Detailed Syllabus - PSG College of Technology

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Oct 26, 2013 (4 years and 18 days ago)

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178

09LC01 LINEAR

ALGEBRA

3 0 0 3


LINEAR EQUATIONS:

System of l
inear equations
-

Row reduction and

Echelon forms
-
Vector equations
-

The Matrix equation
Ax=b
-

Solution sets of linear systems
-

Application of linear systems
-

Linear Independence
-

Introductio
n to linear transformations
-

The Matrix of linear transformation
-

Linear modeling in engineering



(7)


MATRIX ALGEBRA:

Matrix operations
-

Inverse of a matrix
-

Characteristics of invertible matrices
-

Partitioned matrices
-

Matrix
factorizat
ions
-

Subspaces of R
n
-

Dimension
and

rank
-

Introduction to determinants
-

Properties of determinants
-

Cramer’s rule











(7)


VECTOR SPACES:

Vector spaces
and

subspaces
-

Null spaces, column spaces
and

linear transformations
-

Linearly
independent
sets; Bases
-

Coordinate systems
-

Dimension of a vector space


Rank
-

Change of basis

(7)



EIGEN VALUES AND

EIGEN VECTORS:

Eigenvectors & Eigen values
-

Characteristic equation


Diagonalization
-

Eigenvectors &
linear transformat
ions
-

Complex Eigen values
-

Applications to differential equations
-

Iterative estimates for Eigen values








(7)


ORTHOGONALITY AND

LEAST SQUARES:
Inner product, length
and

Orthogonality
-

Orthogonal sets
-

Orthogonal projections

Gram
-

Schmidt process
-

Least square problems
-

Inner product spaces
-

Applications of inner product spaces


(7)


SYMMETRIC MATRICES
AND

QUADRATIC FORMS:
Diagonalization of symmetric matrices
-

Quadratic forms
-

Singular value
decomposition
-
Applications to image processing







(7)



Total 42


REFERENCES:

1.

David C

Lay, “Linear Algebra and its Applications”, Pearson Education Asia, New Delhi, 2003
.

2.

Gilbert Strang, “Linear Algebra and its Applications”, Brooks/Cole Ltd., New Delhi, Third Edition,

2003
.

3.

Seymo
ur Lipschutz

and

Marc Lipson, “Schaum's Outline of Linear Algebra”, McGraw Hill Trade; New Delhi, Third Edition,
2000
.

4.

Howard A Anton
“Elementary Linear Algebra”, John Wiley & Sons, Singapore, Eighth Edition 2000
.



09LC0
2
INFORMATION THEORY A
ND
CODING

3
0 0 3


PROBABILITY THEORY:

Events
-

Random variables
-

Distribution and density functions
-

Operations on random variables
-

Covariance
-

Correlation functions
-

Random process
-

Stationarity
-

Spectral decomposition
-

Response of linear system to
random inputs









(10)



MEMORYLESS FINITE SC
HEMES
:

Self information measure
-

Entropy function
-

Conditional Entropies
-

Characteristics of Entropy
function
-

Derivation of the noise characteristics of a channel
-

Mutual informatio
n
-

Redundancy
-

Efficiency and channel capacity
-

capacities of channels with symmetric noise structure.


(10)


CONTINUOUS CHANNELS:

Definitions of different entropies
-

Mutual information
-

Maximization of
the entropy of a continuous
random variable
-

Entropy maximization problems
-

Channel capacity under the influence of additive white Gaussian Noise.









(11)








ELEMENTS OF ENCODING
:

Se
parable binary codes
-

Shannon
-

Fano encoding
-

Necessary and sufficient conditions for
noiseless coding
-

Shannon's binary coding
-

fundamental theorem of discrete noise
-
less coding
-

Huffman's code
-

Gilbert
Moore coding
-

Fundamental theorem of di
screte coding in presence of noise
-

Error
-
detecting and error
-
correcting codes
-

Hamming's single error correcting code.





(11)

























Total 42



REFEREN
CES:

1.

Reza F

M, "An Introduction to Information Theory", McGraw Hill,
2000
.

2.

