Considerations for the Digital-Cloud Age

chirpskulkInternet and Web Development

Nov 3, 2013 (3 years and 1 month ago)

87 views

The Research Paper:

Considerations for the Digital
-
Cloud Age

Christopher Norton

West Ottawa High School

nortonc@westottawa.net

Objectives of this presentation:


To provide suggestions for becoming a more proficient
teacher of writing in an increasingly digital
-
cloud age.


To provide suggestions and tips for producing more
proficient writers through the utilization of current
computer technologies.


To provide suggestions and tips for becoming a more
proficient writer


in the sense of providing timely and
meaningful student feedback.


To share my observations and strategies about the
process of teaching students to write successful research
papers


to become lifelong learners, and how to make
research a transformational experience:

Concentrated Solar Power and hydrogen (CSP +H)

A prompt leads to ideas


Source: http://www.pre.ethz.ch/research/projects/imgs/solarhydro4_1.jpg

Ideas that must be clear and understandable


Source: http://www.energy.umd.edu/sites/default/files/images/projects/solar1
-
1.png

And ideas that are sound and valid


Cautionary note, pirates and global warming


a novice debate “product”
http://tiny.cc/piracyDA


Analysis: There is a mathematical inversely proportional relationship
between piracy and global average temperatures. Therefore, as global
average temperatures increase (known as global warming) piracy
decreases.
Science Creative Quarterly
May 5, 2006


Background: About me


(or “why are you telling me this?”)


My decision to be a teacher



My educational experiences



My personal life


children, a greater teacher



My approach to all interactions


why are you
telling me this? How should I respond?


Us as teachers… teachers of writing…

The past my (in)adequate prep


CMU (May 1990) and technology


The changes


What hasn’t changed, what has, take a moment


do not share with anyone else
yet, avoid group think:


Think about your experiences in high school and college, jot down what you
recall about the following (2 minutes):



about doing research,


about formal writing,


the amount of writing,


the resources available,


and the time required,


etc…


Share with the whole group and discuss (5 minutes)


We are time travelers,


there is a huge generation gap, we cannot teach as we were taught,


we must be innovators, we must do more than keep up, we must push!


The generation gap is exacerbated by the knowledge
and resources gaps within each generation


List the technology that your institution provides for
students and is it adequate?... (that begs the
question)(2 minutes):


Share your answers with those at your table, and then
ask each other these questions (5 minutes):


Why is this technology being used?


How does it assist in writing?


How does it assist in acquiring information?


What do we ask our students to do with this information


Share responses with the whole group (3 minutes)

History in the making!


There has never been a time in
human history where there has
been so much information readily
available to anyone at anytime
and almost any place, but
technology is a tool and like all
tools it is only effective if it can
be used efficiently, and
innovatively.


What (do you think) is the future
of writing? (2 minutes discuss)


What (do you think) is the future
of research? (2 minutes discuss)


So…my purpose


I’m not going to tell you
how

to teach but
why

and
what “we” should do regarding the instruction of
research in an increasingly digital
-
cloud age


I will remind you to consider your purpose in
assigning research and to remember who your
audience is and to establish for them their purpose
and their audience (beyond just you as an instructor


it is themselves too)


And I will attempt to prepare you for your part in the
current educational
-

technology revolution: the 5Ps
for us as teachers and for our students.

The 5 P’s


Prior


Preparation


Prevents


Poor


performance


So why do we assign the research paper
?


Analyze and synthesize


it is a process of reading and
writing


What are your thoughts?
List

what you
notice about the
content:


What do you notice about the style?


What questions do you have either as a writer or
instructor of research?


What do you speculate about research and research
writing?


