Cloud Computing - Liverpool Hope University

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Nov 3, 2013 (3 years and 9 months ago)

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Cloud Computing:

The Way Forward?

Dr. Nabil Sultan

What is cloud
computing?


22
possible separate definitions
of cloud!! (McKinsey study)


Commonly used definition
:
“clusters of distributed
computers (largely vast
data
centers
and
server farms
) which
provide on
-
demand resources
and services over a networked
medium (usually the Internet).”

Where did the word “cloud”
come from?


In 2006

Eric Schmidt

of
Google

described Google Software as
“cloud computing” at a search
engine conference.



The term cloud is a metaphor for
the Internet, possibly inspired by
cloud images in computing text
books.

Interne
t

What can cloud computing
offer?


Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS):

Products offered via this mode


include the remote delivery (through the Internet) of a full
computer infrastructure (e.g., virtual computers, virtual servers,
storage devices, etc.);



Platform as a Service (PaaS):

Products offered via this mode
include the ability to develop and host software remotely. For
example, you can (remotely) develop Web solutions and host
them on Web servers running Server Operating Systems (e.g.,
Windows 2003, Apache).



Software as a Service (SaaS):

Under this layer, applications are


delivered through the medium of the Internet as a service. This
type of cloud service offers a complete application functionality
that ranges from productivity applications (e.g., office
-
type) to
programs such as those for Customer Relationship Management
(CRM) or enterprise
-
resource management (ERM).

Cloud computing: a new
computing service
paradigm?


Services delivered
dynamically

on a
pay
-
as
-
you
-
go

basis.


Timesharing
. Cloud computing =
Timesharing 2.0 ! (Campbell, 2009)


Predated in the 1990s by
Application
Service Provision

(ASP) which was
delivered via the Internet. ASP did
not survive due to proprietary
protocols and slow and expensive
Internet

connections.

Underlying Technologies of
the Cloud


Web Services

or Remote Application
Service Provision


Grid Computing

(the provision of compute
power through linking computers together

in a grid
-

and then “pooling” their CPU
resources to achieve high performance
compute/processing power)


Virtualization

(the creation of instances of
virtual machines
-

e.g., virtual servers,
virtual desktops
-

and their software


e.g.,
operating systems, applications


that
behave exactly like the real thing).



Major Cloud Platforms


Amazon’s
Elastic Compute

(
EC2
)


Amazon’s
Simple Storage

(
S3
)


IBM’s
Smart Business

portfolio


Google’s
Google Apps


Microsoft’s

Azure


Saleforce.com’s

CRM clouds

(
e.g.,

Sales Cloud, Service Cloud
and Force.com)

Main Concerns Relating
to Cloud Computing (1)


Vendor Lock
-
in

(most cloud providers
produce their own
proprietary

Application
Programming Interfaces (APIs)


Security of Data


Data Protection

(some regions specify
geographical limits for the movements of
personal data)


Sudden Unavailability of Service

(i.e.,
outages)


Loss of Jobs?


Main Concerns Relating
to Cloud Computing (2)


Outages:


Salesforce.com

left customers without service for 6 h

in February 2008



Amazon
’s S3 (simple storage service) and EC2 (Elastic
Compute Cloud) suffered a 3
-
h outage in the same month
a few days later and an 8
-
h outage in July of the same
year by S3 (Leavitt, 2009).



In early 2009,
Google
’s Gmail went down for 3 h, thus
preventing its 113 million users from accessing their
emails or the documents which they store online as
“Google Docs” (Naughton, 2009).

What is being done to
address these concerns?


Amazon

is making its
S3

(simple storage service) cloud
available through both
SOAP

and
REST

while
Microsoft

ensured that its
Azure

cloud also supports
REST
.


Cloud Computing Interoperability Forum
(CCIF)

:


(http://www.cloudforum.org) promoting interoperability.


Distributed Management Task Force (DMTF)
(http://www.dmtf.org)



Hybrid
-
Cloud

solutions: For example, a company could
use its own resources to store data securely but rely on
public cloud services (e.g., Amazon’s EC2) for other
computing functions.


Private (In
-
house) Cloud

(some say this is not cloud
computing)!

Who could benefit from
cloud computing?


Small to Medium Enterprises (SMEs)



Educational Institutions



Organizations engaged in Scientific
Research



Large companies?!



SMEs and the Cloud (1)


Survey

by the European Network and
Information Security (ENISA), an EU
agency found:



68% of the SME responses

indicated
that avoiding capital expenditure in
hardware, software, IT support and
information security was behind their
possible

engagement in cloud computing;



64% of the SME responses

also
indicated that flexibility and scalability of
IT sources was the reason (ENISA, 2009).

SMEs and the Cloud (2)


Survey

conducted by
Easynet Connect
(a
small UK internet solution provider)

has
shown that UK SMEs are increasingly
eager to adopt cloud computing (Stening,
2009):




47%

planning to do so within the next five years.



35%

of them cited cost savings as the key driver


Another
survey

by
Gooroo
(a small UK
cloud provider) reveals similar results.