Viterbei

A
and
Omura J

K, "Principles of Digital Communication and Coding", McGraw Hill, 1979.

3.

Satyanarayana P

S
,
. "Probability Theory
-

An Introduction", Dayaram Publications” 199
0.

4.

Kandasamy

P
, Thilaga
vathi K and
Gunavathi

K
, “Probability, Random Variables and Random Processes”,

S.Chand &

Co
Ltd, 2003.

5.

Mansuripur M
A, "Introduction to Information Theory"
,
Prentice Hall Inc. 1990.

6.

Srinath

M
D and Rajasekaran
P
K
,

“An Introduct
ion to Statistical Signal Processing with Application

, Prentice Hall
,

1993.

7.

Joya Thomas

and
Cover

M,
“Elements of Information theory”, John Wiley, 1991.

8.

Richard

B

W
ells, “Applied Coding and Information Theory for Engineers”, Prentice Hall, 1998.



09LC03
DIGITAL

COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUES

3 0 0 3


179


ERROR CONTROL CODING
:

Linear block codes
-

Optimum soft decision decoding of linear block codes
-

Hard decision
decoding
-

Non binary block codes and concatenated block codes
-

Polynomial representation of

codes
-

Cyclic codes
-

Convolution
codes
-

Viterbei decoding algorithm


Other decoding methods of convolutional codes
-
Turbo codes










(9)


BASEBAND SIGNALLING
CONCEPTS:
Need for line shaping of signals
-

Signaling formats
-

RZ/NRZ, Duobinary Splitphase
(Manchester) and high density bipolar coding
-

Scrambling
and

unscrambling
-

channel equalisation
-

tapped delay line and
traversal filters.









(6)



DIGITAL MODULATION S
CHEMES
:
Detection using matched filter
-

Optimum receivers for arbitrary binary signals and M'ary
orthogonal signals
-

Analysis of coherent and non coherent detection schem
es for ASK, PSK and DPSK
-

M'ary signalling schemes
-

QPSK and QAM


MSK
-

Performance of the data transmission schemes under AWGN. Trellis coded Modulation.









(9)











SYNCHRONISATION OF D
IGITAL COMMUNICATION

SYSTEM
:

General problem of synchronization
-

MAP and ML estimation of
signal parameters
-

Generalization of the estimator equations to multiple symbol intervals and multiple par
ameters
-

Data aided and
Non data aided synchronization
-

s
y
nchronization methods based on properties of wide sense cyclo
-
stationary random process
-

Carrier recovery circuits
-

Symbol clock estimation schemes.


(9)


INTRODUCTION TO SPRE
AD SPECT
RUM SYSTEMS
:

Model of Spread spectrum Digital Communication Systems
-

PN spread
spectrum signals
-

Generation and Application of PN sequences
-

FH spread spectrum signals and performance of FHSS in AWGN
-
Synchronization
-
Jamming considerations
-
Commercial App
lications
-
cellular subsytems.


(9)



Total 42

REFERENCES:

1.

Bernard Sklar, "Digital Communications", Pearson Education Asia, 2001.

2.

Das

J
, "Principles of Digital Communication", Willey Eastern Limited, 1985.

3.

Ziemer R E
and Peterson R L
, "Digital
Communications and Spread Spectrum Systems”, McMillan Publishing Co., 1985.

4.

Proakis J G, "Digital Communications", McGraw Hill Inc, 1983.

5.

Barry

S
,

Lee

E A and
Messershmitt

D

J, “Digital Communications”, Kluwer Academic Press Third Edition,

2004.



09LC04
/
09LV22
ADVANCED DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING

3 0 0 3


MULTIRATE SIGNAL PROCESSING:

Introduction
-

Sampling and Signal Reconstruction
-

Sampling rate conversion

-

Decimation by an integer factor
-

Interpolation by an integer factor
-

Sampling rate c
onversion by a ratio
nal factor
-

Sampling rate
c
onverter as a time variant system
-

Practical structures for decimators and interpolators
-

Direct form and Polyphase FIR
structures
-

FIR structures with time varying Coefficients.







