Overview of Lubricant Technology

chivalrousslateOil and Offshore

Nov 8, 2013 (3 years and 9 months ago)

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Overview of Lubricant Technology

Dr. Gamini Amarasekera, BSc (Hons), C. Chem. (Aus), PhD (Aus)

Consultant , Laugfs Lubricants Limited


(1) Lubricants
-

Introduction



(2) Base oil
-

the main ingredient & Its
impact on the quality of finished lubricant



(3) Engine oil trends and main drivers of its
quality



(4) Base oil trends


2

3

50 KMT

Sri Lanka current market size
-

~ 58 KMT


Definition


Friction
-

reducing substance

`
A
substance, typically oil or grease, applied to
a surface to reduce friction between moving
parts



+

Base Oil

Chemical

Additives

Made of two basic components

DI Package

8
-
12% wt.

VI Improver

Antioxidant

Antiwear

Friction

Modifier

Dispersant

Others*

Base Oil







Base oil is the foundation of a lubricant

`
The quality of Base oil determines quality of the finished lubricant

`
Mineral base oils are extracted from petroleum crude

`
Complex mixture of many hydrocarbons

`
There are different grades of base oils classified according to their
quality


LPG

Petrol

Kerosene

Diesel

Base oils

Furnace oil

Bitumen

Strong

Stable

Inert


G010067

Virgin Base oils are preferred for good quality
lubricants

Group
Sulfur, Wt %
Saturates
V.I.
I
>0.03
and/or
<90
80-119
II

0.03
and

90
80-119
III

0.03
and

90

120
IV
All
Polyalphaolefins (PAOs)
V
All Stocks Not Included in Groups I-IV
(Pale Oils and Non-PAO Synthetics)
In recent years these categories have been informally
subdivided into Group I+, Group II+ and Group III+

All Commercial Paraffinic Base Oils have VI > 95


Oxidation stability


Long drain intervals


Thermal stability


Long drain intervals


Less volatility


Lesser emission


HSHT Stability


Shear stability


Better control of viscosity over wide
temperature range, i.e. High VI


Lesser
wear & tear/fuel economy


Lesser oxidative material


Long drain
intervals


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Additives provide different properties to
lubricants


Detergents


Cleaning


Dispersants


Keep dirt in suspension


Antioxidants


Delay aging/oxidation


Anti wear


Reduce wear & tear


VI improvers


To maintain
visco
-
metrics across wide
temperature range


Pour point depressants


Improve low temperature flow


Anti
-
foam


Prevent foaming


Friction modifiers


Reduce friction/Improve fuel economy


EP chemicals


Prevent metal to metal contact


Tackiness additives


Improve tackiness

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Viscosity

Index
Improvers

Dispersants

Rust and

Corrosion

Inhibitor

Foam

Inhibitors

Antiwear

Agents

Anti
-

oxidants

Detergents

Pour Point

Depressants

Friction

Modifiers

It’s Not Just Oil

It is properly balanced
complex mixture of active
chemicals

All compete for same surface area

High
quality
base oil

Finished
product

14

Petrol

Diesel

15

Engine oil represent ~ 70 % of total
lubricant market in Sri Lanka


There are two main classifications

(1) Performance (2) Viscosity (flow property)



Performance Classifications

`
In
order to protect
engines,
engine oils should meet some
performance
standards.


Commonly used classification is API


(American Petroleum
Institute)


Other classifications are : ILSAC, ACEA , JASO


`
Viscosity Classification

`
SAE Numbers


Society of Automotive Engineers








SJ

SC

SF

1968

1980

1972

1989

1994

1996

SD

SE

SG

SH

2000

API “S” Engine Service
Classifications

SL

1964

2004

SM

Sri Lanka Min
Standard

SN

2010





CF


CA …CD CE CF
-
4 CG
-
4


CH
-
4 CI
-
4 CI
-
4 + CJ
-
4






CD
-
II CF
-
2

How can a buyer check this?

API “C” Diesel Engine Classifications

Sri Lanka Min
Standard


SAE VISCOSITY GRADES for ENGINE OILS
-

(SAE J300)



SAE


Low
-
Temp

Low
-
Temp Pumping


High
-
Temp


High
-
Temp/High
-
Shear


Viscosity Cranking
Viscosity, max

Viscosity, Kinematic


Viscosity at



Grade


Viscosity
(no yield stress)

cSt

@ 100
°
C



150
°
C & 106s
-
1




max,
cP

@
°
C


cP

@
°
C







min

max


min,
cP


0W


6200 at
-
35


60 000 at
-
40


3.8


-


-


5W


6600 at
-
30


60 000 at
-
35


3.8


-


-


10W


7000 at
-
25


60 000 at
-
30


4.1


-


-


15W


7000 at
-
20


60 000 at
-
25


5.6


-


-


20W


9500 at
-
15


60 000 at
-
20


5.6


-


-


25W


13000 at
-
10


60 000 at
-
15


9.3


-


-



20


-




-


5.6

< 9.3


2.6



30


-




-


9.3

< 12.5


2.9



40


-




-


12.5

< 16.3


2.9
(1
)







3.7
(2)



50


-



-


16.3

< 21.9


3.7



60


-




-


21.9

< 26.1


3.7



(1) SAE 0W, 5W and 10W
multigrades

(2) SAE 15W, 20W, 25W
multigrades

and 40 grade

19

Multi grade oils


e.g. 15W
-
40

20

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22

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It is important to understand the increasing demand for engine oil quality
with these new design changes.




Use of wrong lubricant will lead to severe engine failures



25


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27

Oronite 2010

28

Oronite 2010

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All modern engines require multi grade technology


Engine oil technology is moving towards lower viscosity
grades.


All high performance engine oils require base oils of API Gr 2
or above


If correct engine oil is not used in modern engines there can
be severe premature engine failures.


It is our duty to educate all customers on the required engine
oil quality levels.


Small engines like motorcycle, out board motor, etc. also
require modern additive chemistry and high quality base oils
(Gr 2 or above)


Always use virgin base oils to maintain required quality.


It is our responsibility to take this industry to higher levels in
parallel with new advancements in engine technology

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