
i
m
a
ti
on

of

ra
t
es
o
f

occup
a
ncy

under

con
d
i
t
i
o
n
s of

i
m
perfe
c
t
de
t
e
c
t
i
on

(M
a
c
K
en
z
i
e
e
t

a
l
.

2002,

T
y
re
e
t

a
l
. 20
0
3)

c
an

robu
s
tl
y

d
e
t
er
m
i
ne
d
i
f
f
e
r
e
nces

i
n
f
e
r
al

c
at
popu
l
a
t
i
ons

i
n

t
e
m
pera
t
e e
u
ca
l
y
pt

w
oo
d
l
a
n
d and

fo
r
e
s
t
.

We ha
v
e
a
l
so

de
m
ons
t
r
a
t
e
d
t
h
a
t

d
i
g
it
a
l
ca
m
eras c
a
n be
u
sed

t
o

i
d
e
n
t
i
fy

i
nd
i
v
i
d
u
al

ca
t
s, e
n
ab
li
ng

cat

abu
n
dan
c
e
t
o

be
a
ss
e
ssed.

T
h
ese
appr
o
ach
e
s c
a
n be
u
sed

as

m
on
it
or
i
ng

t
o
o
l
s

f
o
r

a
s
se
s
s
i
ng

chan
g
es
i
n

t
he
s
t
a
t
us

of

f
er
a
l

c
a
t
popu
l
a
t
i
ons o
v
er

t
i
m
e and
t
o as
s
ess

t
he

suc
c
ess

of

fe
r
al

cat

con
t
r
o
l

op
e
r
a
ti
o
ns.


I
f

assess
i
ng

ac
t
u
al

a
bund
an
ce
i
s of

c
r
i
t
i
c
a
l

i
m
po
r
t
an
c
e

w
hen u
s
i
ng

ca
m
era sur
v
e
y
s,
w
e re
c
o
m
m
end
t
h
a
t

t
w
o
c
a
m
eras be

p
l
aced

at

r
i
g
ht

an
g
l
e
s
t
o

t
h
e
l
u
re
st
a
t
i
on.

T
h
i
s s
h
ou
l
d

i
m
pro
v
e
t
he

l
e
v
el

o
f
i
nd
i
v
i
d
u
al

i
de
n
t
i
f
i
c
a
ti
o
n a
n
d
g
rea
t
l
y

i
m
pro
v
e
t
he ab
il
i
t
y

t
o de
t
e
r
m
i
ne
t
h
e su
c
ce
s
s

of

b
o
t
h f
o
x and
fe
r
al

c
at

co
n
t
r
o
l

op
e
r
a
ti
o
ns.

E
v
a
lu
at
io
n

o
f

c
a
m
e
r
a

t
r
a
p

s
a
mpli
n
g

d
e
s
ign
s

u
s
e
d

t
o

d
ete
rmin
e

c
h
a
ng
e

i
n

o
cc
up
a
n
cy

r
at
e

a
n
d

a
bund
a
n
ce

o
f

f
e
r
a
l

c
at
s

A
r
t
hu
r

R
yl
a
h

I
n
s
t
i
t
u
te

fo
r

E
nviro
n
m
e
n
ta
l

R
e
s
ea
r
ch

Te
c
hni
c
a
l

R
e
por
t

No

2
0
1

21





R
e
f
e
r
e
nc
e
s


A
bbo
tt
,

I
. (2002)

O
r
i
g
i
n a
n
d sp
r
ead
o
f

t
h
e c
a
t
,
F
e
l
i
s c
a
t
us
,
o
n
m
a
i
n
l
and

A
us
t
r
a
l
i
a,

w
it
h a
d
i
sc
u
s
s
i
on
o
f

t
h
e
m
a
g
n
it
u
d
e of

it
s

e
a
r
l
y

i
m
pact

on

na
ti
v
e fauna.
W
il
d
l
i
f
e
R
e
sea
r
ch

29
, 51


74


B
ra
y
sher,

M.
(
1993)

M
a
n
ag
i
ng
v
er
t
e
b
ra
t
e p
e
s
t
s
:

p
r
i
n
c
i
p
l
es

and
s
t
r
a
t
e
g
i
es.
AGPS
,

C
anbe
r
ra
C
au
g
h
l
e
y
,
G
. (1980).