Teaching and writing are experiencing a
revolution


The composition of research
is being revolutionized

0

Computer
-
mediated
communication (CMC) is one of the features
of
globalization and
as a result, the Internet has become an
important linguistic medium. It has
been added
to every aspect of
human life, including the learning of languages. McLuhan(1962)
even coined the term ‘global village’ in the 1960s of the last
century to
express his
belief that electronic communication would
unite the world because
"the medium
is the
message".
Warschauer

and Healey (1998:63) also stated that
: It
is the rise of
computer
-
mediated communication and the Internet, more
than
anything
else, which has reshaped the uses of computers for
language learning
at the
end of the
20
th

century
. With the advent of
the Internet, the computer

both
in society
and in the classroom

has been
transformed

from a tool for
information processing
and
display to a tool for information processing and communication
.”
Li
, Ben
-
Canaan, (2006)


The Role
of
Technology


By the definition of revolution one
realizes it is time to adapt or die,
we cannot avoid the changes, the
changes offer a more reasonable
approach and a more doable
approach to a constant, it is time
to decide, and so recognize that
the concept of writing is the same,
but the mode and methods are
changing.

Role of technology


History of tech


spoken word, ancient
attempts at writing, scrolls, movable typesets,
copying machines, word processing, word
-
to
-
text, collaborative live writing, cloud storage,
etc.


The constant is the preservation of “the idea”


What has changed is the means/mode/method
of preserving the idea


the concept of
composition.


Definition of Composition


Definition of
composition:


com∙po∙si∙tion

/
ˌ
kämpəˈziSHən
/ a Noun



The nature of something's ingredients or constituents; the way in
which a whole or mixture is made up.



The action of putting things together; formation or construction
.


Synonyms: makeup


structure


Source:
http://www.googl e.com/#
output=
search&scl i ent
=
psyab&q
=
defi ni ti on+of+composi ti on&oq
=
defi ni ti on+of+composi ti on&gs_l
=hp.3
..0l 4.1429.6398.0.6973.25.17.0.8.8.
0.377.2221.10j5j0j2.17.0...0.0...1c.1.17.psy
-
ab.paCxU3QAffU&pbx=1&bav=on.2,or.r_qf.&bvm=bv.48175248,d.aWM&fp=a53e1a32a584494&bi w
=1280&bi h=834



“As
a result of the IT (Information Technology) revolution, there is a shift
in
reading practices
from the (paper) page to the screen (
Reinking
, 1998;
Snyder, 1998). This
shift is
more likely to occur especially among young
people who grow up with
computers (
Tapscott
, 1998). It will necessitate
different psycholinguistic processes related
to decoding
information
from a screen instead of a page, especially when the screen
will be
decoding words for the reader at the click of a mouse. It will also change
how we
as educators
teach things like skimming, scanning, and guessing
words from a
context (
Anderson
-
Inman & Horney, 1998; McKenna,
1998). It will also force educators
to think
more about how texts
combine together with graphics, images, and
audio
-
visual content
to
communicate a message (Bolter, 1998; Kress, 1999; Lemke, 1998
)”

Li,
Ben
-
Canaan, (2006)



The changes and pressures on teaching research
today


the change in composition


The history of teaching has been the “sage on the
stage” but it is changing. It now student centered and
authentic/experiential learning.


The composition of instruction is changing as is the
composition of the research, it is no longer just a paper
meeting a set of standards on a rubric, it is the
incorporation of “soft skills” too.


It is now thinking skills vs. conventions


It is no longer local need
-
based, but it is now national
standards based, i.e.
the Common Core.
(See handout)



Radical thoughts, but worth thinking about:

Schools
are obsolete (minutes 1
-
4;

12:45


14:00
)


sugata_mitra_build_a_school_in_the_cloud
.


Your
reaction
?

knowledge was power

Knowledge is
obsolete

The use of knowledge is power


With availability of information will come an increase in
availability of the power to think independently


Technology is a tool, teachers need to teach
more than just

how to use and find information, but also how to organize
and assess it.


Technology is a tool, a tool for enhancement and
refinement, and we need to teach students how to use it, we
are becoming teachers of skills beyond composition, we are
not obsolete because we must teach

how to use the skills in

processing and analyzing, evaluating and then synthesizing.

SUGGESTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS FOR
ADAPTING TO TECHNOLOGY IN THE RESEARCH
PROCESS

“Reading
from the screen is less a passive act of decoding
a message
from a
single authoritative author and more a self
-
conscious act of accumulating or
creating knowledge from a variety of sources (Bolter, 1991; Landow,1992).
Central principals to the ability to read from the screen include the
following
skills
(
Shetzer

&
Warschauer
, 2000
):




Finding
the information to read in the first place through Internet searches,
etc
.




