Hydrotreated Vegetable Oil Challenge Feedstock Neue Rohstoffe und Anwendungen

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Nov 8, 2013 (3 years and 9 months ago)

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Hydrotreated Vegetable Oil
Challenge Feedstock
Neue Rohstoffe und Anwendungen
ICSAT Ingolstadt
25.
-
27.9.2013
2
Contents

1 NExBTL process and performance

2 Applications and Field Tests

New Challenges

3 Renewable Feedstocks for Chemistry Beyond Fuels

Challenge Biomass
3
NExBTL & FAME Process
FAME unit
Feeds in
:
Vegetable Oil
and Waste Fat
Products out
:
FAME biodiesel
Glycerol
NExBTL
-
Unit
Hydrogen
Methanol
Products out
:
Bio fuel gas
Biogasoline component
NExBTL Diesel
SAME
FEEDSTOCK
DIFFERENT
PRODUCTS
4
HVO is a high quality bio
-
based hydrocarbon
Technology
Esteröinti
Esteri
-
biodiesel
Biodiesel
FAME / RME
NExBTL
renewable
diesel
Fischer
-
Tropsch
Feedstock
End product
Biomassa
Kasviöljyt
&
Eläinrasvat
Kaasutus &
Fischer
-
Tropsch
Vetykäsittel
y
Vegetable oils &
animal fats
(mainly
rapeseed oil)
Esterification
Ester
-
based
biodiesel
O
II
H
3
C
-
O
-
C
-
R
Vegetable oils &
animal fats
Hydrogenation
Bio
-
based
hydrocarbon
C
n
H
2n+2
Biomass
Gasification &
Fischer
-
Tropsch
Bio
-
based
hydrocarbon
C
n
H
2n+2
Mineral Oil
Refining
Hydrocarbon
C
n
H
2n+2
C
n
H
2n
C
n
H
n
Fossil diesel
5
Distillation curves
150
200
250
300
350
400
0
20
40
60
80
100
Recovered (%)
Temperature (
°
C)
NExBTL
EN590
SwCl1
FAME
C16
C20
150
200
250
300
350
400
0
20
40
60
80
100
Recovered (%)
Temperature (
°
C)
NExBTL
EN590
SwCl1
FAME
C16
C20
6
Carbon distribution
Carbon chain lenght
-5
0
5
10
15
20
25
5
10
15
20
25
Carbon number
%
iso-paraf.
n-paraf.
iso-paraf 2
n-paraf. 2
7
HVO
-
diesel

Next step from
traditional Biodiesel

Improved Technology
and Product

Pure Hydrocarbon,
fully compatible with
Mineral Diesel

No compromises on
Fuel Quality or Vehicle
Performance

In Commercial
Production
8
75
-
99
-
5...
-
30
44
34
780
0
180
-
320
HVO
-
Superior Quality
Fuel Properties
EN590
HVO
Typical values
diesel fuel
Cetane number
Cloud point (
°
C)
Heating value (lower) (MJ/kg)
Heating value (lower) (MJ/l)
Density at +15
°
C (kg/m3)
Sulfur content (mg/kg)
Distillation range
°
C
53
0
-
-
12
43
36
835
< 10
180
-
360
HVO Applications
Experience from fleet test
10
10
HVO significantly reduces greenhouse gas
and tailpipe emissions
50 million kilometers covered in the
world’s largest biofuel trial
(Helsinki 2007
-
2010)
HVO contributes to a significant
reduction in exhaust emissions:

Nitrogen oxide (NOx)
10% reduction

Particulates (PM)
30% reduction

Greenhouse gases
(LCA
-
GHG)
>50% reduction
11
Mercedes
-
Benz is confident about NExBTL diesel

Significant reduction of emission

NOx decrease up to 15 %

GHG reduction over 60 %

After one year field testing:

1.000.000 km @ no issues

Engine wear to be monitored

Regular vehicle service intervals

Summer and winter vehicle operation

Totally 3.3 million kilometers will be driven
and more than 2 000 tons of CO2 will be
saved
”The results from the first
year of testing show that the
fuel works perfectly in
Mercedes
-
Benz trucks and
busses and is tolerated very
well by the engines”.
Dr. Schuckert, Daimler AG.
12
Project burnFAIR : Facts
Duration:
15th July

27th December 2011,
8 flights/day
Route:
Hamburg

Frankfurt

Hamburg
(1h flight time)
Aircraft:
Airbus A321
Biofuel quantity:
800 tons
Biofuel ratio:
50% in one engine
Total cost:
8.4m USD
Emission savings:
approx.

1,500 tons CO
2
13
Research of engine performance:
One engine to operate with 50% blend of
HVO kerosene
First truck supplies bioblend to the starboard
wing tank
Second truck supplies conventional JET A
-
1
to the backboard wing tank
No major changes in normal cockpit
procedures
“Bio
-
Engine” shows expected data and
operates normal
Use in the aircraft

The „Drop In“ Concept
14
Bottom line
On December 27th 2011, the aircraft D
-
AIDG completed its last flight with biofuel
Total number of flights:
1187
Biofuel blend [volume in tons]:
1557
Emission saving [CO
2
in t]:
1471
First Results of the Project Aviation Biofuel
15
Neste Green

diesel launched to market

Sold to private customers since May 2008
through service station network

High bio content, over 10 %

Compatible with all diesel engines and fulfills
EN590 standard

No changes in logistics

No reported issues even in winter

Lower tailpipe emission and GHG

Now even “Green 100” in use
16
Whats possible today?

Mixture of HVO and
Biodiesel

Has been tested
succesfully in car fleet

100% bio is possible in
modern engine
concepts and
backwards compatible

Possible strategy for
higher bio blends
17
Whats possible today?
R 33

Mixture of 33% bio components and 67%
fossile fuel

Within EN 590

possible in modern engine concepts and backwards
compatible

Possible strategy for higher bio blends in existing fuel
logistics
Using non fossil diesel fuel (HVO) in a race car
Measurements of the
emission behaviour of
non fossil fuel compared
with currently available
diesel fuel
Further development of
NExBTL based on
gathered data of races
Verification of NexBTL
(HVO) under
reproducable racing
conditions
19
Commercial HVO plants by size
1.
Neste Oil Rotterdam
800.000 tons
2.
Neste Oil Singapore
800.000 tons
3.
Neste Oil Porvoo (2)
380.000 tons
4.
Dynamic Fuels Geismar
220.000 tons
coming...
5.
Valero
-
Darling Norco
400.000 tons
Source: Global Biofuels Center Capacity Database
2
1
3
4
20
HVO product family
RENEWABLE
DIESEL
RENEWABLE
KEROSENE
RENEWABLE
NAPHTHA
RENEWABLE
PROPANE
HVO Applications
Chemical Feed Stock
NExBTL product family

100% bio
-
based
22
22
Renewable Fuels
Flexible feedstock base: a
wide range of vegetable oils
and waste animal fats
Renewable
NExBTL diesel
Renewable
NExBTL
aviation fuel
Renewable
NExBTL
Naphtha
Renewable
Isoalkanes
Propane
paint
Renewable Naphtha typical
values
23
2
3
Naphtha
NExBTL
Neste crude naphtha
70%
Open spec
Density
0,67 g/ml
0,68 g/ml
Boiling range
47
-
122ºC
39
-
95ºC
Sulphur
<2 mg/kg
238 mg/kg
Aromatics
<<0,1 %v
1,5 %v
n
-
Paraffins
36,4 %
36 %
i
-
Paraffins
62,1 %
39 %
Lead
<<5 µg/kg
<25 µg/kg
Chlorine
<<5 mg/kg
<5 mg/kg
Arsenic
<<1 µg/kg
<5 mg/kg
Renewable Fuels
Renewable n
-
paraffins
Blend and Range on n
-
paraffins