A
na
l
y
s
i
s
o
f

v
er
t
eb
r
a
t
e pop
u
l
a
ti
on
s.

J
ohn

W
i
l
ey

&

S
ons,
L
o
n
don

DE
W
H
A

(200
8
)

B
ac
kg
round docu
m
ent

f
or

t
he

t
h
r
e
a
t

aba
t
e
m
ent

p
l
a
n f
o
r

p
r
ed
a
ti
o
n by

fer
a
l

c
a
t
s.

D
epa
r
t
m
ent

of

t
he
E
n
v
i
r
o
n
m
en
t
, Wa
t
e
r,
H
e
r
i
t
a
g
e and

t
he
A
r
t
s,
C
an
b
e
r
ra


E
d
w
ards,
G
.
P
.,

de
P
reu,
A
.

N
.
D
.,
S
ha
k
esha
f
t
,
B
.

J
.

and

C
re
a
l
y
,

I
.
V
. (20
0
0)

A
n

e
v
a
l
u
a
t
i
on of

t
w
o
m
e
t
hods of

a
ss
e
s
s
i
ng

fe
r
al

cat

and
d
i
n
g
o abund
a
nce

i
n

cen
t
r
a
l

A
u
s
t
r
a
l
i
a.
W
il
d
l
i
f
e

R
esea
r
ch
27
, 143

1
4
9


F
ors
y
t
h,
D
.
M
.,
R
ob
l
e
y
,
A
.
J
.

and
R
e
dd
i
ex,
B
.
(
2005)

R
e
v
i
ew

of

m
e
t
hods
u
sed

t
o

es
t
i
m
a
t
e
t
h
e
abunda
n
ce
o
f

f
er
a
l

c
a
t
s.
A
r
t
hur

R
y
l
ah
I
ns
t
i
t
u
t
e f
o
r

E
n
v
i
ron
m
en
t
al

R
es
e
arc
h
,
D
ep
a
r
t
m
ent

of
S
us
t
a
i
n
a
b
i
l
i
t
y

and
E
n
v
i
ro
n
m
en
t
, Me
l
b
our
n
e

H
one,

J
.

(199
4
)

A
n
a
l
y
s
i
s
o
f

v
er
t
e
b
ra
t
e p
e
st

c
on
t
ro
l
.
C
a
m
br
i
d
g
e
U
n
i
v
ers
it
y

P
r
e
ss,

S
ou
t
h

Me
l
bou
r
ne
L
unn,
D
.

J
.,

T
h
o
m
as,
A
.,
B
es
t
,
N
.

and
S
p
i
e
g
e
l
h
a
l
t
er,

D
. (200
0
)

W
i
n
BUG
S



a
B
ay
es
i
an

m
ode
lli
ng

f
r
a
m
e
w
or
k
:

con
c
ep
t
s,

s
t
ru
c
t
u
r
e, a
n
d e
x
t
en
s
i
b
i
l
it
y
.
S
t
a
t
i
s
t
i
cs

and
C
o
m
p
u
t
i
ng
10,

325

337


Ma
c
K
en
z
i
e,
D
. and

K
e
nd
a
l
l
, W.

(200
2
)

H
ow

sh
o
u
l
d

d
e
t
e
c
t
i
on
p
roba
b
i
l
i
t
i
e
s
be

i
n
c
orpo
r
a
t
ed
i
n
t
o
es
t
i
m
a
t
es
o
f

r
e
l
a
ti
v
e a
b
un
d
ance?
E
co
l
ogy
8
3
, 238
7

2
3
93


Ma
c
K
en
z
i
e,
D
.
I
.,
N
i
cho
l
s,

J
.
D
.