Rapidly
evaluating the source, credibility, and timeliness of information once
it has
been located
;



Rapidly
making navigational decisions as to whether to read the current page
of information, pursue links internal or external to the page, or revert back
to
further
searching
;



Making
on
-
the
-
spot decisions about ways to save or catalogue part of
the
information
on the page or the complete page
and



Organizing
and keeping track of electronic information that has been saved
.”


Li
, Ben
-
Canaan, (2006)


“Similar
to the changes learners need to make in their reading practices, changes
are expected
to be made in writing practices as well in pedagogical contexts involving
the Internet
(Bolter,
1996;
Faigley
, 1997). In much of the world, writing has been
given little
emphasis in English
language courses, and if emphasized at all, is seen
as synonymous
with the putting on paper of
grammatically correct sentences (Raimes,1991). And indeed, this was sufficient for most
learners’ needs prior to the
information revolution
of the 1970s. However, the rise of
informationalism
, and the widespread
use of
computers and the Internet, dramatically raised the
profile of writing and the need
for effective
written communication (American Management
Association International,1998). The new types of writing skills which are required in the context
of the
Internet include
:


Development
of shared skills for abstraction of words, sentences and
paragraphs so
that they
may become mind
-
vivid
-

critical interpreters, and put in
logical context
and
order;




Writing
effectively in hypertext genres
;



Integrating
texts, graphics, and audio
-
visual material into a multimedia presentation
;



Using
internal and external links to communicate a message well;


Writing
for a particular audience when the audience are comprised of
unknown readers
on the
World Wide Web and


Using
effective pragmatic strategies in various circumstances of computer
-
mediated
communication (including one
-
to
-
one and discussion lists e
-
mail,
and various
forms of
synchronous real
-
time communication,
Shetzer

& Warschauer,2000
).


The
shifts in reading and writing practices necessitate the need for new
curriculum
frameworks/approaches
for teaching of English in Internet medium
.” Li
, Ben
-
Canaan, (2006)


But wait there may be a
challenge:


“The process of research and planning is more
important than the product of a paper and a
presentation
.” Herrington
,
Hodgson
,
Moran
(2009).


Do you agree or disagree with the statement


make a list of pros and cons


and explain why
you agree or disagree.


The focus of the research paper should not just be
technology, but how technology affects research


there are negatives to the technology:


list some potential negatives

to technology
and be
ready to share


word
counts, distractions, social media, the cloud stores everything including messages,
nothing is
delete
d
e.g.
the collaboration in
g
-
docs
and I showed the girls the history,
the need for teachers to be more
vigilant?


what are some of
t
he other
issues for consideration
concerning the process of
research?


Addendum


plagiarism, deadlines etc…

The role of the Big question

0
Research is not just about going to find information
-

that is knowledge and knowledge is obsolete (e.g. Ken
Jennings)


it is
collaboaration
, sharing and
discovering ways to solve and find answers to Big
questions.

0
These Big Questions should be ones you as a teacher
want to know more about.


“What
is good learning? That may be a subjective question. But it’s likely that many
educators would give answers
that
fall in the same ballpark…


…students collaborating and discussing ideas, possible solutions…


…project
-
based learning, designed around real world contexts…


…connecting with other students around the world, on topics of study…


…immersing students in a learning experience that allows them to grapple with a problem,
gaining
higher
-
order thinking skills from pursuing the solution…

To many educators, these notions are music to their ears. Would it seem terribly strange
then to hear that students indeed are doing these things regularly outside of their
classrooms? While Timmy or Susie may not be running home from school saying, “What
fun, deeply
-
engaging learning experience can we do today?”, they are engaging with
new technologies that provide them with the same opportunities.
Every day, many students are
spendi ng
countl ess hours i mmersed i n popul ar technol ogi es

such as Facebook or MySpace, Worl d of
Warcraft
,
or
Si m

Ci ty

whi ch at fi rst gl ance may seem l i ke a waste
of ti me, and brai n cel l s. But these genres of technol ogi es

Soci al Networki ng, Di gi tal Gami ng, and Si mul ati ons

deserve a second,
deeper, l ook at what’s
actual l y goi ng on.