(1
2
)


MULTIRATE FIR FILTER DESIGN:

Design of FIR filters for sampling rate conversion
-

Multistage
design of decimator and
interpolator
-

Applications of Interpolation and decimation in signal processing
-

Fil
t
er bank implementation
-

Two
channel filter
banks
-

QMF filter banks
-

Perfect Reconstruction Filter banks
-

Filter banks with tree structure
-

DFT filter Banks

-

Octave

Filter
Banks.










(1
0
)


POWER SPECTRAL ESTIMATION:
Estimation of spect
ra from finite duration observations of a signal
-

The Periodogram
-

Use
of DFT in Power spectral Estimation
-

Non
-
Parametric methods for Power spectrum Estimation
-

Bartlett, Wech & Blackman
-

Tukey methods
-

Comparison of performance of Non
-

Pa
rametric power spectrum Estimation methods.





(10)


PARAMETRIC METHODS OF POWER SPECTRUM ESTIMATION:

Parametric methods for Power spectru
m Estimation
-

Relationship between auto correlation and model parameters
-

AR (Auto
-

Regressive ) process and Linear prediction
-

Yule
-
Walker, Burg & Unconstrained Least squares methods
-

Moving Average (MA) and ARMA models
-

Minimum vari
ance method
-

Pisarenko's harmonic De composition Method.
-

MUSIC method
. (10)











Total 42

REFERENCES:

1.

Fliege N

J, "Multirate Digital Signal Processing", John Wi
ley and sons, 1994.

2.

Hayes M

H, "Statistical Digital Signal Processing and Modeling ", Wiley, New

York
,

1996.

3.

Sanjit
K

Mitra, "Digital Signal Processing
-
A Computer Based Approach", Tata

McGraw Hill, 2003.

4.

Proakis

J


G
and Manolakis D G
, "Digital Signal

Processing Principles, Algorithms and Applications"
,
Prentice

Hall of
India, 2002

5.

Manolakis D

G
, Ingle V
K

and
Kogon S

M
,

"Statistical and Adaptive Signal

Processing", McGraw Hill, Singapore, 2000.

6.
Vaidyanathan

P P, “Multirate Systems and Filter banks”, Prentice Hall, 1993.

09LC05
MICROWAVE CIRCUIT DESIGN



3 0 0 3










180

MICRO
WAVE NETWORK ANALYSI
S
:

Impedance and Equivalent Voltages and Currents, Impedance and Admittance Matrices,
The Scattering

Matrix, The Transmission (ABCD) Matrix, Signal Flow Graphs,



(7)


IMPEDANCE MATCHING A
ND TUNING
:

Matching wi
th Lumped Elements, Single
-
stub Tuning, Double
-
stub Tuning, The Quarter
-
wave Transformer


Microwave Resonators: Series and Parallel Resonant Circuits, Transmission Line Resonators.



(8)


POWER DIVIDERS AND D
IRECTIONAL COUPLERS
:

Basic Properties of Dividers and Couplers, the T
-
Junction Power Divider,
The Quadrature (90º) Hybrid, Coupled Line
Directional Couplers. The Lange Coupler, the 180º Hybrid.




(9)


MICROWAVE FILTERS
:

Periodic Structures, Filter Design by the Insertion Loss Methods, Filter Transforms, Filter Implementation.
Stepped


Impedance Low
-
pass filters


Theory and Design

of Ferromagnetic components: Ferrite Isolators, Ferrite Phase Shifters,
Ferrite Circulators, Active Microwave Circuits: Detectors and Mixers,

(
10)


DESIGN OF MICROWAVE
AMPLIFIERS AND OSCIL
LATORS
:

Characteristics of RF Transistors,

Gain and Stability, Single
-

Stage
Transistor Amplifier Design, Oscillator Design.









(8)







Total 42



REFERENCES:

1.

David M
Pozar
,

“Microwave Engineering”
,

Third Edition John Wiley
and

Sons, Inc.
,

2005.

2.

Collin

R

E, “Foun
dations Microwave Engineering”, McGraw Hill International Education, 1992.

3.

Gonzalez

G
, “Microwave Transistor amplifiers


Analysis & Design”, Prentice Hall, Second Education, 1997.