,
R
o
y
l
e,

J
.
A
.,
P
o
l
l
oc
k
,
K
.
H
. ,
B
a
i
l
e
y
,
L
.
L
. and

H
i
nes,

J.
E
.
(200
6
)

O
ccu
p
ancy

e
s
ti
m
a
t
i
on and
m
ode
l
li
n
g
:

i
nf
e
r
r
i
ng

pa
t
t
e
r
ns a
n
d d
y
na
m
i
cs of

s
pec
i
es
occu
r
re
n
ce.
E
l
se
v
i
e
r,
S
an

D
i
e
g
o,
US
A


Mahon,
P
.
S
.,
B
an
k
s,
P
.
B
.

and
D
i
c
k
m
an,
C
.
R
. (1998)

P
opu
l
a
t
i
on
i
nd
i
ces

for

f
e
r
a
l

car
n
i
v
ore
s
:

a
cr
i
t
i
c
a
l

s
t
udy

i
n s
a
nd
-
dune hab
i
t
a
t
, so
u
t
h
-
w
es
t
ern

Q
u
e
ens
l
and.
W
il
d
l
i
f
e
R
e
sea
r
ch

25
, 11


22


N
e
l
son,

J.
L
.
a
nd
S
c
ro
gg
i
e
, M.
P
. (
2
009)

R
e
m
o
t
e ca
m
e
r
as as

a
m
a
m
m
al

sur
v
ey

t
ool



sur
v
ey
des
i
g
n and

pr
a
c
t
i
c
a
l

c
o
ns
i
d
er
a
ti
o
n
s.
A
r
t
h
u
r

R
y
l
ah
I
ns
t
i
t
u
t
e f
o
r

E
n
v
i
ron
m
en
t
a
l

R
e
s
ear
c
h
U
npub
l
i
shed

R
ep
o
r
t
.
D
e
p
a
r
t
m
ent

of

S
u
s
t
a
i
n
a
b
i
l
i
t
y

and

E
n
v
i
ron
m
en
t
,
H
e
i
d
e
l
b
erg


O
ti
s,
D
.
L
.,

B
urn
h
a
m
,
K
.
P
.
,

Wh
i
t
e,
G
.
C
.

and
A
nd
e
rs
o
n,
D
.
R
. (197
8
)

S
t
a
t
i
s
t
i
cal

i
nfe
r
en
c
e
f
rom
cap
t
u
re

da
t
a on
c
l
o
s
ed
a
n
i
m
al

po
p
u
l
a
t
i
ons.
W
il
d
l
i
f
e

M
o
nograp
h
s
62,
1

135


P
l
ed
g
er,
S
.

(200
0
)

U
n
i
f
i
ed

m
ax
i
m
u
m

li
k
e
li
ho
o
d e
s
ti
m
a
t
es

f
o
r

c
l
os
e
d ca
p
t
u
re
-
rec
a
p
t
u
r
e
m
ode
l
s
f
or
m
i
x
t
ures.
B
i
o
m
e
t
r
i
cs
5
6
, 4
3
4

442


R
edd
i
e
x
,

B
.,

F
o
rs
y
t
h,

D
.

M
.,

Mc
D
o
n
a
l
d
-
Madden,

E
.,

E
i
nod
e
r,

L
.

D
.,

G
r
i
f
f
i
o
e
n,

P
.

A
.,

C
h
i
c
k
,

R
.

R
.
and

R
ob
l
e
y
,

A
.

J
.

(20
0
4)

R
e
v
i
ew

of

ex
i
s
t
i
ng

fer
a
l

g
oa
t
,

f
e
r
a
l

ca
t
,

f
e
ral

rab
b
i
t
,

f
e
r
al

p
i
g
,

red
fox,

and

w
i
l
d

dog

con
t
r
o
l

i
n

A
u
s
t
r
a
l
i
a.

I
.

A
ud
i
t

and

e
v
a
l
ua
t
i
on

o
f

co
n
t
r
o
l

pro
g
ra
m
s.
U
npub
l
i
shed

rep
o
rt

t
o

t
h
e

D
epar
t
m
ent

o
f

t
he

E
n
v
i
r
on
m
ent

and

H
er
i
t
a
g
e.

A
r
t
hur

R
y
l
ah
I
ns
tit
u
t
e

for

E
n
v
i
ron
m
en
t
al

R
ese
a
rc
h
,

D
epa
r
t
m
ent

of

S
us
t
a
i
na
b
i
l
it
y

and

E
n
v
i
ron
m
en
t
,
Me
l
b
our
n
e


R
i
ch
i
e,

E
.

a
nd

J
o
h
nson,

C
.

