178
09LC01 LINEAR
ALGEBRA
3 0 0 3
LINEAR EQUATIONS:
System of l
inear equations

Row reduction and
Echelon forms

Vector equations

The Matrix equation
Ax=b

Solution sets of linear systems

Application of linear systems

Linear Independence

Introductio
n to linear transformations

The Matrix of linear transformation

Linear modeling in engineering
(7)
MATRIX ALGEBRA:
Matrix operations

Inverse of a matrix

Characteristics of invertible matrices

Partitioned matrices

Matrix
factorizat
ions

Subspaces of R
n

Dimension
and
rank

Introduction to determinants

Properties of determinants

Cramer’s rule
(7)
VECTOR SPACES:
Vector spaces
and
subspaces

Null spaces, column spaces
and
linear transformations

Linearly
independent
sets; Bases

Coordinate systems

Dimension of a vector space
–
Rank

Change of basis
(7)
EIGEN VALUES AND
EIGEN VECTORS:
Eigenvectors & Eigen values

Characteristic equation
–
Diagonalization

Eigenvectors &
linear transformat
ions

Complex Eigen values

Applications to differential equations

Iterative estimates for Eigen values
(7)
ORTHOGONALITY AND
LEAST SQUARES:
Inner product, length
and
Orthogonality

Orthogonal sets

Orthogonal projections
–
Gram

Schmidt process

Least square problems

Inner product spaces

Applications of inner product spaces
(7)
SYMMETRIC MATRICES
AND
QUADRATIC FORMS:
Diagonalization of symmetric matrices

Quadratic forms

Singular value
decomposition

Applications to image processing
(7)
Total 42
REFERENCES:
1.
David C
Lay, “Linear Algebra and its Applications”, Pearson Education Asia, New Delhi, 2003
.
2.
Gilbert Strang, “Linear Algebra and its Applications”, Brooks/Cole Ltd., New Delhi, Third Edition,
2003
.
3.
Seymo
ur Lipschutz
and
Marc Lipson, “Schaum's Outline of Linear Algebra”, McGraw Hill Trade; New Delhi, Third Edition,
2000
.
4.
Howard A Anton
“Elementary Linear Algebra”, John Wiley & Sons, Singapore, Eighth Edition 2000
.
09LC0
2
INFORMATION THEORY A
ND
CODING
3
0 0 3
PROBABILITY THEORY:
Events

Random variables

Distribution and density functions

Operations on random variables

Covariance

Correlation functions

Random process

Stationarity

Spectral decomposition

Response of linear system to
random inputs
(10)
MEMORYLESS FINITE SC
HEMES
:
Self information measure

Entropy function

Conditional Entropies

Characteristics of Entropy
function

Derivation of the noise characteristics of a channel

Mutual informatio
n

Redundancy

Efficiency and channel capacity

capacities of channels with symmetric noise structure.
(10)
CONTINUOUS CHANNELS:
Definitions of different entropies

Mutual information

Maximization of
the entropy of a continuous
random variable

Entropy maximization problems

Channel capacity under the influence of additive white Gaussian Noise.
(11)
ELEMENTS OF ENCODING
:
Se
parable binary codes

Shannon

Fano encoding

Necessary and sufficient conditions for
noiseless coding

Shannon's binary coding

fundamental theorem of discrete noise

less coding

Huffman's code

Gilbert
Moore coding

Fundamental theorem of di
screte coding in presence of noise

Error

detecting and error

correcting codes

Hamming's single error correcting code.
(11)
Total 42
REFEREN
CES:
1.
Reza F
M, "An Introduction to Information Theory", McGraw Hill,
2000
.
2.
Viterbei
A
and
Omura J
K, "Principles of Digital Communication and Coding", McGraw Hill, 1979.
3.
Satyanarayana P
S
,
. "Probability Theory

An Introduction", Dayaram Publications” 199
0.
4.
Kandasamy
P
, Thilaga
vathi K and
Gunavathi
K
, “Probability, Random Variables and Random Processes”,
S.Chand &
Co
Ltd, 2003.
5.
Mansuripur M
A, "Introduction to Information Theory"
,
Prentice Hall Inc. 1990.
6.
Srinath
M
D and Rajasekaran
P
K
,
“An Introduct
ion to Statistical Signal Processing with Application
”
, Prentice Hall
,
1993.
7.
Joya Thomas
and
Cover
M,
“Elements of Information theory”, John Wiley, 1991.
8.
Richard
B
W
ells, “Applied Coding and Information Theory for Engineers”, Prentice Hall, 1998.
09LC03
DIGITAL
COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUES
3 0 0 3
179
ERROR CONTROL CODING
:
Linear block codes

Optimum soft decision decoding of linear block codes

Hard decision
decoding

Non binary block codes and concatenated block codes

Polynomial representation of
codes

Cyclic codes

Convolution
codes

Viterbei decoding algorithm
–
Other decoding methods of convolutional codes

Turbo codes
(9)
BASEBAND SIGNALLING
CONCEPTS:
Need for line shaping of signals

Signaling formats

RZ/NRZ, Duobinary Splitphase
(Manchester) and high density bipolar coding

Scrambling
and
unscrambling

channel equalisation

tapped delay line and
traversal filters.
(6)
DIGITAL MODULATION S
CHEMES
:
Detection using matched filter

Optimum receivers for arbitrary binary signals and M'ary
orthogonal signals

Analysis of coherent and non coherent detection schem
es for ASK, PSK and DPSK

M'ary signalling schemes

QPSK and QAM
–
MSK

Performance of the data transmission schemes under AWGN. Trellis coded Modulation.
(9)
SYNCHRONISATION OF D
IGITAL COMMUNICATION
SYSTEM
:
General problem of synchronization

MAP and ML estimation of
signal parameters

Generalization of the estimator equations to multiple symbol intervals and multiple par
ameters

Data aided and
Non data aided synchronization

s
y
nchronization methods based on properties of wide sense cyclo

stationary random process

Carrier recovery circuits

Symbol clock estimation schemes.
(9)
INTRODUCTION TO SPRE
AD SPECT
RUM SYSTEMS
:
Model of Spread spectrum Digital Communication Systems

PN spread
spectrum signals

Generation and Application of PN sequences

FH spread spectrum signals and performance of FHSS in AWGN

Synchronization

Jamming considerations

Commercial App
lications

cellular subsytems.
(9)
Total 42
REFERENCES:
1.
Bernard Sklar, "Digital Communications", Pearson Education Asia, 2001.
2.
Das
J
, "Principles of Digital Communication", Willey Eastern Limited, 1985.
3.
Ziemer R E
and Peterson R L
, "Digital
Communications and Spread Spectrum Systems”, McMillan Publishing Co., 1985.
4.
Proakis J G, "Digital Communications", McGraw Hill Inc, 1983.
5.
Barry
S
,
Lee
E A and
Messershmitt
D
J, “Digital Communications”, Kluwer Academic Press Third Edition,
2004.
09LC04
/
09LV22
ADVANCED DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING
3 0 0 3
MULTIRATE SIGNAL PROCESSING:
Introduction

Sampling and Signal Reconstruction

Sampling rate conversion

Decimation by an integer factor

Interpolation by an integer factor

Sampling rate c
onversion by a ratio
nal factor

Sampling rate
c
onverter as a time variant system

Practical structures for decimators and interpolators

Direct form and Polyphase FIR
structures

FIR structures with time varying Coefficients.
(1
2
)
MULTIRATE FIR FILTER DESIGN:
Design of FIR filters for sampling rate conversion

Multistage
design of decimator and
interpolator

Applications of Interpolation and decimation in signal processing

Fil
t
er bank implementation

Two
channel filter
banks

QMF filter banks

Perfect Reconstruction Filter banks

Filter banks with tree structure

DFT filter Banks

Octave
Filter
Banks.
(1
0
)
POWER SPECTRAL ESTIMATION:
Estimation of spect
ra from finite duration observations of a signal

The Periodogram

Use
of DFT in Power spectral Estimation

Non

Parametric methods for Power spectrum Estimation

Bartlett, Wech & Blackman

Tukey methods

Comparison of performance of Non

Pa
rametric power spectrum Estimation methods.
(10)
PARAMETRIC METHODS OF POWER SPECTRUM ESTIMATION:
Parametric methods for Power spectru
m Estimation

Relationship between auto correlation and model parameters

AR (Auto

Regressive ) process and Linear prediction

Yule

Walker, Burg & Unconstrained Least squares methods

Moving Average (MA) and ARMA models

Minimum vari
ance method

Pisarenko's harmonic De composition Method.

MUSIC method
. (10)
Total 42
REFERENCES:
1.
Fliege N
J, "Multirate Digital Signal Processing", John Wi
ley and sons, 1994.
2.
Hayes M
H, "Statistical Digital Signal Processing and Modeling ", Wiley, New
York
,
1996.
3.
Sanjit
K
Mitra, "Digital Signal Processing

A Computer Based Approach", Tata
McGraw Hill, 2003.
4.
Proakis
J
G
and Manolakis D G
, "Digital Signal
Processing Principles, Algorithms and Applications"
,
Prentice
Hall of
India, 2002
5.
Manolakis D
G
, Ingle V
K
and
Kogon S
M
,
"Statistical and Adaptive Signal
Processing", McGraw Hill, Singapore, 2000.
6.
Vaidyanathan
P P, “Multirate Systems and Filter banks”, Prentice Hall, 1993.
09LC05
MICROWAVE CIRCUIT DESIGN
3 0 0 3
180
MICRO
WAVE NETWORK ANALYSI
S
:
Impedance and Equivalent Voltages and Currents, Impedance and Admittance Matrices,
The Scattering
Matrix, The Transmission (ABCD) Matrix, Signal Flow Graphs,
(7)
IMPEDANCE MATCHING A
ND TUNING
:
Matching wi
th Lumped Elements, Single

stub Tuning, Double

stub Tuning, The Quarter

wave Transformer
–
Microwave Resonators: Series and Parallel Resonant Circuits, Transmission Line Resonators.
(8)
POWER DIVIDERS AND D
IRECTIONAL COUPLERS
:
Basic Properties of Dividers and Couplers, the T