Mainly C15
-
C18

BP range 270
-
316C

MP range 10
-
28C

Available after 2016
Potential applications

Rubber & plastics

Crop protection

Additives

Personal care & Pharma
24
2
4
Renewable Isoalkanes
Environmental and technical
benefits

Renewable

Readily biodegradable (OECD 301b,
80% in 10 days)

Low environmental risk

BCF estimated 116

Reduced carbon footprint

Safe to use

Low aromatics

Low sulphur

Low VOC
-
grade

Certified & traceable feedstocks

Colourless

Odourless

High purity

Non
-
corrosive

High chemical stability

Low surface tension

superior wetting

Compatible with most other organic oils
and packaging materials
Applications
Rubber, TPE additives & plasticizers
Specialty chemical additives, eg antifoams
Solvents in industrial applications, detergents, personal care
Paint, coatings, inks & adhesives
Oil & gas drilling fluids
Explosives
Lubricants & Metal working fluids
Release agents
30.05.13
26
2
6
Renewable Propane to Polymers

Dehydrogenation to propylene

Acrylonitrile

Acrylates

Propylene oxide eg for polyurethanes

PP

EPDM

Available after 2015
30.05.13
27
2
7
High purity lignin

High
-
purity lignin from microbial oil production

Binder & co
-
binder

Temporary binder

Reactive filler

Available after 2016

Source for

isophthalic acid

Vanillins

BTX
30.05.13
28
2
8
Renewable Fuels
HVO Rawmaterials
Feed Stock Flexibility
The fuel has constant high quality independent from
raw material used.
Currently used renewable raw materials
Palm oil, stearin,
palm fatty acid distillate
(PFAD)
Waste animal fat from
the food industry
Rapeseed oil
Soybean oil
Waste fat from fish
processing industry
20.5.2013
32
3
2
Social and Environmental
Responsibility :smallholders!
Farmers
growing oil palm, sometimes along with subsistence production
of other crops, where the
family provides the majority of labour
and the
farm provides the
principal source of income
, and where the planted
area of oil palm is usually below 50 hectares in size
[Definition from:
RSPO Principles and Criteria for Sustainable Palm Oil Production

October 2007]
Key differences with Big companies:
Factor
Big Companies
Smallholders
Average Size
> 1000 Ha
2
-
3 Ha
Labour
Contracted workers
Family and some workers
Income
Within corporations
Too provide livelihood
Processing
Own mill produce CPO
FFB Sold to companies with mills
Land Ownership
By government con
-
cessions
(limited time)
Own land, inherited or bought from
government/ third parties
20.5.2013
33
3
3
How can a buyer help?
Below is the typical supply chain
20.5.2013
34
3
4
What is Neste Oil doing now?
Scheme smallholders
We have assisted the certification of
9000 smallholder families in Riau
The smallholder group is managed by GAR
Currently this group is still supplying us ISCC certified CPO.
Independent smallholders
We are working closely with many stakeholders, including NGOs and
IGOs, to identify and help do an initial assessment on independent
smallholder projects
Currently we have completed social environment assessment for
two independent smallholder group candidates
We are close to an agreement with the stakeholders
20.5.2013
35
3
5
Summary
Smallholder is an ever
-
increasing
important player in the palm oil industry
Buyers should assist smallholders to
achieve sustainability and include them in
the supply chain
Independent smallholder projects are a
challenge, however it is achievable with
the help of all the stakeholders
Promising new crops
Camelina oil
Jatropha oil
(Neste Oil also procures bio
-
based ethanol from the global market to be used as a
bio
-
component in 95 E10 and 98 E5 gasoline.)
Camelina oil

Related to oilseed rape.

Prospers in the northern temperate zone
(e.g. in the US, can be also be grown in
Finland.

Oil yield less than 1 tons/hectare. Yield can
be increased by developing plant types.

Effect on land use is low, because camelina can be cultivated as
rotational plant, for example with wheat.