When
you hear ”MySpace” or “Worl d of
Warcraft
,” what do they bri ng to mi nd for you? What emoti ons do you
associate
wi th them? Have you heard of them before?
Your students have, and they al most certai nl y have strong
opi ni ons
about them. You don’t need to be a teenager to use or understand these technol ogi es, or to
use them i n
your
cl assroom. Market research data i ndi cates that many a normal, mi ddl e
-
aged
adul t
uses these technol ogi es
wi th
frequency. The fact i s, you can
be 17, 35, or 60, and when you begi n to engage wi th them and observe
what’s
real l y goi ng on, you can begi n to see that these technol ogi es are more than just
entertai nment.

These
technologies
are already demonstrating how they impact the way we
think, learn, and interact

and they are also
demonstrating
the tremendous potential
they have in these areas as well
.”

Again, the revolution is upon us (another source’s advocacy) and an
example of

how debate utilizes information in context


The emergence of social networking technologies and the evolution of digital games have helped shape the new ways in which pe
opl
e are communicating, collaborating,
operating, and forming social constructs. In fact,
recent research is showing us that these technologies
are shaping the way we think, work, and live. This is especially true of our
youngest generations


those arriving at classrooms doors, soon to be
leaving them and entering the workforce and society
-
at
-
large.


Our newest generation


currently in K
-
12


is demonstrating for us the
impact of having developed under the digital wave. These youth have been
completely normalized by digital technologies

it is a fully integrated
aspect of their lives (Green & Hannon, 2007). Many students in this group
are using new media and technologies to create new things in new ways,
learn new things in new ways, and communicate in new ways with new
people


behaviors that have become hardwired in their ways of thinking
and operating in the world. Green and Hannon give an excellent example of
this, “Children are establishing a relationship to knowledge gathering which is
alien to their parents and teachers” (2007).
http://education.mit.edu/papers/GamesSimsSocNets_EdArcade.pdf



“Immersion
in situated
practice:
Practice in authentic communicative situations
is
required
for students to learn how to collaborate with partners,
negotiate complex
points, and critically evaluate information as it applies to
particular meaningful
contexts. At the same time, such authentic situations can
give students
the
opportunity to develop new technological literacies in
meaningful contexts
;


Overt instruction:
The kinds of sophisticated communication skills required
in the
21
st

century
will seldom develop through practice alone. Students need
the
opportunity
to step back under the guidance of a teacher to critically analyze
the
content
, coherence, organization, pragmatics, syntax, and lexis of communication
(which is necessary, for example, in the analysis and critique of texts, and other
media forms.



Critical
framing:
Effective cross
-
cultural communication and collaboration
,
including
making effective use of information found in online networks
,
necessitates
a high degree of critical interpretation. The instructor’s overt
role thus
should extend beyond narrow language items to also help students learn
to critically
interpret information and communication in a given social context
and


Transformed practice: Transformed practice allows students to improve their
communication skills by raising their practice to new levels based on prior
practice, instruction, and critical framing. This involves working toward higher
-
quality outcomes within particular contexts and also to transfer what has been
learned for application in new social and cultural contexts. Such a framework
goes far beyond the (traditional) linguistic syllabi that are most common today,
based on collections of syntactic or functional items. It also goes far beyond the
notion of task
-
based learning, at least when task
-
based learning is interpreted
as consisting of a progression of narrow tasks designed principally to assist
learners in grasping particular grammatical forms. Akin to the
multiliteracies

framework, project
-
based learning is a new pedagogical tool that would be
useful in English teaching/learning contexts (
Stoller
, 1997). Projects themselves
may include many individual tasks, but the umbrella of the project allows
opportunities to criticize and transform their practice in ways that individual
tasks do not. Projects can take many forms and should be based mostly on
students’ backgrounds, needs, and interests
.”
Li, Ben
-
Canaan, (2006)


So how does one meet these
demands?

Incrementalism


Incrementalism

defined: the gradual
change in a policy or attitude.


I hope to change attitudes of students,
but also the idea that by gradually adding
and practicing the individual parts of a
research paper students will be able to
complete it is a manner that will not seem
daunting.


The process is to produce the paper in
increments.