Junction Power Divider,
The Quadrature (90º) Hybrid, Coupled Line
Directional Couplers. The Lange Coupler, the 180º Hybrid.
(9)
MICROWAVE FILTERS
:
Periodic Structures, Filter Design by the Insertion Loss Methods, Filter Transforms, Filter Implementation.
Stepped
–
Impedance Low

pass filters
–
Theory and Design
of Ferromagnetic components: Ferrite Isolators, Ferrite Phase Shifters,
Ferrite Circulators, Active Microwave Circuits: Detectors and Mixers,
(
10)
DESIGN OF MICROWAVE
AMPLIFIERS AND OSCIL
LATORS
:
Characteristics of RF Transistors,
Gain and Stability, Single

Stage
Transistor Amplifier Design, Oscillator Design.
(8)
Total 42
REFERENCES:
1.
David M
Pozar
,
“Microwave Engineering”
,
Third Edition John Wiley
and
Sons, Inc.
,
2005.
2.
Collin
R
E, “Foun
dations Microwave Engineering”, McGraw Hill International Education, 1992.
3.
Gonzalez
G
, “Microwave Transistor amplifiers
–
Analysis & Design”, Prentice Hall, Second Education, 1997.
09LC06
DIGITAL IMAGE PROCESSING
3 0 0 3
DIGITAL IMAGE
FUNDAMENTALS:
Elements of Digital Image Processing System

structure of the human eye

Image formation
in the eye and contrast sensitivity

sampling and Quantisation of an Image

Basic relationship between pixels

Imaging Geometry
Photographic film.
(5)
IMAGE TRANSFORMS:
Need for Image Transforms

The Discrete Fourier transform

properties of DFT

The Fast Fourier
Transform

Discrete cosine Transform

Walsh Transform

Hadamard Transform Hotelling Transform.
(6)
IMAGE ENHANCEMENT:
Spatial domain methods

Frequency domain methods

Histogram Modification technique

Neighborhood averaging Median filtering

Low pass filtering Averaging of multiple Images

Image sharpening by diff
erentiation

High pass filtering.
(6)
IMAGE RESTORATION:
Degradation model for continuous functions

Discrete formulation

Diagonalization of circulant and Block

circul
ant matrices

Effects of Diagonalization

Unconstrained and constrained Restorations

Inverse Filtering

Wiener Filter

Constrained least

square Restoration.
(6)
IMAGE COMPRESSION:
Coding and Interpixel redundancies

Fidelity criteria

Image Compressions models

Elements of
Information theory

Variable length coding

Bit pla
ne coding

Lossless Predictive coding

Lossy predective coding

Transform
coding.
(6)
IMAGE SEGMENTATION A
ND REPRESENTATION:
The detection of discontinuities

Point, Line and Edge detections

Gradient
operators

combined detection

Thresholding

Representation schemes: chain codes

Polygen approximation

Boundary
descriptors: Simple descriptors

Shape numbers Fourier descriptor's

Introduction to recognition and Interpretation.
(6)
APPLICATIONS:
Recognition of Image Patterns

Introduction. Decision Theoretic Pattern Classification. Bayesian Decision
Theory. Parameter estimation. Minimum Distance Classification. Non

parametric Classification.
Texture
and Shape Analysis.
Classification of textures. Discriminatory Power of Co

occurrence matrix. Drawbacks of Grey Level Co

occurrence Matrix (GLCM).
Tone and Texture. Weak and Strong Textures. Image Mining and Content Based Image Retrieval. Representati
on of images in a
CBIR System. Color Histogram based representation. Partition based representation. Regional Approach for image representation
.
(7)
Total 42
REFERENCES:
1.
Rafel C
Gonzalez and Richard E W
oods,
"Digital Image Processi
ng", Addition

Wesley Publishing Company, 2000.
2.
Tinku Acharya
and
Ajoy
K
Ray, “Image Processing

Principles and Applications”, Wiley Publishers New Delhi, 2005.
3.
Anil
K
Jain, "Fundamentals of Digital Image Processing"
,
Prentice Hall of India, Pvt
.
Ltd., 1995
.
4.
Rosenfeld
A C Kak,
“
Digital Picture Processing
”,
Academic Press, Inc
.
, 1976.
5.
Hall
E
L
,
“
Computer Image Processing and Recognition
”
, Academic Press, Inc
.
, 1979
.
6.
Huang
T
S,
“Picture Processing
and Digital filtering
”,
Springer Verlag
,
Berlin
Heidelberg
,
New York, 1989.
181
0
9
LC0
7
DETECTION AND ESTIMATION
3
0
0
3
MINIMUM MEAN SQUARED
ERROR (MMSE) ESTIMAT
ION:
L
inear MMSE Estimation
–
Wiener Filter

Kalman Filter
,
Extended
Kalman Filter

Robust Detection and Estimation

Nonparametric Estimation
–
Applications of Detection and Estimation in Signal
Processing.
(
15
)
STATISTICAL DECISION
THEORY
:
Bayesian Hypothesis
Testing

Likelihood Ratio Tests

Minimax Hypothesis Testing

Neyman
Pearson Hypothesis Testing

Composite Hypothesis Testing

M’ary Hypothesis Testing
(9)
SIGNAL DETECTION IN
DISCRETE TIME:
Deterministic Signals

Stoc
hastic Signals
–
Models and Detector Structures
–
Performance Evaluation

Chernoff Bounds.
(8)
PARAMETER ESTIMATION
:
Bayesian Parameter Estimation
–
Linear Least Squares Estimation
–
Nonrandom Parameter
Estimation
–
Minimum Variance Unbiased Estimation
–
Best Linear Unbiased Estimators

Maximum Likelihood Estimation
–
Cramer Rao bound

Nonlinear Estimation
(
10
)
Total 42
REFERENCES:
1.
Kay
S
M
, “Fundamentals of Statistical Signal Processing, Volume 1: Estimation Theory”, Prentice Hal
l, 1993.
2.
Kay S M,
“
Fundamentals of Statistical Signal Processing, Volume 2: Detectio
n Theory”, Prentice Hall, 1998.
3.
Poor
H
V
, “An Introduction to Signal Detection and Estimation”, Springer

Verlang
, 1994.
4.
Scharf
L
L
, “
Statistical Signal Processing”, Addi
son Wesley, 1991.
5.
Sam
Shanmugam K and Breipohl A
M, “Random Signals: Detection, Estimation and Data Analysis”, John Wiley, 1988
.
09LC08
WIRELESS AND CELLULA
R COMMUNICATION
ENGINEERING
3 0 0 3
OVERVIEW OF WIRELESS
COMMUNICATIONS
:
History of Wireless Com
munications, Wireless Vision, Technical Issues, Current
Wireless Systems, Cellular Telephone Systems, Cordless Phones, Wireless LANs, Wide Area Wireless Data, Fixed Wireless
Access, Paging Systems, Satellite Networks, Bluetooth, Other Wireless Systems an
d Applications, The Wireless Spectrum,
Methods for Spectrum Allocation, Spectrum Allocations for Existing Systems
, The cellular concept system design fundamentals.
(
10
)
PATH LOSS, SHADOWING
AND CAPACITY OF WIRE
LESS CHANNELS
:
Radio
Wave, Transmit and Receive Signal, Free

Space Path Loss, Two

Ray Model, Simplified Path Loss, Shadow Fading, Path Loss and Shadowing, Outage Probability under Path
Loss and Shadowing, Cell Coverage Area.
Statistical Multipath Channel Models:
Time

Varying C
hannel Impulse, Narrowband
fading models, Autocorrelation, Cross Correlation, and Power Spectral Density, Envelope and Power Distributions, Level Crossi
ng
Rate and Average Fade Duration, Wideband Fading Models, Power Delay Profile, Coherence Bandwidth, Dop
pler Power
Spectrum
and Channel Coherence,
Capacity of Wireless Channels:
Capacity in AWGN
,
Capacity of Frequency

Selective Fading Channels
.
(
12
)
DIGITAL MODULATION A
ND DETECTION
:
Signal Space Analysis,
Pass band Modulation Principles, Amplitude and Phase
Modulation, Pulse Amplitude Modulation (MPAM), Phase Shift Keying (MPSK), Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (MQAM)
Differential Modulation, Constellation, Quadrature Offset, Frequency Modulation, Frequenc
y Shift Keying (FSK) and
Minimum Shift
Keying (MSK),
Spread Spectrum and Multiuser Systems
(
12
)
CELLULAR SYSTEMS AND
INFR
ASTRUCTURE

BASED WIRELESS NETWO
RKS
:
Cellular System Design, Frequency Reuse in
Cellular Systems, Frequency Reuse in Code

Division Systems, Frequency Reuse in Time and Frequency Division Systems,
Dynamic Resource Allocation in Cellular Systems, Area Spectra
l Efficiency,
(
10
)
Total
42
REFERENCES:
1.
Andrea Goldsmith, “W
ireless Communications
”,
Cambridge
University Press
,
2007.
2.
William C
Y
Lee, “Mobile Communications Engineering, Theory and Applications”
,
Second Edition, McGraw Hill International
editions, 1998
.
3.
David
T
s
e
and
P
ramod
Viswanath, “Fundamentals of Wireless Communication”, Prentice Hall, 2003.
4.
Theodore S
Rappaport, “Wireless Communications”, Pearson Education, Asia , New Delhi, Second Edition, 2002
.
09LC09
HIGH SPEED NETWORKS
3 0 0 3
INTRODUCTION
:
Internet history and architecture, OSI layering, MAC and LLC Issues: Techniques for multi
ple access,
Adaptive LLC mechanisms for wireless links, Internet Routing Architecture: Internet Service Providers and Peering
182
Border Gateway Protocol (BGP), Internet Group Management Protocol (IGMP), Unidirectional Link Routing (UDLR). Bandwidth and
Latenc
y, High

Speed Technologies, Barriers and Constraints, Scalability, Virtual Overlays and Light paths, Bandwidth Aggregatio
n
and Isolation, Latency Optimiz
ation, Bandwidth, Processing, and Memory, Latency as a Constraint, Relative Scaling with High
Speed.
(
10)
FUNDAMENTALS AND DES
IGN PRINCIPLES:
Fourth Generation: Scale, Ubiquity, and Mobility, Design Principles and Tradeoffs:
Critical Path, Resource Tradeoffs, End

to

End vs. Hop

by

Hop, Protocol Layering, State and Hiera
rchy, Control Mechanisms,
Distribution of Application Data, Protocol Data Units. Design Techniques: Scaling Time and Space, Cheating and Masking the
Speed of Light, Specialized Hardware Implementation, Parallelism and Pipelining, Data Structure Optimizatio
n, Latency Reduction.
(8)
PHYSICAL LAYER:
Fiber

optics, single

mode and multimode technologies, types of optical sources and detectors, link design,
transmitter and receiver design, transmission coding.
(4)
HIGH