(200
9
)

P
r
ed
a
t
or

i
n
t
e
r
a
c
t
i
ons,

m
esopre
d
a
t
o
r

r
e
l
ea
s
e

and

b
i
od
i
v
e
r
s
i
t
y
cons
e
r
v
a
ti
o
n.
E
c
o
l
ogy

L
e
t
t
e
rs
12
,
1

18

E
v
a
lu
at
io
n

o
f

c
a
m
e
r
a

t
r
a
p

s
a
mpli
n
g

d
e
s
ign
s

u
s
e
d

t
o

d
ete
rmin
e

c
h
a
ng
e

i
n

o
cc
up
a
n
cy

r
at
e

a
n
d

a
bund
a
n
ce

o
f

f
e
r
a
l

c
at
s

22

A
r
t
hu
r

R
yl
a
h

I
n
s
t
i
t
u
te

fo
r

E
nviro
n
m
e
n
ta
l

R
e
s
ea
r
c
h

Te
c
hni
c
a
l

R
e
por
t

N
o
.

2
0
1







R
ob
l
e
y
,
A
. (200
9
)

E
x
p
e
r
i
m
en
t
a
l

r
es
e
ar
c
h
t
o

e
v
a
l
u
a
t
e
d
e
t
e
c
t
i
on
m
e
t
hods

and
s
a
m
p
li
ng

des
i
g
ns u
s
ed
t
o d
e
t
e
r
m
i
ne
t
he

abun
d
ance

of

f
er
a
l

c
a
t
s

t
h
at

h
a
v
e es
t
a
b
li
s
hed
w
i
l
d
p
opu
l
a
t
i
ons

i
n

A
us
t
r
a
l
i
a



S
t
a
g
e 2
P
r
o
g
ress
R
e
po
r
t
.

U
npub
l
i
shed

re
p
o
r
t
.
A
r
t
hur

R
y
l
ah
I
ns
tit
u
t
e f
o
r

E
n
v
i
r
on
m
en
t
al

R
ese
a
rch,
D
e
p
a
r
t
m
ent

of

S
us
t
a
i
na
b
i
l
i
t
y

and
E
n
v
i
ron
m
en
t
,
H
e
i
d
e
l
b
e
rg


R
ob
l
e
y
,
A
.,
G
or
m
l
e
y
,
A
.,
A
l
be
r
t
,
R
.,
B
o
w
d,

M.,
S
m
i
t
h,

A
. and
M
a
i
n,

M.

(200
9
)

A
sse
s
s
i
ng

s
i
t
e
occup
a
ncy

of

i
n
t
rodu
c
ed
p
r
eda
t
o
rs

i
n

t
he
L
o
w
e
r

G
l
en
e
l
g

N
a
ti
on
a
l

P
ar
k
.
A
r
t
hur

R
y
l
ah
I
ns
tit
u
t
e f
o
r

E
n
v
i
ron
m
en
t
a
l

R
ese
a
rch

T
e
ch
n
i
c
a
l

R
ep
o
rt

N
o. 185.
D
ep
a
r
t
m
ent

o
f
S
us
t
a
i
n
a
b
i
l
i
t
y

and
E
n
v
i
ro
n
m
en
t
,
H
e
i
d
e
l
berg


R
ob
l
e
y
,
A
.,
R
a
m
se
y
,
D
., Woodf
o
rd,
L
.,
L
i
nde
m
an, M.,

John
s
t
on,

M. a
n
d
F
o
r
s
y
t
h,

D
. (200
8
)
E
v
a
l
ua
t
i
on
o
f

d
e
t
e
c
t
i
on
m
e
t
hods a
n
d sa
m
p
li
ng

de
s
i
g
ns

used

t
o d
e
t
e
r
m
i
ne
t
he

abu
n
dance

of
fe
r
al

c
a
t
s.
A
r
t
hur

R
y
l
a
h
I
ns
t
i
t
u
t
e f
o
r

E
n
v
i
r
o
n
m
en
t
al

R
e
sea
r
ch

T
e
chn
i
c
a
l

R
ep
o
rt

Se
r
i
e
s
N
o.