The process
-

incrementalism

Pre
-
composition


purpose


The goal is to attain 100% participation from
students, but how?


Advertising and marketing
(and debate) use
the
following formula: AIDA


Awareness


Interest


Desire


Action


Start with questions of interest for students such as,


have you ever wondered about,


why,



how,


what if,



if I had the power to change something I would
change…


Discuss that research is the language of academia, they
are a part of academia, but
moreso

that through research
they can enter into the conversation about humanity and
life.


Research is not so much about writing a report (
Wikipedia has a plethora of reports/facts) as it is a finding
and sharing, what will he or she say that is new in the
conversation about the topics he or she selected? Get
them excited about change, that change is a process, and
that they can affect change, but they need to become
knowledgeable, “experts” on their topics.


Have students circle the 3 topics about
which that they would like to know
more
or become experts on


Tell them you will select one of their
choices (collaboration between you


audience and interest


and them)


Also inform them that you will publish the
list so that peers might offer suggestions
and assist

(desire to let others know what

it is that one is engaged in)



Instruct them about how to construct a
proposition for research


this is crucial, for
you as the audience and
for them in forming
and framing
their purposes


Make them aware that you will select one of
their 3 for their research “project” topics


Review the topics and give them their topics
at the next class meeting or sooner via
electronic media. Try to have a diverse
selection of topics.


Distribute a schedule with deadlines/goals

Using a Schedule
as
Measure
of
Process
and
Progress


Explain what the research paper will look like


distribute a
sample
paper
and tell them not to lose it, as it will be referenced during the
process.


Models are key to reducing anxiety and increasing confidence!


Make observations while reading together the sample research paper.


Assign topics and
deadlines

go through each assignment, check level
of understanding


As a process discuss the concept of “ethos” and the need for a works
cited page


integrity


reduce/eliminate plagiarism (more later)


Have them practice doing a sample works cited page, a great resource
for materials is available on
easybib.com

and I create my own.


Use the schedule to assess student progress as each deadline is met, I
would suggest doing away with point values and just create a checklist.


Advantages of
incrementalism

these
assessments may also be done by peers


depends on what
information you want about/from your students


Use the schedule to assess student progress as each deadline is met, students can
keep track and know what comes next
-

like a recipe.


Each instructor and institution will have its own methods and means for composing
a research paper


it is not my intent to provide instruction on what is done, but
offer suggestions about how it is done.


Using the schedule and assessing the increments along the way will provide a sense
of what students have mastered.


Avoid the temptation to collect it all at the end on the due date.


By checking the work along the way it tells the student that research is a process.


By checking work along the way it will reduce the amount of grading and assessing
later


By checking along the way it will provide more feedback to the writer and allow the
writer to make changes and grow in confidence.


By checking along the way it prevents, reduces or inhibits PLAGIARISM!


Application of
incrementalism

Use a schedule
of objectives
that assigns
due dates
for increments completed.

Have all parts done in class


a lesson in time management for
students (reduces plagiarism potential and allows for
conferencing as it is produced


less tedium for students). All
students should do the following


even if class time
is an issue:



The
brainstorm matches the working outline which is formed around the working proposition.



All
sources must have a screen shot with the actual evidence used in the paper, highlighted with a

proper works
cited reference beneath the last page of the screenshot. (see handout)



The
students have conducted interviews and surveys that must be included in the research paper



collect results
. (see handout)



Have
students read and review sample papers


it is safe when it is not someone that the student

knows such
as this one that MLA offers
-

some great resources, especially materials by Diana Hacker *
https://docs.google.com/a/westottawa.net/document/d/1b3iFOlENtGi47dWDcDPVHirHkbf26Tb
-
v9AWG69jFsc/edit




Before
posting their
papers,
have students go over the rubric and give themselves a score, and also

have them
use the sample such as the MLA paper here*:
https://docs.google.com/a/westottawa.net/document/d/1Xy7sRfPtYzfG2wDX1KOii4YyqEoj1wzH6o3O6IbGn4s/edit




All
students must post their research paper on a common source such as
google

docs, and must post a

comment
on two other papers that they have read


there is a maximum of only three comments per

paper
, so everyone gets at least one response to his or her paper.