SPEED LAN:
Switched versus multiple

access LANs, virtual circuits versus datagrams, Layer

3 switching, IP lookup
algorithms, packet classification algorithms, Fast Packet Switches, Fast Datagram Switches, Active Network Nodes.
(
4)
HIGH

SPEED SWITCHING:
High

speed packet

switch architectures, buffering approaches, Traffic Characterization and Statistical
Multiplexing, examples.
(4)
TRAFFIC SCHEDULING I
N HIGH

SPEED NETWORKS:
Fair queuing algorithms, delay bounds
, fairness measures, traffic shaping,
Traffic Scheduling and Processing, Congestion Control and Routing, implementation issues.
(4)
ALL

OPTICAL NETWORKS:
Wavelength

division multiplexed (WDM) networks, photonic switching, QoS

based Network
A
rchitectures and Protocols, ATM Networks.
(4)
HIGH SPEED MODEMS:
ADSL, ADSL lite/G.lite, ISDL, HDSL, HDSL2, SDSL, VDSL, ISDN, Cable modems, error correction using
block and convolutional encoders, interleaving, D
SLAM.
(4)
Total 42
REFERENCES:
1.
James P
G
Sterbenz, Joseph D Touch,
and
Joe Touch, “High

Speed Networking: A Systematic Approach to High

Bandwidth
Low

Latency Communication”, e

Book, John Wiley & Sons, 2000
.
2.
Je
an Walrand
and
Pravin Varaiya
,
“High

Performance Communication Networks”, Morgan Kaufmann
,
Second Edition, 2000
.
3.
William Stallings., “High

Speed Networks and Internets: Performance and Quality of Service”, Prentice Hall
,
Second Edition,
2002
.
4.
Robert Newman
, “Broadband Communications”, Prentice Hall, 2002
.
5.
Bertsekas
D
and Gallager
R
, Data Networks, Second Ed
ition, Prentice Hall, 1992
.
6.
Jim Kurose
and Keith Ross
, “Computer Networking: A Top

Down Approach Featuring the Internet”, Addison

Wesley, 2004
.
7.
Balaji Kumar
, “Broadband Communications”, McGraw

Hill, 1998
.
09LC
10
ERROR CONTROL CODING
3 0 0 3
FINITE FIELD ARITHMETIC:
Definition of a finite field

prime size finite field GF(p)
–
polynomial representation
of finite field
elements

properties of polynomials and finite field elements
–
Fourier transform over a finite field
–
alternative visualization of
Finite Field Fourier Transform
–
roots and spectral components
–
Fast Fourier Transform
–
Hardware mult
ipliers using polynomial
basis ,dual basis, normal basis

software implementation of finite field arithmetic.
(5)
LINEAR BLOCK CODES:
Mathematics of binary codes
–
parity checks
–
generator matrix
–
parity check matrix
–
standard array
–
codec
design for linear block codes
–
dorsch algorithm decoding.
(4)
CYCLIC CODES:
P
olynomial representation
–
encoding by convolution
–
properties
–
systematic encoding
–
syndrome of a cyclic
code
–
implementation of encoding
–
decoding
–
multiple e
rror correction
–
shortened cyclic codes
–
expurgated cyclic codes
(4)
CONVOLUTIONAL CODES:
E
ncoder state diagram
–
distance structure
–
maximum likelihood decoding
–
viterbi algorithm

practical
implementation of viterbi
decoding
–
performance of convolutional codes
–
good convolutional codes
–
punctured convolutional
codes
–
applications of convolutional codes

codes for multilevel modulations.
(5)
PERFORMANCE CALCULATIONS FOR BLOCK CODES:
Hamming bound
–
Plo
t kin Bound
–
Griesmer Bound
–
Singleton Bound
–
Gilbert

Varsharmov Bound

Error detection
–
Random error detection performance of block codes
–
weight distributions
–
worst
case undetected error rate
–
burst error detection

output error rates using b
lock codes
–
detected uncorrectable codes
–
Application example
–
Optical communications.
(5)
183
BCH CODES:
Construction
–
roots and parity check matrices
–
algebraic decoding
–
BCH decoding and the BCH bound
–
decoding
in the frequency domain
–
decoding examples for binary BC codes

polynomial form of the key equation
–
Euclid’s method

Berlekamp
–
Massey algorithm.
(5)
REED SOLOMON CODES:
Generator polynomial for a Reed Solomon Code
–
Time Domain encoding
–
decoding

frequen
cy
domain encoded reed Solomon codes
–
Examples of Reed Solomon Decoding
–
erasure decoding

generalized minimum distance
coding
–
Welch

Berlekamp Algorithm
–
Singly extended Reed Solomon Code
–
doubly extended Reed Solomon Code.
(6)
I
TERATIVE DECODING:
Serial concatenation using inner block codes

Serial concatenation using inner convolutional codes
–
product codes
–
generalized array codes
–
applications of multistage coding
–
The BCJR algorithm
–
use of extrinsic information
–
recurs
ive systematic convolutional codes
–
MAP decoding of RSC codes
–
Interleaving and trellis termination
–
the soft output
viterbi algorithm

Galleger codes
–
serial concatenation with iterative decoding
–
performance and complexity issues
–
application
to
mobile communication
–
Turbo Trellis Coded Modulation.
(8)
Total 42
REFERENCES:
1.
Peter Sweeney, “Error Control Coding From theory to practice”, John Wiley and Sons, 2002.
2.
Rao T
R
N and Fujiwara
E
, “ Error Control Coding for Computer systems”, Prentice Hall, 1989
.
3.
Shu Lin and Daniel J Costello Jr, ”Error Control Coding: Fun
damentals and Application”, Prentice Hall Series in Computer
Application in Electrical Engineering,2004
.
4.
Irving S
Read and Uemin chen
X
, “Error control coding for data networks”, Springer ,1999
.
5.
Joseph Paul Odenwalder, “Error Control Coding
Handbook”, Link
abit corp., 1996.
09LC11
SPREAD SPECTRUM COMM
UNICATION
3 0 0 3
PERFORMANCE CHARACTE
RIZATION OF DIGITAL
DATA TRANSMISSION
:
Detection of binary signals in AWGN

Quadrature
multiplexed signalling schemes

Signalling through band limited channels

Equal
ization of digital data transmission system

Realization imperfections

Degradations in performance.
(7)
Communication in the presence of pulse noise jamming

Low probability detection scheme

Direct Sequence Sp
read Spectrum
(DSSS) and Frequency Hop Spread Spectrum Systems and examples of Spread Spectrum Systems. (5)
SPREAD SPECTRUM SYST
EMS
:
Direct sequence spread spectrum methods e
mploying BPSK, QPSK and MSK

Frequency Hop
spread spectrum methods

Coherent slow frequency Hop technique

Non coherent slow and fast frequency Hop spread spectrum
techniques

Hybrid DS/FH spread spectrum

Complex envelope representation of spread spe
ctrum systems.
(8)
BINARY SHIFT REGISTE
R SEQUENCES FOR SPRE
AD SPECTRUM SYSTEMS:
Definition

PN sequence generator
fundamentals

Maximal length sequences

Properties, Power
spectrum and Polynomial tables for maximal length sequences

Gold codes

Rapid Acquisition systems

Non

linear code generators.
(7)
SYNCHRONIZATION OF S
PREAD SPECTRUM SYSTE
MS
:
Optimal tracking of wideband
signals

Early

late tracking loops

Code tracking loops for FHSS

Optimum synchronization techniques

Multiple dwell and sequential detectors

Synchronization
using a matched filter

Synchronization by estimating the received spreading code.
(7)
PERFORMANCE OF SPREA
D SPECTRUM SYSTEM
:
SS Systems communications models

Performance without coding under
AWGN and different jamming environments

spread spectrum systems performances with forward e
rror correction

Block coding

Convolutional coding and specific error correcting codes

Inter leaving

Random coding bounds.
(8)
Total 42
REFERE
NCES:
1.
Ziemer
R
E
and
Peterson R
L, "Digital Communication and Spread Spectrum Systems", Macmillan Publishing Co., 1985.
2.
Dixon
R
C, "Spread Spectrum Systems", Wiley Interscience, 1976.
3. Holms
J
K, "Coherent Spread Spectrum Systems", Wiley Interscienc
e, 1982
.
09LC
12
MULTI USER DETECTION
3 0 0 3
CODE DIVISION MULTIP
LE ACCESS CHANNEL:
Basic synchronous
and
asynchronous CDMA model
–
Signature waveforms
–
Data streams
–
Modulation
–
Fading
–
Antenna arrays
–
Background noise
–
Discrete time synchrono
us and asynchronous models.
(7)
184
SINGLE

USER MATCHED FILTER
:
Hypothesis testing
–
Optimal receiver for the single user channel
–
The Q function
–
The
matched filter in the CDMA system
–
Asymptotic Multiuser efficiency and related measure
s
–
Coherent single user matched filter in
Rayleigh
fading
–
Differentially coherent demodulation
–
Noncoherent modulation.
(7)
OPTIMUM MULTIUSER DE
TECTION
:
Optimum detector for synchronous channels
–
Optimum detector for asynchronous channel
s
–
Minimum error probability in synchronous channel
–
K user optimum asymptotic efficiency and Near
–
far resistance
–
Minimum
error probability in the asynchronous channel
–
Performance analysis in Rayleigh fading
–
Optimum noncoherent
multiuser
detecti
on.
(7)
DECORRELATING DETECT
OR
:
Optimum linear multiuser detection
–
Minimum Mean Square Error (MMSE) linear multiuser
detection
–
Performance of MMSE linear multiuser detection
–
Adaptive MMSE linear multiuser detection
–
Canonical repres
entation
of linear multiuser detectors
–
Blind MMSE multiuser detector.
(7)
NON

DECORRELATING DETECT
OR:
Optimum linear multiuser detection
–
Minimum Mean Square Error (MMSE) linear
multiuser detection
–
Performance of MMSE li
near multiuser detection
–
Adaptive MMSE linear multiuser detection
–
Canonical
representation of linear multiuser detectors
–
Blind MMSE multiuser detector.
(7)
DECISION

DRIVEN MULTIUSER DET
ECTORS:
Successive Cancellation
–
Performance Analy
sis of Successive Cancellation
–
Synchronous Decorrelating Decision