09LC06

DIGITAL IMAGE PROCESSING

3 0 0 3














DIGITAL IMAGE

FUNDAMENTALS:

Elements of Digital Image Processing System
-

structure of the human eye
-

Image formation
in the eye and contrast sensitivity
-

sampling and Quantisation of an Image
-

Basic relationship between pixels
-

Imaging Geometry
Photographic film.









(5)



IMAGE TRANSFORMS:

Need for Image Transforms
-

The Discrete Fourier transform
-

properties of DFT
-

The Fast Fourier
Transform
-

Discrete cosine Transform
-

Walsh Transform
-

Hadamard Transform Hotelling Transform.


(6)







IMAGE ENHANCEMENT:

Spatial domain methods
-

Frequency domain methods
-

Histogram Modification technique
-

Neighborhood averaging Median filtering
-

Low pass filtering Averaging of multiple Images
-

Image sharpening by diff
erentiation
-

High pass filtering.










(6)










IMAGE RESTORATION:

Degradation model for continuous functions
-

Discrete formulation
-

Diagonalization of circulant and Block
-
circul
ant matrices
-

Effects of Diagonalization
-

Unconstrained and constrained Restorations
-

Inverse Filtering
-

Wiener Filter
-

Constrained least
-

square Restoration.








(6)



IMAGE COMPRESSION:

Coding and Interpixel redundancies
-

Fidelity criteria
-

Image Compressions models
-

Elements of
Information theory
-

Variable length coding
-

Bit pla
ne coding
-

Lossless Predictive coding
-

Lossy predective coding
-

Transform
coding.











(6)






IMAGE SEGMENTATION A
ND REPRESENTATION:

The detection of discontinuities
-

Point, Line and Edge detections
-

Gradient
operators
-

combined detection
-

Thresholding
-

Representation schemes: chain codes
-

Polygen approximation
-

Boundary
descriptors: Simple descriptors
-

Shape numbers Fourier descriptor's
-

Introduction to recognition and Interpretation.












(6)


APPLICATIONS:
Recognition of Image Patterns
-

Introduction. Decision Theoretic Pattern Classification. Bayesian Decision
Theory. Parameter estimation. Minimum Distance Classification. Non
-
parametric Classification.

Texture

and Shape Analysis.
Classification of textures. Discriminatory Power of Co
-
occurrence matrix. Drawbacks of Grey Level Co
-
occurrence Matrix (GLCM).
Tone and Texture. Weak and Strong Textures. Image Mining and Content Based Image Retrieval. Representati
on of images in a
CBIR System. Color Histogram based representation. Partition based representation. Regional Approach for image representation
.





(7)


Total 42


REFERENCES:

1.

Rafel C

Gonzalez and Richard E W
oods,

"Digital Image Processi
ng", Addition
-

Wesley Publishing Company, 2000.

2.

Tinku Acharya

and

Ajoy

K

Ray, “Image Processing
-

Principles and Applications”, Wiley Publishers New Delhi, 2005.

3.

Anil
K

Jain, "Fundamentals of Digital Image Processing"
,
Prentice Hall of India, Pvt
.

Ltd., 1995
.

4.

Rosenfeld

A C Kak,

Digital Picture Processing
”,
Academic Press, Inc
.
, 1976.

5.

Hall
E

L
,


Computer Image Processing and Recognition

, Academic Press, Inc
.
, 1979
.


6.

Huang

T

S,
“Picture Processing
and Digital filtering
”,
Springer Verlag
,
Berlin
Heidelberg
,
New York, 1989.




181

0
9
LC0
7

DETECTION AND ESTIMATION

3
0
0
3


MINIMUM MEAN SQUARED

ERROR (MMSE) ESTIMAT
ION:

L
inear MMSE Estimation


Wiener Filter
-

Kalman Filter
,

Extended
Kalman Filter

-

Robust Detection and Estimation
-

Nonparametric Estimation



Applications of Detection and Estimation in Signal
Processing.