Offer
the opportunity to resubmit with changes that demonstrate learning, but not for full points, but

for some
that show work and learning.



Make
sure that students reflect on the process and the grade


may be part of a portfolio




Incrementalism

in assessing
papers

“Peter Elbow and others have described the
range of activities for writing courses
wherin

students write to learn, but do not submit
each assignment to the instructor for
detailed critique and evaluation. By balancing
the personal and technological in our
teaching we can avoid paper fatigue as well
as technological overload.”
Viti

(2005)

See addendum for more suggestions.

The new teaching & learning


the need to
create and make


“It’s
not surprising that people see a connection between computers and
education. Computers enable transmission, accessibility, representation, and
manipulation of information in
many ways
. Because education and computers
are both
associated with
information, the two seem to make a perfect marriage.


This focus on information, however, is limiting and distorting, both for education
and for computers. If we want to
take full
advantage of new computational
technology and help people become better thinkers and learners, we need to
move beyond
these information
-
centric views of computing
and learning
.


Over the past 50 years, psychologists and educational researchers, building on
the pioneering work of Jean Piaget
have come
to understand that learning is not
a simple matter of information
transmission. Teachers
cannot simply pour
information into the heads of learners. Rather, learning is an
active process
in
which students construct new understanding of
the world
around them through
active exploration, experimentation, discussion, and reflection. In short, people
don’t
get ideas
; they make
them.”
Resnick

(2006)

Why debate and authentic research succeed


It is through design activities that computers
offer the greatest new learning opportunities.
Research has shown that
many of
the best
learning experiences come when engaged in
designing and creating things, especially
things that are
meaningful either
to us or to
those around us
.”
Resnick

(2006)

More considerations for
the research project

Critical thinking
as part of the research process:


Critical thinking vs. analytical thinking (an article
definig

and explaining the
difference)
http://www.edutopia.org/blog/teaching
-
students
-
dig
-
deeper
-
ben
-
johnson



My interview for the adjunct position


the inability or lack of deep reading on
the part of students


Quality information vs. quantity of information


NYU study results


the avoidance of critical thinking, research should increase
it, not cause an avoidance of it


Control F decreases the use of quotes in context
!


Debate promotes context deeper reading and defense of the evidence


the
ethos of the sources establishes the logos, which is synthesized to persuade


hopefully not too much pathos or hyperbole! (climate change and piracy)

Student centered
-

change
is
needed and is occurring


We need to fundamentally reorganize classrooms. Instead of
a
centralized
-
control
model (with one teacher delivering
information to a roomful of students), we should use a more
entrepreneurial approach to learning. Students can become
more active
and independent learners, with the teacher serving
as
a consultant
, not as a chief executive
.”
Resnick

(2006)


Take time to let this all sink in, what are you already doing?


What would you like to do? Take time at the end of this
presentation, no right now to figure out what the inherent
barriers (attitudinal/structural) are and how they might be
removed? (db8 terms).

o
A
serious lack of critical thinking skills in students and an
increasing need for it in the business world:
http://l08.cgpublisher.com/proposals/64/index_html


o
Problem Based Learning


moving beyond writing a paper:
synthesis of research into authentic learning


o
SOLE (16:30): research will be around the “Big Questions” it is
important that we instruct them in how to record the information
http://www.ted.com/talks/sugata_mitra_build_a_school_in_the_cloud.html


o
Seeing research put into action:

o
Resources
on PBL:
http://www.teachthought.com/category/learning/project
-
based
-
learning/


The future for higher
education and perhaps…


Like the invention of writing, is this the next
large scale disseminator of knowledge and
skills?


Will this mass dissemination lead to greater
empowerment?


Ted
Talk on the classroom of 100,000 students
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tYclUdcsdeo



Your thoughts…


A Last
thought
by
Resnick


“Finally
, and perhaps most
importantly
, we need to
transform curricula
so that they focus less on “things to
know” and
more on
“strategies for learning the things you
don’t know.” As technology continues to quicken the pace
of change in all parts
of the
internet and the
university
our
lives, learning to become a better learner is far more
important than learning to multiply fractions or
memorizing
the capitals
of the world
.”