Feedback
–
Synchronous MMSE Decision

Feedback
–
Asynchronous Decision

Feedback
(7)
Total 42
REFEREN
CES:
1.
Sergio Verdu, “Multiuser detection”, Cambridge University Press, 1998
.
2. Sergio Verdu, “Recent Progress in Multiuser Detection Advances in Communication and
Control Systems”, IEEE Press, 1993.
0
9LC13
DATA COMPRESSION
3 0 0 3
INTRODUCTION:
Co
mpression Techniques

Overview of information theory
–
Modeling and Coding

Taxonomy of compression
techniques
–
Scalar and vector quantization

Rate distortion theory

Huffman coding
–
Non

Binary Huffman codes
–
adaptive
Huffman coding
–
Application
of Huffman coding
.
(7)
ARITHMETIC CODING AND DICTIONARY TECHNIQUES:
Introduction

coding a sequence
–
generating deciphering the tag
–
Generating a binary code
–
Uniqueness of arithmetic code
–
Algorithm, integer implementation
–
compari
son of Huffman and
arithmetic coding
–
Applications

Static and Adaptive dictionary
–
LZ77, LZ78, LZW approach
–
Applications
Facsimile encoding
–
run length coding
–
com
parison of MH, MR, MMR and JBIG
.
(10)
AUDIO COMPRES
SION:
Audio compression techniques

frequency domain and filtering

basic sub

band coding

application to
speech coding

G.722

application to audio coding

MPEG audio

silence suppression

speech compression techniques
–
Vocoders
.
(7)
IMAGE COMPRESION:
Predictive techniques

DPCM, DM

Contour based compression
–
KL transform
–
discrete cosine, Walsh

Hadamard transform

Wavelet based compression: quad

trees, EZW, SPI
HT

JPEG, JPEG

2000, JBIG
.
(9)
VIDEO COMPRESSION:
Video signal representation

Video compression techniques
–
MPEG standards

Motion estimation
techniques

H.261 family
of standards

DVI technology

Motion video compression
.
(9)
Total 42
REFERENCES:
1.
Khalid Sayood
,
“Introduction to Data Compression”, Second Edition, Morgan Kaufman, 2000
.
2.
Salomon
D
,
”
Data Compression The Complete Reference
”
, Second Edition, S
pringer, 2000
.
3.
Salomon
D
,
”
A Guide to Data Compression Methods”
,
Springer, 2002
.
4.
Jan Vozer, “Video Compression for Multimedia”, AP Press, New York, 1995
.
5.
Peter Symes, “Video compression Demystified”, McGraw

Hill, 2000.
6.
Mark Nelson
,
“Data Compression Book”,
BPB Publishers, New Delhi, 1998
.
09LC14
WAVELETS AND SUBBANDCODING
3 0 0 3
FOURIER ANALYSIS:
Signal spaces

concept of Convergence

Hilbert spaces for energy signals. Fourier basis & Fourier
Transform
–
failure of Fourier Transform
–
Need
for Time

Frequency Analysis, Spectrogram plot

Phase

Space plot in Time

Frequency plane, Time and Frequency Limitations, Tiling of the Time

Frequency Plane for STFT
–
Heisenberg’s Uncertainty
principle
–
Short time Fourier transform (STFT) Analysis

short
comings of STFT

Need for Wavelets.
(8)
185
CONTINUOUS WAVELET T
RANSFORM(CWT) AND MU
LTIRESOLUTION ANALYS
IS(MRA):
Wavelet basis
–
concept of scale
and its relation with frequency, Continuou
s time Wavelet Transform equation
–
series expansion using wavelets
–
CWT
–
need for
scaling function
–
Multi

Resolution Analysis (MRA)
–

Tiling of time

scale plane for CWT. Important wavelets: Haar, Mexican hat,
Meyer, Shannon, Daubechies.
(8)
MULTIRATE SYSTEMS, FILTER BANKS AND DISCRETE WAVELET TRANSFORM(DWT):
Decimation and Interpolation in Time
domain

Decimation and Interpolation in Frequency domain
–
Multi rate systems
for a rational factor, Two channel filter bank
–
Perfect Reconstruction (PR) condition
–
relationship between filter banks and wavelet basis
–
DWT
–
Filter banks for Daubechies
wavelet function.
(12)
SPECIAL
TOPICS:
Wavelet packet transform Multidimensional wavelets, Bi

orthogonal basis

B

Splines, Lifting scheme of wavelet
generation, Multiwavelets.
(8)
APPLICATIONS OF WAVELETS:
Signal Denoising

Sub

band coding of Speech and m
usic
–
Image Compression using 2

D DWT

Fractal Signal Analysis.
(6)
Total 42
REFERENCES:
1.
Jai
deva C Goswami
and
Andrew K Chan, “Fundamentals of Wavelets
–
Theory, Algorithms and Applications”, John Wiley
and
Sons, Inc
.
, Singapore, 1999
.
2.
Soman
K
P
and
Ramachandran
K
I, “Insight into Wavelets from Theory to Practice”, Prentice Hall India, First Edi
tion,
2004
.
3.
Vetterli M,
and
Kovacevic J, "W
avelets and Sub
band Coding," Prentice Hall, 1995.
4.
Fliege. N
J,
”Multirate Digital Signal Processing”, John Wiley
and S
ons,
Newyork,1994.
5.
Stephane G
Mallat, “A Wavelet Tour of Signal Processing”, Academic
Press, Second Edition, 1999.
6.
Wornell G W, "Signal Processing with Fractals: A Wavelet based Approach
”
, Prentice Hall, 1995.
0
9
LC1
5
ADAPTIVE SIGNAL PROCESSING
3 0 0 3
ADAPTIVE SYSTEMS:
Definition

Characteristics

Application areas

Properties
–
Wiener Filter
–
Adaptive Linear Combiner

Performance function

Gradient and Minimum Mean Square Error (MMSE)

Gradient Search Methods

Newton's method,
Steepest Descent technique
.
(10)
ADAPTIVE ALGORITHMS FOR
FIR FILTERS:
Least

Mean

Square (LMS) algorithm

Convergence
–
Learning Curve

LMS
Variants

Recursive Least Squares (RLS) Algorithm

Exponentially Weighted RLS
–
Sliding Window RLS
–
Kalman Filter
.
(10)
ADAPTIVE ALGORITHMS FOR IIR FILTERS:
Problem formulation

Implications of feedback

MMSE techniques
–
Output Error
Me
thod
–
Equation Error Method

Hyperstable Adaptive Recursive Filter
–
SHARF

Limitations in use of Adaptive IIR filters
.
(9)
ORDER

RECURSIVE ADAPTIVE FILTERS:
Lattice Digital filter structure

Properties

Estimate of reflection Coefficients

Order
update & Time update analysis
.
(5)
APPLICATIONS OF ADAPTIVE SIGNAL PROCESSING:
Adaptive Modeling & System Identification

Inverse Adaptive Modeling
–
Deconvolution
–
Equalization

Adaptive Interference Canceling

Adaptive noise canceling

Canceling power supply interference
in
ECG
–
canceling maternal ECG interference in fetal ECG

Adaptive echo cancellation in Telephone channels

Harmonic
cancellation with adaptive prediction

Adaptive self tuning filter

Adaptive Line enhancer
.
(8)
Total 42
REFERENCES:
1.
Win
drow
B
and
Stearns .S
D, "Adaptive Signal Processing"
,
Prentice Hall inc., 2001
.
2.
Haykin
S, “Adaptive Filter Theory
"
,
Prentice Hall Inc, 2002
.
3.
Cowan C
F
N
and
Grant P
M, "Adaptive Filters", Prentice H
all inc., 1985
.
4.
Alexander S
T, "Adaptive Signal Processi
ng: Theory and Applications ",
Springer
–
Verlag, 1990.
5.
Sayed
F,” Fundamentals of Adaptive Filters “, Wiley Interscience,2002.
6.
Diniz P
S
R, “Adaptive Filtering Algorithms and Practical Implementation”
, Kluer, 2
nd
Edition,
2004.
09LC16
FPGA BASED SYSTEM DESIGN
3 0 0 3
INTRODUCTION TO HDL
: Introduction to VHDL
–
Behavioral modeling
–
Data Flow Modeling
–
Structural Modeling.
Introduction to Verilog
–
Gate Level Modeling
–
Data Flow Modelin
g
–
Behavioral Modeling.
(8)
PROGRAMMABLE LOGIC D
EVICES
:
Basic Concepts, Programming Technologies
–
Progrmmable Logic Array (PLA),
Programmable Array Logic (PAL) , Programmable Logic Array (PLA), Design of State Machine using ASM Chart as a
design Tool
.
(6)
186
FIELD PROGRAMMABLE G
ATE ARRAYS:
Introduction
–
FPGA Technology
–
DSP Technology Requirement
–
Design
Implementation
–
FPGA Architectures
–
Xilinx
–
Altera Flex
–
Design Principles using FPGAs
–
Implementing DSP Function
s in
FPGA

Applications of FPGA to Software Radio.
(8)
Digital Signal Processing with FPGAs:
Design of Binary Adders, Multipliers and Dividers

Design of FIR Filters
–
Design of IIR Filters
–
Multirate Signal Processing
–
Decimation
–
Inte
rpolation
–
Polyphase Decomposition
–
Multistage Decimator
–
Filter Banks
–
DFT and FFT Algorithms
–
Error Control and Cryptography
–
Modulation and Demodulation
–
FPGA design of LMS
Algorithm
(10)
SOFTWARE RADIO
:
Block Diagram of Software Radio
–
Numerically controlled oscillator
–
Digital Up converters
–
Digital
Down Converters and demodulators
–
Universal Modulator and Demodulator using CORDIC. Incoherent Demodulation
–
digital
approach for
I and Q generation, Special Sampling Schemes. CIC filters, Residue number system and high speed filters using RNS.
Down Conversion using discrete Hilbert Transform. Undersampling receivers, Coherent Demodulation Schemes.
(10)
Total 42
REFERENCES:
1. Samir Palnitkar
,
“ Verilog HDL: A Guide to Digital Design and Synthesis”, Prentice Hall, 2003.
2. Volnei
A
Pedroni, “Circuit Design with VHDL”, Prentice Hall, 2004.
3
. Uwe Meyer
Baese, “ Digital Signal Processing with Field P
rogrammable Gate Arrays”
,
Springer, 2004.
4
. Jeffrey H Reed, “Software Radio: A Modern Approach to Radio Engineering”
,
Pearson Education Asia, 2002.
5
. James Tsui, “ Digital Techniques for Wideband Receivers”, Prentice