(
15
)


STATISTICAL DECISION

THEORY
:

Bayesian Hypothesis
Testing

-

Likelihood Ratio Tests
-

Minimax Hypothesis Testing

-

Neyman
Pearson Hypothesis Testing
-

Composite Hypothesis Testing
-

M’ary Hypothesis Testing



(9)



SIGNAL DETECTION IN
DISCRETE TIME:

Deterministic Signals
-

Stoc
hastic Signals


Models and Detector Structures


Performance Evaluation
-

Chernoff Bounds.


(8)


PARAMETER ESTIMATION
:
Bayesian Parameter Estimation



Linear Least Squares Estimation


Nonrandom Parameter
Estimation


Minimum Variance Unbiased Estimation


Best Linear Unbiased Estimators
-

Maximum Likelihood Estimation


Cramer Rao bound
-
Nonlinear Estimation


(
10
)



Total 42

REFERENCES:

1.

Kay

S

M
, “Fundamentals of Statistical Signal Processing, Volume 1: Estimation Theory”, Prentice Hal
l, 1993.

2.

Kay S M,



Fundamentals of Statistical Signal Processing, Volume 2: Detectio
n Theory”, Prentice Hall, 1998.

3.

Poor

H

V
, “An Introduction to Signal Detection and Estimation”, Springer
-
Verlang
, 1994.

4.

Scharf

L
L
, “
Statistical Signal Processing”, Addi
son Wesley, 1991.

5.

Sam
Shanmugam K and Breipohl A
M, “Random Signals: Detection, Estimation and Data Analysis”, John Wiley, 1988
.



09LC08
WIRELESS AND CELLULA
R COMMUNICATION

ENGINEERING

3 0 0 3


OVERVIEW OF WIRELESS

COMMUNICATIONS
:
History of Wireless Com
munications, Wireless Vision, Technical Issues, Current
Wireless Systems, Cellular Telephone Systems, Cordless Phones, Wireless LANs, Wide Area Wireless Data, Fixed Wireless
Access, Paging Systems, Satellite Networks, Bluetooth, Other Wireless Systems an
d Applications, The Wireless Spectrum,
Methods for Spectrum Allocation, Spectrum Allocations for Existing Systems
, The cellular concept system design fundamentals.













(
10
)


PATH LOSS, SHADOWING

AND CAPACITY OF WIRE
LESS CHANNELS
:
Radio
Wave, Transmit and Receive Signal, Free
-
Space Path Loss, Two
-
Ray Model, Simplified Path Loss, Shadow Fading, Path Loss and Shadowing, Outage Probability under Path
Loss and Shadowing, Cell Coverage Area.
Statistical Multipath Channel Models:

Time
-
Varying C
hannel Impulse, Narrowband
fading models, Autocorrelation, Cross Correlation, and Power Spectral Density, Envelope and Power Distributions, Level Crossi
ng
Rate and Average Fade Duration, Wideband Fading Models, Power Delay Profile, Coherence Bandwidth, Dop
pler Power

Spectrum
and Channel Coherence,
Capacity of Wireless Channels:

Capacity in AWGN
,

Capacity of Frequency
-
Selective Fading Channels
.





(
12
)


DIGITAL MODULATION A
ND DETECTION
:

Signal Space Analysis,

Pass band Modulation Principles, Amplitude and Phase
Modulation, Pulse Amplitude Modulation (MPAM), Phase Shift Keying (MPSK), Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (MQAM)
Differential Modulation, Constellation, Quadrature Offset, Frequency Modulation, Frequenc
y Shift Keying (FSK) and

Minimum Shift
Keying (MSK),

Spread Spectrum and Multiuser Systems


(
12
)





CELLULAR SYSTEMS AND

INFR
ASTRUCTURE
-
BASED WIRELESS NETWO
RKS
:
Cellular System Design, Frequency Reuse in
Cellular Systems, Frequency Reuse in Code
-
Division Systems, Frequency Reuse in Time and Frequency Division Systems,
Dynamic Resource Allocation in Cellular Systems, Area Spectra
l Efficiency,












(
10
)













Total

42

REFERENCES:











1.

Andrea Goldsmith, “W
ireless Communications
”,

Cambridge

University Press
,

2007.

2.