181.
D
ep
a
r
t
m
ent

o
f

S
u
s
t
a
i
n
ab
i
l
i
t
y

and
E
n
v
i
ron
m
en
t
,
H
e
i
d
e
l
b
e
r
g
,
V
i
c
t
o
r
i
a


R
ob
l
e
y
,
A
.,
R
edd
i
ex,
B
.
A
r
t
hur,

T
.
P
ec
h
,
R
. and
F
ors
y
t
h,
D
. (200
4
)

I
n
t
er
a
c
t
i
ons
be
t
w
een

fe
r
al

c
a
t
s,
foxe
s
, n
a
ti
v
e c
a
rn
i
v
o
r
es,
an
d fe
r
al

ra
b
b
i
t
s

i
n
A
u
s
t
r
a
l
i
a.

U
npub
l
i
shed

re
p
o
r
t

t
o

t
h
e
D
epa
r
t
m
ent

of

t
he
E
n
v
i
r
o
n
m
ent

and
H
e
r
it
a
g
e.
A
r
t
h
u
r

R
y
l
ah
I
ns
tit
u
t
e f
o
r

E
n
v
i
r
on
m
en
t
al
R
ese
a
rch,
D
e
p
a
r
t
m
ent

of

S
us
t
a
i
na
b
i
l
i
t
y

and
E
n
v
i
ron
m
en
t
,

Me
l
bou
r
ne


S
aund
e
rs,
G
.
a
nd
M
c
L
eod,

L
. (200
7
)

I
m
pro
v
i
ng

fox

m
ana
g
e
m
ent

s
t
r
a
t
e
g
i
es
i
n
A
u
s
t
r
a
l
i
a.
B
u
reau

of
R
ural

S
c
i
enc
e
s,
C
an
b
e
r
ra


S
eebec
k
,

J
.

and
C
l
un
i
e
P
.
(
1997)

P
red
a
t
i
on
o
f

n
a
ti
v
e
w
il
d
l
i
fe by

t
h
e do
m
es
t
i
c c
a
t

F
e
l
i
s c
a
t
us
.
F
l
o
ra
and
F
au
n
a
G
u
a
ra
n
t
ee
A
c
t
i
o
n

S
t
a
t
e
m
ent

N
o. 80.
D
epa
r
t
m
ent

of

N
a
t
u
r
al

R
e
so
u
rces

and
E
n
v
i
ron
m
en
t
, M
e
l
bo
u
rne


S
hor
t
,

J
. a
n
d

T
u
r
ner,
B
.

(2
0
05)

C
o
n
t
r
o
l

of

f
e
r
a
l

c
a
t
s

for

na
t
u
re
c
ons
e
r
v
a
t
i
on.
I
V
.
P
opu
l
a
t
i
on
d
y
n
a
m
i
cs and
m
orph
o
l
o
g
i
c
al

a
t
t
r
i
b
u
t
e
s
o
f

f
e
r
a
l

c
a
t
s

at

S
hark

B
a
y
, Wes
t
ern
A
u
s
t
r
a
li
a.
W
il
d
li
f
e
R
e
s
ea
r
ch
32
,
4
89

501


S
ou
l
e,

M.
E
.,
B
o
l
g
er,
D
.

T
.,

A
l
be
r
t
s,
A
.
C
.,

W
r
i
g
h
t
,

J
.,

S
or
i
c
e,
M
. and
H
i
l
l
,

S
.

(19
8
8)
R
econ
s
t
r
u
c
t
e
d d
y
na
m
i
cs of

rap
i
d e
x
ti
n
c
t
i
ons

of

chap
a
r
r
a
l
-
requ
i
r
i
ng

b
i
rds

i
n
u
rban

hab
i
t
a
t
i
s
l
ands.

C
ons
e
rv
a
ti
o
n
B
i
o
l
o
gy
2
, 75

92


S
p
i
e
g
e
l
h
a
l
t
er,

D
.

J
.,
B
e
s
t
,
N
.
G
.,
C
ar
l
i
n,
B
.
P
.

and

V
an

der

L
i
nde,
A
.