Hall of India,
2005.
6
. Mitra
S
K
,
“
Digital Signal Processing”, McGraw Hill, 1998.
7
. Bob Zeidman, “Designing with CPLDs and FPGAs”
,
CMP, 2002
.
0
9
LC1
7
NON

LINEAR DIGITAL SIGNA
L PROCESSING
3 0 0 3
INTRODUCTION:
Signal Processing Model
–
Signal and Noise Models
–
Fundamental Probl
em in Noise Removal
–
Mean and
Median filters
–
Linear versus Nonlinear filtering.
(2)
NON LINEAR FILTERS B
ASED ON MEAN
:
Principles and properties of Trimmed mean, Winsorised mean, Modified Trimmed
mean, K

nearest neighbour and Non

linear
Mean Filters.
(8)
NON LINEAR FILTERS B
ASED ON ORDERING:
Principles and properties of L

Filters
–
C

Filters
–
Rank Selection Filters
–
Stack
Filters
–
Ranked Order and Weighted order Statistic Filters

Linear
combination of order statistics. (8)
NON LINEAR FILTERS B
ASED ON MEDIAN :
Principles and properties of Weighted Median
–
Multi stage Median Filters
–
Median Hybrid Filters
(6)
SPECIAL NON

LINEAR FILTERS
:
Princ
iples and properties of M

Filters, R

Filters, Morphological Filters, soft morphological filters
–
Data dependent Filters
–
Decision Based Filters
–
Iterative, cascaded and recursive filters (9)
STATISTICAL ANALYSIS AND OPTIMISATION OF NON LINEAR
FILTERS:
Review of Estimation, unbiased estimation, point
estimation, M

estimation, R

Estimation, Maximum Likelihood Estimation and Scale Estimation

Analysis and Optimisation of L

filters
and Stack filters.
(9)
Total 42
REFERENCES:
1.
Ast
ola J
J
and Kuosmanen P, "Fundamentals of Nonlinear Digital Filtering”
,
CRC Press,1997
.
2.
Arce G
R
,
”Non Linear Signal Proc
essing
–
A Statistical Approach
”
,
Wiley Interscience, 2005
.
3.
Doughertz E
R an
d
Astola J
T,
”Nonlinear Filters for Image Processing”, SPI
E Optical Engineering Press,1999
4.
Barner K
E and Arce G
R,
”Nonlinear Signal and Image Processing
–
Theory, Methods and Applications”, CRC Press, 2004.
0
9
L
C18 SPEECH SIGNAL PR
OCESSING
3 0 0 3
SPEECH SIGNAL MODELLING:
Speech signal char
acteristics and classifications

Speech production mechanism

Acoustic
Theory of speech production

Source
–
Filter model

Lossless Tube Models

Digita
l Model of speech signals
(10
)
SPEECH SIGNAL ANALYSIS:
Time domain Analysis for speech processing
–
Short time energy and magnitude

short time
average zero crossing

Speech vs silence discrimination

Pitch period estimation using autocorrelation

Short time Fourier
analysis

Definition and properties

D
esign of digital filter banks

Pitch detection

analysis by synthesis
(1
2
)
187
SPEECH CODING:
Linear predictive coding

principle

solution of LPC equation

Cholesky decomposition method

Durbin's
method

Lattice formulation
–
Frequency domain
coding
–
Model based coding
–
LPC residual coding
(
10
)
SPEECH RECOGNITION:
Template training method

Hidden Markov Model

Gaussian Mixture model

connected word
recognition

Speaker identification/Verification.
(
10
)
Total
4
2
REFERENCES
:
1.
R
a
b
i
ner L
R
and
Schaffer R
W, "Digital
P
rocessing of
S
peech
S
ignals"
,
Prentice

Hall,
E
nglewod

C
litts, New Jersey, 1986
.
2.
Rebner L
R
K
and
Juang B
H, "Fundamentals of Speech Recognition"
,
Pearson Education, First Indian reprint 2003
.
3.
Kondoz, "Digital Speech", John Wiley
and
Sons Ltd
.
, 1994
.
4.
Thomas F
Quatieri
,
“Discrete Time Speech Signal Processing”
,
Pearson Education, 2002
.
5.
John R
Deller, John Hansen
and P
roa
ki
s
J
G, ” Discrete Time Processing of
Speech Signals
”
,
IEEE Press,
1
999
.
09LC19
SMART ANTENNAS
3 0 0 3
INTRODUCTION:
Antenna gain, Phased array antenna, power pattern, beam steering, degree of freedom, optimal a
ntenna,
adaptive antennas, smart antenna

key benefits of smart antenna technology, wide band smart antennas, Digital radio receiver
techniques and software radio for smart antennas.
(5)
NARROW BAND PROCESSI
NG:
Signal model conventional bea
mformer, null steering beamformer, optimal beamformer,
Optimization using reference signal, beam space processing.
(7)
ADAPTIVE PROCESSING:
Sample matrix inversion algorithm, unconstrained LMS algorithm, normalized LMS algorithm,
Constrained
LMS algorithm, Perturbation algorithms, Neural network approach, Adaptive beam space processing, Implementation
issues.
(9)
BROADBAND PROCESSING
:
Tapped delay line structure, Partitioned realization, Derivative constrained processor, D
igital beam
forming, Broad band processing using DFT method.
(7)
DIRECTION OF ARRIVAL
ESTIMATION METHODS:
Spectral estimation methods, linear prediction method, Maximum entropy
method, Maximum likelihood method, Eigen structu
re methods, Music algorithm
–
root music and cyclic music algorithm, the
ESPRIT algorithm.
(7)
DIVERSITY COMBINING:
Spatial diversity selection combiner, switched diversity combiner, equal gain combiner, maximum ratio
combiner, optical c
ombiner.
(7)
Total 42
REFERENCES:
1.
Lal Chand Godara, “Smart Antennas” CRC press, 2004.
2.
Joseph
C
Liberti.Jr
and
Theodore S Rappaport, “Smart Antennas for Wireless Communication: IS

95 and Thir
d Generation
CDMA Applications”,
Prent
ice Hall
1999
.
3.
Balanis, “Antennas”, John Wiley
and
Sons, 2005.
09LC20
RF
MEMS
3 0 0 3
MICROELECTROMECHANICAL SYSTEMS(MEMS) AND RADIO FREQUENCY MEMS:
Introduction
–
Microfabrication for MEMS
–
Electromechanical transducers
–
Microsensing for MEMS
–
Mater
ials for MEMS.
(6)
MEMS MATERIALS AND F
ABRICATION TECHNIQUE
S:
Metals
–
Semiconductors
–
Thin films for MEMS and their deposition
techniques
–
Materials for polymer MEMS
–
Bulk micromachining for silicon

based MEMS
–
Silicon surface
micromaching
–
Microstereolithography for polymer MEMS.
(6)
RF MEMS SWITCHES
:
Introduction
–
Switch parameters
–
Basics of switching
–
Switches for RF and microwave a
pplications
–
Electrostatic switching
–
Approaches for low

actuation
–
voltage switches
–
thermal switching
–
MEMS switch design, modeling and
evaluation
–
MEMS switch design considerations.
(6)
MEMS INDUCTORS AND CA
PACITORS:
Introduction
–
MEMS inductors
–
MEMS capacitors.
(6)
MICROMACHINED RF FILTERS AND PHASE SHIFTERS:
Introduction
–
Modeling of mechanical filters

Micromechanical filters
–
Micromachined phase shifters : Introduction
–
Types of phase shifters and their limitations
–
MEMS phase shifters.
(7)
188
MICROMACHINED TRANSMISSION LINES AND COMPONENTS:
Introduction
–
Micromachined transmission lines and
components
–
Design, fabrication and measurements.
(5)
MICROMACHINED ANTENNA:
Introduction

Overview of microstrip antenna
–
Micromachining techniques to improve antenna
performance
–
Micromaching as a fabrication process for small antenna
–
Micromachined reconfigurable antenna.
(6)
Total 42
REFERENCES:
1.
Vijay K Varadan, Vinoy K J
and
Jose K A, "RF MEMS and Their Applications“
,
Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd, England,
reprinted April 2003.
2.
Gabriel M Rebeiz, “RF MEMS
Theory,Design and Technology “
,
John Wiley & Sons Ltd, New Jersey, 2003
.
3.
Hector J
De Los Santos,
”RF MEMS Circuit Design for Wireless communications”, Artech House, 2002.
09LC21
RADIO FREQUENCY INTEGRATED CIRCUIT DESIGN
3 0 0 3
AMPLIFIERS:
FET and bipolar transistor models
–
Two port power gains
–
stability
–
Amplifier design using S parameters
–
LNA
–
Differential amplifiers
–
DC biasing
–
Power amplifiers
–
general issues
–
efficiency, linearity etc., load pull, class A, AB and C
Design
–
Higher class power amplifiers
–
linearization
–
distributed power amplifier.
(10)
OSCILLATORS
–
RF OSCILLATORS:
Microwave oscillators
–
LC
–
Colpitts
–
negative resistance
–
differential oscillators
–
frequency synthesis methods
–
phase locked
loop analysis
–
oscillator phase noise.
(8)
RADIO FREQUENCY IC:
Introduction to RFIC
–
Analog and microwave design versus RFIC design
–
noise performance estimate
–
RF technology
–
receiver with single IF stage metallization
–
sh
eet resistance
–
skin effect
–
parasitic capacitance and inductance
–
current handling
–
metal capacitors
–
spiral inductors
–
quality factor
–
layouts in IC
–
mutual inductance
–
multilevel
–
measurement
–
packaging.
(8)
MICROWAVE POINT TO P
OINT SYSTEM DESIGN
:
Microwave transmission
–
link design
–
theoretical and practical aspects
–
fading design
–
protected and non protected microwave systems
–
link design
–
path calculation

spread spectrum microwave
syste
m
–
compatibility
–
safety coordinate systems
–
Datum’s & GPS
–
Receiver design
–
receiver architecture
–
dynamic range
–
frequency conversion and filtering
–
examples of practical receivers
–
FM broad cast, Digital cellular
–
Millimeter wave point to poin
t,
Direct conversion GSM receiver.
(10)
TRANSMISSION LINE EQ
UIPMENT:
Digital microwave radio
–
fiber optic equipment
–
wireline equipment
–
cabling grounding
–
Power battery back up
–
GPS antenna
–
reliability iss
ues
–
cell site selection
–
microwave repeater site selection
–
microwave site
and path survey
–
microwave antenna
mounting
–
measurement of RF fields
–
source emissions
–
power level and radiation
pattern
–
microwave instal
lation measurements and testing
. (6)
Tota
l 42
REFERENCES:
1.
David Pozar, “Microwave and RF Design of Wireless Systems”, John Wiley, 2001.
2.
Harvey Lehpamer, “Transmission System Design Handbook for Wireless Networks”, Artech House, 2002.
3.
John Rogers
and
Calvin Plett, “Radio Frequency Integrated Ci
rcuit Design”, Artech House, 2002.
4.
Stephan A
Mass, “Non