William C

Y

Lee, “Mobile Communications Engineering, Theory and Applications”
,
Second Edition, McGraw Hill International
editions, 1998
.

3.

David
T
s
e

and

P
ramod

Viswanath, “Fundamentals of Wireless Communication”, Prentice Hall, 2003.


4.

Theodore S

Rappaport, “Wireless Communications”, Pearson Education, Asia , New Delhi, Second Edition, 2002
.




09LC09

HIGH SPEED NETWORKS

3 0 0 3


INTRODUCTION
:

Internet history and architecture, OSI layering, MAC and LLC Issues: Techniques for multi
ple access,

Adaptive LLC mechanisms for wireless links, Internet Routing Architecture: Internet Service Providers and Peering


182

Border Gateway Protocol (BGP), Internet Group Management Protocol (IGMP), Unidirectional Link Routing (UDLR). Bandwidth and
Latenc
y, High
-
Speed Technologies, Barriers and Constraints, Scalability, Virtual Overlays and Light paths, Bandwidth Aggregatio
n
and Isolation, Latency Optimiz
ation, Bandwidth, Processing, and Memory, Latency as a Constraint, Relative Scaling with High
Speed.









(
10)



FUNDAMENTALS AND DES
IGN PRINCIPLES:

Fourth Generation: Scale, Ubiquity, and Mobility, Design Principles and Tradeoffs:
Critical Path, Resource Tradeoffs, End
-
to
-
End vs. Hop
-
by
-
Hop, Protocol Layering, State and Hiera
rchy, Control Mechanisms,
Distribution of Application Data, Protocol Data Units. Design Techniques: Scaling Time and Space, Cheating and Masking the
Speed of Light, Specialized Hardware Implementation, Parallelism and Pipelining, Data Structure Optimizatio
n, Latency Reduction.







(8)


PHYSICAL LAYER:

Fiber
-
optics, single
-
mode and multimode technologies, types of optical sources and detectors, link design,
transmitter and receiver design, transmission coding.







(4)


HIGH
-
SPEED LAN:

Switched versus multiple
-
access LANs, virtual circuits versus datagrams, Layer
-
3 switching, IP lookup
algorithms, packet classification algorithms, Fast Packet Switches, Fast Datagram Switches, Active Network Nodes.












(
4)


HIGH
-
SPEED SWITCHING:

High
-
speed packet
-
switch architectures, buffering approaches, Traffic Characterization and Statistical
Multiplexing, examples.









(4)


TRAFFIC SCHEDULING I
N HIGH
-
SPEED NETWORKS:

Fair queuing algorithms, delay bounds
, fairness measures, traffic shaping,
Traffic Scheduling and Processing, Congestion Control and Routing, implementation issues.


(4)


ALL
-
OPTICAL NETWORKS:

Wavelength
-
division multiplexed (WDM) networks, photonic switching, QoS
-
based Network
A
rchitectures and Protocols, ATM Networks.






(4)


HIGH SPEED MODEMS:
ADSL, ADSL lite/G.lite, ISDL, HDSL, HDSL2, SDSL, VDSL, ISDN, Cable modems, error correction using
block and convolutional encoders, interleaving, D
SLAM.





(4)












Total 42

REFERENCES:

1.

James P

G

Sterbenz, Joseph D Touch,

and
Joe Touch, “High
-
Speed Networking: A Systematic Approach to High
-
Bandwidth
Low
-
Latency Communication”, e
-
Book, John Wiley & Sons, 2000
.

2.

Je
an Walrand

and

Pravin Varaiya
,
“High
-
Performance Communication Networks”, Morgan Kaufmann
,

Second Edition, 2000
.

3.

William Stallings., “High
-
Speed Networks and Internets: Performance and Quality of Service”, Prentice Hall
,

Second Edition,
2002
.

4.

Robert Newman
, “Broadband Communications”, Prentice Hall, 2002
.

5.

Bertsekas
D
and Gallager

R
, Data Networks, Second Ed
ition, Prentice Hall, 1992
.

6.

Jim Kurose

and Keith Ross
, “Computer Networking: A Top
-
Down Approach Featuring the Internet”, Addison
-
Wesley, 2004
.