Can also be cultivated on fallow ground.

Camelina’s seed extract (app. 70% of the crop) is excellent animal
feed.
Jatropha oil

Perennial shrub or a tree, that produces fruit for
approx. 50 years.

Main production areas: South America, Africa
and Southeast Asia.

Can be grown on poor soil. Cultivation does not
threaten forested areas or cultivation of food
crops.

Most jatropha plants are toxic and thus
unsuitable for human consumption.

Oil yield approx. 1

2 tons per hectare.
Neste Oil’s criteria for new raw materials

Applicability

Availability for industrial scale production

Economical perspectives

Features of sustainable development

Carbon footprint (greenhouse gas emission balance)

Water footprint

Nutrients

Land use
Potential future raw materials

Cooperation with over 20 research institutions around the world.

80% of Neste Oil’s R&D costs (~EUR 42 million in 2011) directed
to researching renewable raw materials and the refining
technologies.

The first ever pilot plant in Europe to produce waste
-
based
microbial oil is being built at Neste Oil’s Porvoo refinery in Finland.
Microbial oil
Algae oil
Biowax from forest
harvesting waste
Waste
-
and residue
-
based microbial oil

a raw material for NExBTL renewable
diesel
BIOMASS &
FRACTIONATION
Residues from agriculture
(e.g. straw) and the pulp
and paper industry
(wood
-
based biomass)
are fractionated into
sugars
CULTIVATION AND
OIL RECOVERY
Microbes convert the
sugars contained in waste
and residues into
microbial oil in a
bioreactor and the oil is
recovered
NExBTL
PROCESS
Microbial oil is then
refined into fuel using
Neste Oil’s NExBTL
process
PRODUCT
Premium
-
quality NExBTL
renewable diesel or
aviation fuel
41
4
1
Microbial Oil Technology
Neste Oil’s developing technology for conversion of waste and residue materials
to oil by microorganisms

several patents
Specific fungi used that accumulate up to 80 % of oil from cell dry weight on waste
and residue materials Microbes are cultivated in traditional bioreactors used in
biotechnology industry
High oil productivity: “Production cycle” within a couple of days
High cell density: Easy to harvest
42
4
2
Oil
-
rich fungal cells, the
white spots inside cells is oil
(> 50% oil from cell weight)
Raw materials for microbial
oil production
Oil producing microorganisms are
very versatile in using raw materials
Both hexose
(C6) and
pentose
(C5) sugars used equally efficiently
Other raw materials than sugars, e.g. glycerineVarious agricultural and industrial wastes
and residues suitable:
Lignocellulosic materials

Agricultural residues

Pulp and paper industry residues

Hemicellulose streams
Other industrial organic residues

Glycerine residue from FAME
-
biodiesel production
Municipal organic wastes
Sugars from cereals and sugar cane/beet
43
4
3
Microbial oil pilot plant

Europe’s first microbial oil pilot plant using wastes and residues

First phase of construction has been completed

Enabling the cultivation of oil
-
producing microorganisms
From lab scale
to piloting
44
4
4
45
4
5
Advantages of microbial oil
Various waste and residue materials can be utilized
Efficient conversion of lignocellulosic materials to oil for biofuels
Potential for integrating into industrial processes (biorefinery)
Oil very suitable for conversion into paraffinic fuels
Production of animal feed along with biofuel (residual biomass)
High GHG reduction when wastes or residues (lignocellulosics) are used as raw materials
Microalgae oil

There are tens of thousands of different algae species.
Most species produce remarkable amounts of
intracellular lipids.

Microalgae grow wherever water and light is available,
also in seawater and land areas unsuitable for cultivation.

Oil production potential is may times higher than that of
current oil plants.

Microalgae is not yet grown at an industrial scale for
biofuel production.

Neste Oil is involved in two research projects in the
Netherlands and Australia to build up experience on the
suitability of different types of algae for use in an
industrial
-
scale production under a variety of conditions.
refining the future