Linear Microwave and RF circuits”, Artech House, Second Edition
.
5.
Ferri Losee, “RF Systems, Components and Circuits handbook”, Artech house, 2002.
6.
Larson
LE,
“RF and Microwave Circuit for Wireless App
lications”, Artech House, 1997.
09LC22
WIRELESS SYSTEMS AND
STANDARDS
3 0 0 3
INTRODUCTION:
–
Introduction to Wireless Local Area Networks, The Need for standardization
–
Future Trends
–
The IrDA
Standard
–
Introduction to IrDA: General Desc
ription
–
Physical Layer (SIR)
–
Serial Infrared Link Access Protocol (IrLAP)

IrDA
Link Management Protocol (Ir

LMP)

IrDA Transport Protocol: Tiny TP

LAN. Access Extensions for Link Management Protocol:
IrLAN.
(7)
WIRELESS SYSTEMS
:
A
dvanced Mobile Phone Systems (AMPS)
–
Characteristics
–
Operation
–
General Working of AMPS
Phone System
–
Global System for Mobile Communication
–
Frequency Bands and Channels
–
Frames
–
Identity Numbers
–
Layers, Planes and Interfaces of GSM
–
Internatio
nal Mobile Telecommunications (IMT

2000)
–
Spectrum Allocation
–
Services
provided by 3G Cellular Systems
–
Harmonized 3G Systems
–
Universal Mobile Telecommunications Systems (UMTS)
(7)
189
THE IEEE 802.11 STAN
DARD
:
–
Introduction to IEEE 8
02.11
–
General Description
–
Medium Access Control (MAC) for the IEEE
802.11 Wireless LANs
–
Physical Layer for IEEE 802.11 Wireless LANs; Radio systems
–
Physical Layer for IEEE 802.11 Wireless
LANs
–
IR Systems
–
Conclusions and Applications.
(7)
THE HIPERLAN
STANDARD
:
–
Introduction

Terminology
–
Physical Layer

HIPERLAN Channel Access Control (CAC)
–
HIPERLAN Medium Access Control (MAC)
–
Conclusions on HIPERLAN Type 1
–
Future Brand Standards.
(7)
UPCOMING STANDARDS A
N
D FUTURE TRENDS
:
The Evolution of HIPERLAN
–
The Evolution of IEEE 802.11
–
Forthcoming
IR Standards
–
Other RF Standards:
Digital Enhanced Cordless Technology
(DECT)
–
Bluetooth
–
Wireless ATM (WATM)
–
Home
RF.
(7)
RECENT ADVANCES
:
Int
roduction
–
Ultra Wide Band (UWB) Technology
–
Characteristics
–
Signal Propagation
–
Current Status
and Applications
–
Advantages
–
Disadvantages
–
Challenges and Future Directions.
(7)
Total 42
REFERENCES
:
1.
Assuncion Santamaria, Francisco Lo
pez

Hernandez, “Wireless LAN Standards and Applications”, Artech House, 2001.
2.
Dharma Prakash Agarwal
and
Qing

An zeng, “Introduction to Wireless and Mobile Systems”, Vikas publishing House, New
Delhi, 2004.
3.
Neeli Prasad and
Anand Prasad, “WLAN System &
Wireless IP for Next Generation Communications”, Artec House, 2002.
09LC23
WIRELESS SECURITY
3 0 0 3
WIRELESS THREATS
:
Introduction to wireless technologies

Wireless data networks

Personal Area Networks

Kinds of security
breaches

Eavesdropping

Commu
nication Jamming

RF interference

Covert wireless channels
–
DOS attack

Spoofing

Theft of
services

Traffic Analysis

Cryptographic threats

Wireless security Standards.
(9)
CRYPTOGRAPHY:
E
ncryption and Decryption

Product ciphers

AES (advanced Encryption Standard)

Pseudorandom number
Generator

Stream ciphers A5
,
RC4

Public key cryptography

ECC (Elliptic Curve Cryptography)

Cryptography in Embedded
H
ardware
.
(9)
WIRELESS LOCAL AREA NETWORK (WLAN):
Introduction
–
Transmission Media

Securing WLANS

WLAN products and
standard
–
Countermeasures

WEP (wired Equivalence Protocol)

Bluetooth security
.
(8)
SECURITY IN WIREELSS
DATA NETWORKS: W
ireless Device security issues

CDPD security (Cellular Digital Packet Data)

GPRS security (General Packet Radio Service)

GSM (Global System for Mobile Communication) security
–
I
P

security
(8)
WIRELESS TRANSPORT LAYER SECURITY
(WTLS):
Secure Socket Layer

Wireles
s Transport Layer Security

WAP Security
Architecture

WAP Gateway
.
(8)
Total 42
REFERENCES:
1.
Merritt Maxim and David
Pollino, ”Wireless Security”,
Osborne/McGraw Hill , 2002
.
2.
Nichols and Lekka, “Wireless
Security

Models, Threats and Solutions”, McGraw
–
Hill, 2002
.
3.
William Stallings, “Cryptography and Network Security ,Principles and practices, Pr
e
ntice Hall of India, Fourth edition, 2006
.
09LC
24
ADVANCED COMMUNICATI
ON NETWORKS
3 0 0 3
INTRODUCTION
:
I
nternet history and architecture, OSI layering, MAC and LLC Issues: Techniques for multiple access,
Adaptive LLC mechanisms for wireless links, Internet Routing Architecture: Internet Service Providers and Peering
Border Gateway Protocol (BGP), Internet Gr
oup Management Protocol (IGMP), Unidirectional Link Routing (UDLR). (3)
FLOW/CONGESTION CONT
ROL:
Implementation, modeling, fairness, stability, open

loop vs closed

loop vs hybrid, traffic
specification (LBAP, leaky

bucket), window vs rate, hop

by

hop
vs end

to

end, implicit vs explicit feedback, aggregate flow control,
reliable multicast. TCP variants (Tahoe, Reno, Vegas, New

Reno, SACK),
DECbit, Packet Pair, NETBLT, ATM Forum EERC,
T/TCP.
(5)
SCHEDULING AND BUFFE
R MANAGEMENT
:
implementation, fairness, performance bounds, admission control,
priorities, work
conservation, scheduling best

effort (BE) flows,
scheduling guarante
ed

service (GS) flows (GPS, WRR, DRR, WFQ, EDD,
RCSP),
aggregation, drop strategies (tail

drop, RED, WRED). (5)
190
ROUTING :
Implementation, stability/convergence, link

state vs distance

vector vs link

vector
, conventional routing, Routing
Information Protocol (RIP), Open Shortest Path First (OSPF), Multicast OSPF (MOSPF), Distance Vector Multicast Routing
Protocol (DVMRP), BGP instability, Fair queuing, TCP congestion control, TCP variants, Random Early De
tect, TCP RTT
estimation, Fast retransmit, Fast recovery.
(5)
TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT:
Utility function, traffic models (for Internet), self

similarity, traffic classes (B
E, GS), service models
(DiffServ, IntServ), class

based allocation, controls at different time scales,
renegotiation (RCBR), signaling (RSVP, ATM signaling),
resource translation/mapping,
admission control (worst

case, statistical, measurement

based), pric
ing, capacity planning, Integrated
Services, Resource ReSerVation Protocol (RSVP), Differentiated Services, Wireless TCP, Mobile IP, Multicast routing, Scalable
Multicast routing: Core Based Trees (CBT), Protocol Independent Multicast (PIM), Pragmatic Gene
ral Multicast (PGM), Scalable
Reliable Multicast, Overlay Networks, Peer

to

Peer Networks, Chord.
(10)
SIMULATION AND MODEL
ING:
Wide

Area Traffic Modeling, End

to

end Internet Packet Dynamics, Traffic Engineering, Multi

Protocol Label Switching (MPLS), Network Simulators: NS2, OPNET, QualNet.
(5)
IP NEXT GENERATION:
IP Next Layer (IPNL), IPV
6 features,
including transition, Mobile IPV
6 operation, Models to
sup
port(WLAN) network roaming, IPV
6 transition methods, Advanced IP routing and multihoming, IP Multicast. (4)
NETWORK TECHNOLOGIES
:
Ethernet, Fiber Channel, Scalable Coherent Interface (SCI), Myrinet, ATM, AmpNet, FireWire,
cLAN, Multi

homing in Enterprise networks, Bluetooth, 802.11, HiperLAN2, GPRS and Edge Services, GSM, CDMA, UMTS, 3G,
4G, Access technologies:
last mile, xDSL.
(5)
Total 42
REFERENCES:
1.
Larry Peterson and Bruce Davie, “Computer Networks: A Systems Approach”, Morgan Kaufmann, Third Edition, 2003
.
2.
Michael A
Gallo and William M
Hancock, “Computer Co
mmunications and Networking Technologies”, Thomson Learning,
2002
.
3.
Jim Kurose and Keith Ross., “Computer Networking: A Top

Down Approach Featuring the Internet”, Addison

Wesley, 2004
.
4.
William Stallings, “Data and Computer Communications”, Prentice Hall, Se
venth Edition, 2003
.
5.
Andrew S Tanenbaum, “Computer Networks”, Prentice Hall, Fourth Edition, 2002.
09
LC
25
SOFTWARE RADIO ARCHITECTURE
3 0 0 3
Introduction:
The Need for Software Radios. What Is a Software Radio? Characteristics and Benefits of a Softwar
e Radio
–
Design
Principles of a Software Radio.
(2)
Radio Frequency implementation issues

The Purpose of the RF Front

End. Dynamic Range

The Principal Challenge of
Receiver Design

RF Receiver Front

End Topologies

Enhanced Flexibility o
f the RF Chain with Software Radios

Importance of the
Components to Overall Performance

Transmitter Architectures and Their Issues

Noise and Distortion in the RF Chain. ADC and
DAC Distortion
(9)
Digital gen
eration of signals:
Introduction