Wrap
-
up & conclusion


Take
aways


Personal


Group


Transformational
-

we must prepare ourselves and our students for the present and the
future, and we can increase their confidence and encourage them to explore and become
experts in the areas of their interests, so that they contribute to the discussion and that they
increase and improve original research and thought!


Discuss among participants


Technology
is a wave, a revolution, it can be intimidating, but
Incrementalism

isn’t so
daunting; through its application we can meet these objectives of increasing critical thinking
and process design in our students and for ourselves not
being
overwhelmed by the
expectations and standards placed upon us, nor underwhelmed by the products that are
being produced in writing and research.


So
where will you be in
the future of research writing?


And what is the future of research?


Open discussion with time remaining.

R
eferences

Herrington, Anne; Hodgson, Kevin; Moran, Charles. (2009)
Teaching the New Writing
Technology, Change, and Assessment in the 21st Century Classroom

New
York:Teachers

College Press.


Klopfer
, Eric,
Osterweil
, Scot, Groff, Jennifer, Haas, Jason.
(2009).

“The
Instructional Power
of
and
How Teachers Can Leverage
Them
.” Retrieved from
http://education.mit.edu/papers/GamesSimsSocNets_EdArcade.pdf


Resnick
, Mitchel. (2006). “Revolutionizing Learning in the Digital Age.” Retrieved from
http://people.ku.edu/~ghada/portfolio/standards/st2/digital.pdf


Viti
, Lynne S.
(2005).
“Taming
(Not Slaying) the Virtual Dragon: Handling the

Electronic Paper
Load.” In
Golub
, Jeffery, N. (Ed.),
More Ways to Handle the Paper Load On
Paper and Online.

(pp. 111
-

116
).
Urbana:National

Council of Teachers of
English.


Wu, Li, and Ben
-
Canaan, Dan. (2006).
“The Impact of Globalization and the Internet
onEnglish

Language Teaching and Learning.” Retrieved from
http://
academia.edu/188911/The_Impact_of_Globalization_and_the_Internet_on_English_
Language_Teaching_and_Learning



Additional resources


best
article
-

the future, how to overcome barriers this is a must read!
http://education.mit.edu/papers/GamesSimsSocNets_EdArcade.pdf



http
://www.educationarcade.org/



Microsoft offers a great site that increases or focuses on critical thinking in
research. It has a plethora of lessons, ideas, templates and worksheets for
free for all levels of instruction:



http
://www.teachthought.com/technology/search
-
engines
-
for
-
modern
-
academic
-
learning/?goback=%2Egde_3452187_member_248084946



http
://www.teachthought.com/technology/search
-
engines
-
for
-
modern
-
academic
-
learning/?goback=%2Egde_3452187_member_248084946


Addendum: Keep
in mind why and what
the point of research assessment is
-


Why collect it if you are not going to
read

it?


Major point of assessment is
feedback



offer
an opportunity for students to fix it


improve,
but make them do the work and show you the
work



my own experience with my master’s thesis
and with my students…

Addendum:
Incrementalism

and the
paperchase


How to handle the final product?


What are some of the negatives to collecting 85 research papers on the same day and
promising to have them returned in 1 week? (jot down some thoughts reactions,
drawings


keep it appropriate/professional)


Grade fatigue


Deadlines


Other papers to grade


Solutions? (jot ideas


4 minutes)


Electronic submissions


reduces plagiarism, peer reviews etc also cannot be lost
have time stamps


Use timer set # of papers


Goal # per day


break it up 85/7 = 14+; 15/3 = 5; looks like this morning 2 per class =
6; prep 1 per class = 3; after school 2 per class = 6; total = 15 per day! Time per paper
about 10 minutes (2 ½ hr per day).


Advantages:


Return papers in timely manner


Provide fresh comments

Addendum: Age
old problem that
technology cannot solve*: PLAGIARISM


What it is


an issue of integrity, make students aware of
what it is, numerous multimedia sites and apps available to
demonstrate what it is. (share what you define it as 3
minutes)


Why it is done: (brainstorm 3 minutes)


Lazy


Didn’t know what to do


Procrastinated


Concerned about grade


How to reduce, eliminate or inhibit the behavior: individually
(2 minutes) share with whole (3 minutes)


*(the market will provide where there is a demand)