(200
2
)

B
a
y
e
s
i
an
m
easu
r
es
o
f
m
odel

co
m
p
l
ex
it
y

and

f
i
t

(
w
it
h
d
i
s
c
us
s
i
o
n
).
Jo
u
rn
a
l

o
f

t
h
e
R
oy
a
l

S
t
a
t
i
s
t
i
cal

S
o
c
i
e
t
y,
s
e
r
i
es
B
,
64
, 583

6
1
6


T
y
re,
A
.,

T
e
nhu
m
ber
g
,
B
.,
F
i
e
l
d,
S
.
A
.,
N
i
e
j
a
l
k
e,
D
.,
P
ar
r
i
s,

K
.

and
P
o
s
s
i
n
g
ha
m
,
H
. (200
3
)
Im
pro
v
i
ng

prec
i
s
i
on
a
nd
r
e
duc
i
ng

b
i
as

i
n b
i
o
l
o
g
i
c
al

s
u
r
v
e
y
s by

es
ti
m
a
ti
ng

fa
l
se
neg
a
ti
v
e
err
o
r

r
a
t
es

i
n p
r
es
e
nce
-
abs
e
nce d
a
t
a.
E
co
l
og
i
cal

A
p
p
l
i
c
a
ti
o
ns
13
,

179

1
8
01

E
v
a
lu
at
io
n

o
f

c
a
m
e
r
a

t
r
a
p

s
a
mpli
n
g

d
e
s
ign
s

u
s
e
d

t
o

d
ete
rmin
e

c
h
a
ng
e

i
n

o
cc
up
a
n
cy

r
at
e

a
n
d

a
bund
a
n
ce

o
f

f
e
r
a
l

c
at
s

A
r
t
hu
r

R
yl
a
h

I
n
s
t
i
t
u
te

fo
r

E
nviro
n
m
e
n
ta
l

R
e
s
ea
r
ch

Te
c
hni
c
a
l

R
e
por
t

No

2
0
1

23







A
pp
en
d
i
x

1

M
od
e
l

a
s
s
e
s
s
m
e
n
t

for

f
e
r
al

cat

a
bun
da
n
ce



Ta
b
le

A
1.

M
od
e
l

sc
o
r
e
s

f
o
r

e
a
c
h

m
od
e
l

o
f

f
e
r
a
l

c
at

a
b
u
nd
a
n
c
e

in

L
o
w
e
r

G
l
e
n
e
lg

N
a
t
i
on
al

P
ark



s
outh
.



M
od
e
l

D
e
v
ia
n
c
e

p

A
I
C

M
0

157.2

2

161.2

M
h

157.0

4

165.0

M
b

164.6

3

170.6

M
bh

163.5

5

173.5

M
t

159.7

28

215.7

M
tb

163.6

29

221.6

M
tbh

156.1

57

270.1

M
th

160.2

56

272.2



Ta
b
le

A
2.

M
od
e
l

sc
o
r
e
s

f
o
r

e
a
c
h

m
od
e
l

o
f

f
e
r
a
l

c
at

a
b
u
nd
a
n
c
e

in

L
o
w
e
r

G
l
e
n
e
lg

N
a
t
i
on
al

P
ark



no
r
th
.



M
od
e
l

D
e
v
ia
n
c
e

p

A
I
C

M
h

402.4

4

410.4

M
bh

402.9

5

412.9

M
0

429.5

2

433.5

M
b

432.6

3

438.6

M
t

405.6

28

461.6

M
tb

408.9

29

466.9

M
tbh

364.3

57

478.3

M
th

373.3

56

485.3





























































A
r
t
hu
r

R
yl
a
h

I
n
s
t
i
t
u
te

fo
r

E
nviro
n
m
e
n
ta
l

R
e
s
ea
r
ch

Te
c
hni
c
a
l

R
e
por
t

No

2
0
1

1






































































I
S
S
N

1
8
3
5
-
3
8
2
7

(pri
n
t)

I
S
S
N

1
8
3
5
-
3
8
35

(
o
n
li
n
e)

I
S
BN

9
7
8
-
1
-
7
4
2
4
2
-
4
94
-
1

(
pri
n
t)

I
S
BN

9
7
8
-
1
-
7
4
2
4
2
-
4
95
-
8

(
o
n
li
n
e)