7.

Balaji Kumar
, “Broadband Communications”, McGraw
-
Hill, 1998
.




09LC
10


ERROR CONTROL CODING

3 0 0 3


FINITE FIELD ARITHMETIC:

Definition of a finite field
-

prime size finite field GF(p)


polynomial representation

of finite field
elements
-

properties of polynomials and finite field elements


Fourier transform over a finite field


alternative visualization of
Finite Field Fourier Transform


roots and spectral components


Fast Fourier Transform


Hardware mult
ipliers using polynomial
basis ,dual basis, normal basis
-

software implementation of finite field arithmetic.


(5)


LINEAR BLOCK CODES:

Mathematics of binary codes


parity checks

generator matrix


parity check matrix

standard array


codec
design for linear block codes


dorsch algorithm decoding.





(4)


CYCLIC CODES:
P
olynomial representation


encoding by convolution


properties


systematic encoding


syndrome of a cyclic
code


implementation of encoding


decoding


multiple e
rror correction

shortened cyclic codes


expurgated cyclic codes










(4)


CONVOLUTIONAL CODES:

E
ncoder state diagram


distance structure

maximum likelihood decoding


viterbi algorithm
-

practical
implementation of viterbi
decoding


performance of convolutional codes


good convolutional codes


punctured convolutional
codes


applications of convolutional codes
-

codes for multilevel modulations.


(5)


PERFORMANCE CALCULATIONS FOR BLOCK CODES:
Hamming bound


Plo
t kin Bound


Griesmer Bound


Singleton Bound


Gilbert
-

Varsharmov Bound
-

Error detection


Random error detection performance of block codes


weight distributions


worst
case undetected error rate


burst error detection
-

output error rates using b
lock codes


detected uncorrectable codes


Application example


Optical communications.





(5)



183

BCH CODES:
Construction


roots and parity check matrices


algebraic decoding


BCH decoding and the BCH bound


decoding
in the frequency domain


decoding examples for binary BC codes
-

polynomial form of the key equation


Euclid’s method
-

Berlekamp


Massey algorithm.








(5)


REED SOLOMON CODES:

Generator polynomial for a Reed Solomon Code


Time Domain encoding


decoding
-

frequen
cy
domain encoded reed Solomon codes


Examples of Reed Solomon Decoding


erasure decoding
-
generalized minimum distance
coding


Welch
-

Berlekamp Algorithm


Singly extended Reed Solomon Code


doubly extended Reed Solomon Code.









(6)


I
TERATIVE DECODING:

Serial concatenation using inner block codes
-

Serial concatenation using inner convolutional codes


product codes


generalized array codes


applications of multistage coding


The BCJR algorithm


use of extrinsic information


recurs
ive systematic convolutional codes


MAP decoding of RSC codes


Interleaving and trellis termination


the soft output
viterbi algorithm
-

Galleger codes


serial concatenation with iterative decoding


performance and complexity issues


application
to
mobile communication


Turbo Trellis Coded Modulation.


(8)




Total 42

REFERENCES:

1.

Peter Sweeney, “Error Control Coding From theory to practice”, John Wiley and Sons, 2002.

2.

Rao T

R

N and Fujiwara

E
, “ Error Control Coding for Computer systems”, Prentice Hall, 1989
.

3.

Shu Lin and Daniel J Costello Jr, ”Error Control Coding: Fun
damentals and Application”, Prentice Hall Series in Computer
Application in Electrical Engineering,2004
.

4.

Irving S

Read and Uemin chen

X
, “Error control coding for data networks”, Springer ,1999
.

5.

Joseph Paul Odenwalder, “Error Control Coding
Handbook”, Link
abit corp., 1996.




09LC11

SPREAD SPECTRUM COMM
UNICATION

3 0 0 3


PERFORMANCE CHARACTE
RIZATION OF DIGITAL
DATA TRANSMISSION
:
Detection of binary signals in AWGN
-

Quadrature
multiplexed signalling schemes
-

Signalling through band limited channels
-

Equal
ization of digital data transmission system
-

Realization imperfections
-

Degradations in performance.