Educational Institutes &

the Cloud


An increasing number of educational
establishments have opted to use cloud
computing.



In the
UK
,

academic institutes

using cloud
computing include:


Leeds Metropolitan University, the University of
Glamorgan, the University of Aberdeen, the
University of Westminster, the London
University’s School of Oriental and African
Studies (SOAS), the Royal College of Art (RCA)
and Liverpool Hope University.

University of Westminster

(Case Study)


(Sultan, 2010; JISC, 2009)




Prior to using
Google Apps

(free version for
education):


96% of students were setting up their own personal
email accounts (due to frequent problems with the
university’s email system)



With
Google Apps

(rolled out for 2008/9 academic
year)



the University made a saving £1,000,000 (in terms of
installation, ongoing maintenance, upgrades, staff
costs, licenses, servers, storage, etc.).


Student got a reliable email system; were able to have
personalised email addresses; were able to keep their
email addresses (even after graduation), were able to
use Google Apps’s other features (chat, storage,
productivity applications that support collaboration)


UK SME:
Dot Net Solutions

(Case Study)

(Sultan, 2010b, Microsoft, 2009)


The company describes itself as: “
A Microsoft
-
focused SME specializing in delivering technically
complex development projects on cutting edge
technologies



When developing its projects it used the “
Scrum
µ?
approach (pasting sticky labels on the wall). It
proved
problematic
(having to photo them and send
to clients)!


The company then replaced this manual method with
its own software (called “
Scrumwall
µ??XVLQJ?
Microsoft
Silverlight

technology. The
software
mimics the “scrum”

浥瑨t搠扵琠桡s 愠
w敢
J
扡s敤
interface

for clients to see the development of their
systems.


The company used Microsoft’s
Azure platform

to host
its software (initially free but eventually on a pay
-
as
-
you
-
go basis).

The “green” credentials
of cloud computing


Less money to spend on
electricity

(for
powering

machines and
cooling

the rooms that house them).


Research suggests that
ICT

is
responsible for
2%

of global carbon
emissions (and likely to increase).


UK
∙V

Carbon Reduction Commitment

and
EU

Energy Using Products
Directive

are likely to put pressure
on companies to reduce their carbon
footprint.

Famous Quotes


Richard Stallman

(creator of the GNU
operating system and founder of the Free
Software Foundation): “
It’s stupidity. It’s
worse than stupidity: it’s a marketing hype
campaign
” (
The Guardian
, quoted by
Johnson, 2009)


Larry Ellison

(founder of Oracle) described
cloud computing as “
fashion
-
driven
” and

complete gibberish
” and commented that
it would be hard to make money in this
technology which he sees as “
lacking a
clear business model



Bill Gates & Internet


Bill Gates

(Chairman of
Microsoft) in the early 1990s did
not think much of the Internet!



What happened then?


Podcast


Interview with:

Dan Scarf

(
CEO of Do Net Solutions
)

&

Steve Clayton

(
Director, Cloud Strategy,





Microsoft International
)



Source: Financial Times:

http://podcast.ft.com/index.php?sid=21&pid=621

Bibliography


Campbell, S (2009), ‘Timesharing 2.0’,
HPCwire,

http://www.hpcwire.com/specialfeatures/cloud_computing/features/Timesharing
-
20
-
66169142.html

(Accessed on: 5 April, 2010).


Financial Times (2009), “Getting to grips with the cloud”,
http://podcast.ft.com/index.php?sid=21&pid=621

(accessed on: 15 December 2009).


JISC (2009), ‘Outsourcing Email and Data Storage: Case Studies’.


Johnson, B. (2008), ‘Cloud computing is a trap, warns GNU founder Richard Stallman,


The Guardian
, http://www.guardian.co.uk/technology/2008/sep/29/cloud.


computing.richard.stallman (accessed on: 5 July 2009).


Leavitt, N. (2009). Is cloud computing really ready for prime time?
Computer
, 42(1),


15

20.


Microsoft (2009), “Case Studies: Do Not Solutions”,
http://www.microsoft.com/casestudies/Case_Study_Detail.aspx?CaseStudyID=4000004
847 (Accessed: 15 December 2009).


Naughton, J. (2009). There’s silver lining to Google’s cloud computing glitch. The


Observer. http://www.guardian.co.uk/technology/2009/mar/01/gmail
-
outagecloud
-


computing

(accessed on 21 July 2009).


Stening, C. (2009). “Every cloud has a Silver Lining”,
easynetconnect
,
http://www.easynetconnect.net/portals/0/downloadfiles/industryinsight/industrynews/C
loud
-
computing
-
website
-
article
-
final.pdf

(accessed on: 18 July 2009).


Sultan, N (2010), ‘Cloud Computing for Education: A New dawn?’,
International Journal
of Information Management
, Vol. 30, No. 2.


Sultan, N (2010a), ‘
Cloud computing: making headway with the scientific community’,
High Performance Computing
, Nova Publishing.


Sultan, N (2010b), ‘The Power of the Cloud in the Hands of SMEs’,
International
Journal of Services Technology and Management
, In Peer
-
Review Process.

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