Comparison of Direct Digital Synthesis with Analog Signal Synthesis

Approaches to
Direct Digital Synthesis

Analysis of Spurious Signals

Spurious Components due to Periodic Jitter

Band pass Signal Generation
–
Performance of
Direct Digital Synthesis Systems

Hybrid DDS

PLL Systems

Applications of direct Digital Synthesis

Generation of
Random Sequences

ROM Compression Techniques.
(9)
Analog to digital and digital to analog conversion
: Parameters of ideal data conv
erters;

Parameters of practical data
converters

Analog to digital and digital to analog conversion
–
Techniques to improve data converter performance

Common ADC
and DAC architectures.
(7)
Smart antennas:
Vector channel modeling

Benefits
of smart antennas

Structures for Beam forming Systems

Smart Antenna
Algorithms

Diversity and Space

Time Adaptive Signal Processing

Algorithms for Transmit STAP

Hardware Implementation of Smart
Antennas

Array Calibration.
(8)
Digital hardwa
re choices:
Introduction

Key Hardware Elements

DSP Processors

Field Programmable Gate Arrays

Trade

Offs in
Using DSPs, FPGAs, and ASICs

Power Management Issues

Using a Combination of DSPs, FPGAs, and ASICs.
(7)
Total 42
REFERENCES:
1.
Jeffrey H
Reed
,
“Software Radio: A Modern Approach to Radio Engineering”, PEA Publication,
2002
.
2.
Walter Tuttle bee, “Software Defined Radio: Enabling Technologies”, Wiley Publications, 2002.
3.
Paul Burns, “Software Defined Radio fo
r 3G”, Artech House, 2002
.
4.
Markus Dillinger, “Software Defined Radio: Architectures, Systems and Functions”, 2003.
191
09LC26
WIRELESS AD
HOC NETWORKS
3 0 0 3
INTRODUCTION:
Fundamentals of Wireless Communication Technology, Characteristics of the Wireles
s Channel, Modulation
Techniques, Multiple Access Techniques, Networking Standards, Wireless Networks, Mobile IP, Ad
Hoc Wireless Networks.
(4)
MAC PROTOCOLS:
Designing a MAC Protocol for Ad
Hoc Wireles
s Networks, Classifications of MAC Protocols

Contention

Based, Contention

Based with Reservation Mechanisms, Contention

Based with Scheduling Mechanisms, MAC Protocols that Use
Directional Antennas.
(5)
ROUTING PROTOCOLS:
Designing a Routing Protocol for Ad Hoc Wireless Networks, Classifications of Routing Protocols

Table

Driven, On

Demand, Hybrid, Routing Protocols with Efficient Flooding Mechanisms, Hierarchical, Pow
er

Aware Routing Protocols
(6)
MULTICAST ROUTING:
Designing a Multicast Routing Protocol, Operation of Multicast Routing Protocols, Classifications of
Multicast Routi
ng Protocols

Tree

Based, Mesh

Based, Energy

Efficient, Multicasting with Quality of Service Guarantees.
(6)
TRANSPORT LAYER AND SECURITY PROTOCOLS:
Designing a Transport Layer Protocol for Ad Hoc Wireless Networks,
Classification of Transport Layer Solution, TCP over Ad Hoc Wireless Networks, Security in Ad Hoc Wireless Networks, Network
Security Re
quirements. Issues and Challenges in Security Provisioning, Network Security Attacks, Key Management, Secure
Routing in Ad Hoc Wireless Network
(8)
QUALITY OF SERVICE:
QoS in Ad Hoc Wireless Networks, Classifications of QoS Solutions, MAC Layer Solutions, Network Layer
Solutions, QoS Frameworks for Ad Hoc Wireless Networks.
(4)
ENERGY MANAGEMENT:
Energy Management in Ad Hoc Wireless Network
s, Classification of Energy Management Schemes

Battery Management Schemes, Transmission Power Management Schemes, System Power Management Schemes.
(5)
ADVANCES IN WIRELESS NETWORKS:
Ultra

wide

band radio communic
ation, Wireless fidelity systems, Optical wireless
networks, Mult
imode 802.11

IEEE 802.11a/b/g, wireless AD Hoc sensor Networks.
(4)
Total 42
REFERENCES:
1.
Siva
Ram Murthy
C.
and
Manoj
B
S, “Ad Hoc Wireless Networks: Architectures and Protocols”, Prentice Hall, Jun
e
2004
.
2.
Charles E Perkins, “Ad Hoc Networking”, Addison

Wesley, 2001
.
3.
Toh C K,
“Ad Hoc Mobile Wireless Networks: Protocols and Systems”, Prentice Hall,
2001
.
4.
Mohammad Ilyas, “The Handbook of Ad Hoc Wireless Networks”, CRC Press, 2002
.
5.
Basagni S, Marco Conti, Silvia Giordano, Ivan Stojmenovi and
C
acute, “Mobile Ad Hoc Networking”, John Wiley
and
Sons,
2004
.
09
LC2
7
ADVANCED PROCESSOR A
RCHITECTURE
3 0
0 3
INTRODUCTION TO PARA
LLEL PROCESSING:

Evolution of computer systems. Generation of computer systems
–
Trends
towards parallel processing

Parallel processing mechanisms

parallel computer structure

Architectural classification schemes
–
Application.
(6
)
MEMORY AND I/O SUBSY
STEMS:
Hierarchical Memory structure
–
Virtual memory system

cache memory management

Memory allocation and management
–
I/O subsystems
(4
)
MULTIPLE PROCESSOR
S
ISSUE
:
Overview of Multiple issue processors
–
Cache access and Instruction fetch
–
Dynamic branch
prediction and control speculation
–
Decode
–
Rename
–
Execution stages
–
Super scalar processors
–
VLIW and EPIC
Processors.
Principles

Classification o
f pipeline processors

Reservation tables
–
Interleaved memory organization
–
Design of arithmetic pipeline
–
Design of instruction pipeline
(8
)
VECTOR PROCESSING:
Need
–
Basic vector processing architecture

Issues in vector processing
–
V
ectorization and
optimization methods.
(6)
ARRAY PROCESSING:
SIMD Array processors
–
SIMD interconnection networks
–
Parallel algorithms for array processors
–
192
associative array processing.
(6)
MULTIPROCESSOR ARCHITECTURE:
Functional structures

Interconnection network
–
Multi cache problems and solutions
–
Exploiting concurrency for multiprocessing.
(6
)
PRINCIPLES OF PARALLEL ALGORI
THM DESIGN:
Design approaches

Design issues

Performance measures and analysis

Complexities

Anomalies in parallel algorithms

Pseudo code conventions for parallel algorithms

Comparison of SIMD and MIMD
algorithms.
(6)
Total 42
R
EFERENCES:
1.
Kai Hwang, "Advanced Computer Architecture: Parallelism, Scalability and Programmability", Tata McGraw Hill, 1992.
2.
Seyed Roosta
,
"Parallel Processing and Parallel Algorithms", Springer Series, 1999.
3.
John L Hennessy
,
"Computer Architecture a Qua
ntitative Approach"
,
Harcourt Asia Pvt. Ltd., 1999.
4.
Jurij Silc,
”Processor Architecture : From Superscalar to Data Flow and Beyond “
,
Springer; 1999
.
5.
David E Culler, Jaswinder Pal Singh
and Anoop Gupta,
“
Parallel Computer Ar
chitecture: A Hardware/Software
Approach
”
. 1998.
6.
http://www.intel.com/technology/architecture/index.htm
09LC
28
MICROWAVE INTEGRATED
CIRCUITS
3 0 0 3
TECHNOLOGY OF HYBRID MICS:
Dielectric substrates

thick film technology and materials

thin fil
m technology and materials
–
methods of testing
–
encapsulation of devices for MICs
–
mounting of active devices.
(8)
TECHNOLOGY OF MONOLITHIC MICS
: Processes involved in fabrication
–
epit
axial growth of semiconductor layer
–
growth of
dielectric layer
–
diffusion

ion implantation
–
electron beam technology.
(8)
ANALYSIS OF MICROSTRIP LINE:
Methods of conformal transformation
–
numeri
cal method for analysis
–
hybrid mode analysis
–
coupled mode analysis

method of images
–
losses in miscrostrips.
(8)
COUPLED MICROSTRIPS, SLOT
LINE AND COPLANAR
WA
VEGUIDES
: Coupled microstrips
–
even and odd mode analysis
–
microstrip directional couplers
–
branch line couplers
–
periodic branch line couplers
–
synchronous branch line couplers.
(9)
LUMPED ELEMENTS AND NON

RECIPROCAL COMPONENTS:
Design and fabrication using mic
rostrips
–
flat resistors
–
flat
inductors
–
interdigital capacitors
–
sandwich capacitors
–
ferromagnetic substrates for non

reciprocal devices
–
microstrip
circulators
–
latching circulators
–
isolators
–
phase shifters.
(9)
T
otal
42
REFERENCES
:
1.
Gupta
K
C and Amarjit singh,
“Microwave Integrated Circuits”
,
J
ohn Wiley and sons,
Wiley Eastern Reprint, 1978.
2.
Hoffmann
R
K
,
“Handbook of Microwave Integrated Circuits”
,
Artech House, 1987
.
0
9LC29
OPTICAL NETWORKS
3 0 0 3
FIRST GENERATION OPTICAL NETWORKS:
FDDI

SONET/SDH

Computer Interconnects
–
Metropolitan Area Networks
–
Layered Architecture
.
(5)
B
ROADCAST AND SELECT NETWORKS:
Topologies for Broadcast Networks
–
Media

Access Control (MAC) Protocols
–
Testbeds.
(5)
WAVELENGTH ROUTING NETWORKS:
The Optical Layer
–
Node Designs
–
Network Design and Operation
–
Optic
al Layer Cost
Tradeoffs
–
Routing and Wavelength Assignment
–
Architectural Variations.
(5)
VIRTUAL TOPOLOGY DESIGN:
The Virtual Topology Design Problem
–
Combined SONET/WDM Network Design
–
An Integer
Linear Programmin
g Formulation
–
Regular virtual Topologies
–
Implementation in Broadcast and Select networks.
(5)
CONTROL AND MANAGEMENT:
Network Management functions
–
Configuration Management
–
Performance Management
–
Faulty Management
–
Opt
ical
Safety
–
Service Interface.
(5)
193
WAVELENGTH ROUTING TESTBEDS:
ONE/Sea Me We

3
–
AON
–
NTT Ring
–
MWTN
–
ONTC
–
Alcatel’s WDM Ring
–
MONET.
(5)
PHOTONIC PACKE
T SWITCHING:
OTDM
–
Multiplexing and Demultiplexing
–
Synchronization
–
Broadcast OTDM Networks

Switch

Based Networks
–
OTDM Testbeds.
(6)
ACCESS NETWORKS:
Network Architecture Overview
–
Today’s Access Networks
–
Future A
ccess Networks
–
Optical Access
Network Architectures.
(6)
Total 42
REFERENCES
:
1.
Rajiv Ramasami Kumar
and
Sivarajan
N
, “Optical Networks : A Practical Perspective”,
Second edit
ion Harcourt Asia PTE Ltd
Singapore, 2001
.
2.
Siva Ram Murthy and
Mohan Gurusamy, “WDM Optical Networks”, Prentice

Hall of India Private Limited, New Delhi, 2002.
09LC30
EMBEDDED SYSTEMS
3 0 0 3
Introduction to Embedded Systems:
Embedded Syst
ems

Applications of Embedded Systems

Processors in the System

Other
Hardware Units

Software Embedded into a System

Exemplar Embedded Systems

Embedded System

on

Chip (SOC) and in VLSI
circuit.
(8)
Devices and Buses for Device Network:
I/O
Devices

Timer and Counting Devices

Serial Communication using I2C,CAN and
USB. Parallel Communication using PCI, PCIX and Advanced Parallel High Speed Buses. (8)
Device Drivers and Interrupts Servicing Mechanism:
Device Drivers

Pa
rallel Port Device Drivers in a System, Serial Port Device
Drivers in a System, Device Drivers for Internal Programmable Timing Devices
–
Interrupt Servicing Mechanism

Context and the
Periods for Context Switching, Deadline and Interrupt Latency.
(8)
Embedded Software Development Using IDE:
Introduction to Integrated Development Environment (IDE)

Programming
Concepts and Embedded Programming in Assembly and C

Creating a New Project
–
Adding Files to a Project

Building a Project

Debugging and
Simulating the application

Getting Embedded Software into the Target System.
(8)
REAL TIME OPERATING SYSTEMS (RTOS):
Tasks and Task States, Tasks and Data, Semaphores and Shared Data, Message
Queues, Mailboxes and P
ipes, Timer functions, Events, Memory Management, Interrupt Routines in RTOS Environment
(
7
)
CASE STUDY OF PROGRAMMING WITH RTOS
(
3
)
Total 42
REFERENCES:
1.
Rajkamal, ”Embedded Systems: Architecture, Programming and Design”, Tata McGraw

Hill,2006.
2.
David E Simon, “An Embedded Software Primer” Pearson Education Asia, 2006.
3.
Arnold Berger, “Embedded System Design: An Introduction to Proc
esses, Tools, and Techniques” CMP Books, 2001.
4.
Wayne Wolf, “Computers as Components” Morgan Kaufmann Publishers, 2005.
5.
Douglas V Hall, “Microprocessors and Interfacing: Programming and Hardware”, Second Edition, Tata McGraw

Hill Edition,
2001.
09
LC
31
NET
WORK SYSTEM DESIGN U
SING NETWORK PROCE
S
SOR
S
3 0 0 3
INTRODUCTION. PROTOC
OLS AND PACKET FORMA
TS:
Network systems and the Internet, Applications, packet processing,
protocols and layering, layer 1 and 2, layer 3, layer 4, protocol port numbers and de

multip
lexing, Encapsulation and transmission.
(4)
PACKET PROC
ESSING:
Introduction, packet buffer allocation, packet buffer size and copying, protocol layering and copying,
Heterogeneity and network byte order, IP datagram fragmentation and reassembly, IP forwarding algorithm, TCP connection
recognition algorithm, TC
P splicing algorithm, Functions
–
Address lookup and packet forwarding, error detection and correction,
Fragmentation, segmentation and reassembly, frame and protocol de

multiplexing, packet classification, queuing and packet
discard, Scheduling and timing
, Authentication and privacy, traffic measurement and policing , traffic shaping, timer management.
(8)
NETWORK PROCESSORS:
Introduction, motivation for embedded processors, RISC Vs CISC, need for custom silicon
, definition
of NP, flexibility through programmability, instruction set, scalability with parallelism and pipelining, cause and benefits
of NP, NP
functionality, packet processing functions, Ingress and Egress processing, Parallel and distributed architec
ture, architectural roles of
194
NP, NP architectures
–
Introduction, architectural variety, primary architectural characteristics, Architecture, packet flow and clock
rates, software architecture, assigning functionality to the process hierarchy, issues in sc
aling an NP.
(8)
IXP1200:
Introduction, Overview of IXP, Embedded RISC processor (Strong ARM core), Packet processor hardware (Microengine
and FBI), Microengine programming, Microcode programming.
(10)
IXP2XXX:
Introduction, IXP2xxx Architecture, Microengines, Programming Models, Packet processing in a single thread, Advanced
programming, Applications: Switches, Routers, Firewall, Active Networks.
(12)
Total 42
REFERENCES:
1.
Douglas E
Comer, “Network Systems Design using Network P
rocessors”, Intel IXP version,
Pearson Education. March 2003
.
2.
Erik J
Johnson and Aaron R
Kunze, “IXP1200 Programming”, Intel Press. M
arch
2002,
3.
Erik J
Johnson and Aaron Kunze, “IXP 2400/2800 Programming”, Intel Press, April 2003
.
4.
Uday R Naik and Prashant
R
Chandra, “Designing High Performance Networking Applications
:
Essential Insights for
Developers of IXP2XXX Network Processor Based
Systems”, Intel Press, November 2004
.
5.
Donald F Hooper, “Using IXP2400/2800 Development Tools
–
A Hands on Approach to Network Processor Software Design”,
Intel Press, August 2004
.
6.
Patrick Crowley, Peter Z Onufryk, Mark A
Franklin and
Haldun Hadimioglu, “Ne
twork Processors 2002: Design Principles and
Practices”, Vol 1, Morgan Kaufmann Publications, September 2002.
7.
Mark A Franklin, Patr
ick Crowley, Haldun Hadimioglu and
Peter Z Onufryk “Network Processor Design: Issues and Practices”,
Vol 2, Academic Press, D
ecember 2003.
8.
Panos C Lekkas, “Network Processors: Architectures, Protocols and Platforms (Telecom Engineering)
”
, McGraw Hill, July
2003
.
0
9
LC
32
MULTIRATE SIGNAL PROCESSING
3 0 0 3
DECIMATION AND INTERPOLATION:
Introduction
–
Representation of discre
te signals
–
Reducing the sampling rate
–
Increasing
the sample rate.
Decimation with transversal filters
–
Interpolation with transversal filters
–
Decimation with Polyphase filters
–
Interpolation with polyphase filters
–
Decimation and Interpolation with
Rational sampling factors
(12
)
TWO CHANNEL FILTER
BANKS:
Analysis and synthesis filter banks
–
Quadrature mirror filter banks
–
Filter banks with perfect
reconstruction
–
Paraunitary filter banks
–
Biorthogonal and linear phase filter banks
–
Transmul
iplexer filter banks.
(9)
UNIFORM M

CHANNEL FIILTER
BANKS:
Filter banks with tree structure
–
Filter banks with parallel structure
–
complex
modulated
filter banks
–
cosine modulated filter banks
–
Transmultiplexer filter banks. (9)
FILTER BA
N
KS WITH POLYPHASE STRUCTURE:
Fund
amental polyphase structures
–
polyphase QMF banks
–
General two
channel polyphase filter banks
–
General M

channel polyphase filter banks
–
Paraunitary polyphase filter banks
–
DFT polyphase
filter banks.
Application: Digital audio.
(
11
)
Total 42
REFERENCES:
1.
Fliege N
J, "Multirate Digital Signal Processing", John Wiley and sons, 1994.
2.
Vaidyyanathan P
P
,
"Multirate Systems and Filter Banks", Prentice Hall Inc., 1993
.
3.
Proakis J G
a
nd
Manolakis D
G, "Digital Signal Processing Principles, Algorithms and Applications"
, Prentice H
all of
India, 2002
.
4.
Sanj
it
K
Mitra, "Digital Signal Processing

A Computer Based Approach", Tata McGraw Hill, 2003.
09LC41 INDUSTRIAL VISIT AND T
ECHNICAL SEMINAR
1 0 2 2
The student will make atleast two technical presentations on current topics related to the specialization. The same will be
assessed
by a committee appointed by the department. The students are expected to submit a report at the
end of the semester covering the
various aspects of his/her presentation together with the observation in industry visits. A quiz covering the above will be
held at the
end of the semester.
09LC51
DSP & EMBEDDED
SYSTEMS
LAB
ORATORY
195
0 0 3 3
1.
Design and
Implementation of
LMS, RLS and Kalman adaptive filters to remove
noise and estimat
ion of
the
Channel using
Matlab
and FPGA kit.
2.
Design and
implementation of Digital Modulation
Sc
heme
s
using Matlab and FPGA kit.
3. D
esign, Implementation and testing of a CAN protocol.
4. Design, Implementation and testing of Ethernet protocol.
5. Design, Implementation and testing of PWM concepts.
09LC52
ADVANCED RF
LABORATORY
0 0 3 3
1.
Design, simulation, fabrication a
nd testing of directional and miniaturized directional couplers for a frequency range less
than 3GHz.
2.
Design, simulation, fabrication and testing of phased array antenna for a frequency range less than 3GHz.. .
3.
Design, simulation, fabrication and testing o
f Mixers for a frequency range less than 3GHz..
4.
Design, simulation, fabrication and testing of power amplifier for a frequency range less than 3GHz..
5.
Design, simulation, fabrication and testing of different types of RF filters for a frequency range less th
an 3GHz
.
09LC5
3
ADVANCED NETWORK
S
LABORATORY
0 0 3 3
1.
Development of code in Micro C / ASM
using
Network simulator /
Developer work bench of IXP 2400 for
Packet generation , Packet classification, Packet buffering and Packet forwarding.
2.
Dev
elopment of code for AES
E
ncryption
/
Decryption and RSA digital signature scheme
.
I
mplement confidentiality and
authentication protection model using above techniques and
s
tudy the performance.
3.
Development of code
for
HMAC
and implement
authentication and
integrity protection model for image transmission.
4.
D
evelopment of parallel programming techniques to analyze the scalar processor and vector processor.
09LC5
5
OBJECT COMPUTING AND D
A
TA STRUCTURES
LABORATORY
2 0 3 4
Vide Control Systems 09EC5
5

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