(7)

Communication in the presence of pulse noise jamming
-

Low probability detection scheme
-

Direct Sequence Sp
read Spectrum
(DSSS) and Frequency Hop Spread Spectrum Systems and examples of Spread Spectrum Systems. (5)





SPREAD SPECTRUM SYST
EMS
:
Direct sequence spread spectrum methods e
mploying BPSK, QPSK and MSK
-

Frequency Hop
spread spectrum methods
-

Coherent slow frequency Hop technique
-

Non coherent slow and fast frequency Hop spread spectrum
techniques
-

Hybrid DS/FH spread spectrum
-

Complex envelope representation of spread spe
ctrum systems.










(8)











BINARY SHIFT REGISTE
R SEQUENCES FOR SPRE
AD SPECTRUM SYSTEMS:

Definition
-

PN sequence generator
fundamentals
-

Maximal length sequences
-

Properties, Power

spectrum and Polynomial tables for maximal length sequences
-

Gold codes
-

Rapid Acquisition systems
-

Non
-
linear code generators.




(7)




SYNCHRONIZATION OF S
PREAD SPECTRUM SYSTE
MS
:

Optimal tracking of wideband
signals
-

Early
-
late tracking loops
-

Code tracking loops for FHSS
-

Optimum synchronization techniques
-

Multiple dwell and sequential detectors
-

Synchronization
using a matched filter
-

Synchronization by estimating the received spreading code.

(7)











PERFORMANCE OF SPREA
D SPECTRUM SYSTEM
:

SS Systems communications models
-

Performance without coding under
AWGN and different jamming environments
-

spread spectrum systems performances with forward e
rror correction
-

Block coding
-

Convolutional coding and specific error correcting codes
-

Inter leaving
-

Random coding bounds.












(8)











Total 42


REFERE
NCES:

1.

Ziemer

R

E
and

Peterson R

L, "Digital Communication and Spread Spectrum Systems", Macmillan Publishing Co., 1985.

2.

Dixon

R

C, "Spread Spectrum Systems", Wiley Interscience, 1976.

3. Holms
J

K, "Coherent Spread Spectrum Systems", Wiley Interscienc
e, 1982
.





09LC
12

MULTI USER DETECTION

3 0 0 3


CODE DIVISION MULTIP
LE ACCESS CHANNEL:


Basic synchronous
and

asynchronous CDMA model


Signature waveforms


Data streams


Modulation


Fading


Antenna arrays


Background noise


Discrete time synchrono
us and asynchronous models.









(7)



184

SINGLE
-
USER MATCHED FILTER
:

Hypothesis testing


Optimal receiver for the single user channel


The Q function


The
matched filter in the CDMA system


Asymptotic Multiuser efficiency and related measure
s


Coherent single user matched filter in
Rayleigh


fading


Differentially coherent demodulation


Noncoherent modulation.



(7)


OPTIMUM MULTIUSER DE
TECTION
:

Optimum detector for synchronous channels


Optimum detector for asynchronous channel
s


Minimum error probability in synchronous channel


K user optimum asymptotic efficiency and Near


far resistance


Minimum
error probability in the asynchronous channel


Performance analysis in Rayleigh fading


Optimum noncoherent

multiuser
detecti
on.








(7)


DECORRELATING DETECT
OR
:

Optimum linear multiuser detection


Minimum Mean Square Error (MMSE) linear multiuser
detection

Performance of MMSE linear multiuser detection


Adaptive MMSE linear multiuser detection


Canonical repres
entation
of linear multiuser detectors


Blind MMSE multiuser detector.



(7)


NON
-

DECORRELATING DETECT
OR:

Optimum linear multiuser detection


Minimum Mean Square Error (MMSE) linear
multiuser detection


Performance of MMSE li
near multiuser detection


Adaptive MMSE linear multiuser detection


Canonical
representation of linear multiuser detectors


Blind MMSE multiuser detector.




(7)


DECISION
-
DRIVEN MULTIUSER DET
ECTORS:

Successive Cancellation


Performance Analy
sis of Successive Cancellation


Synchronous Decorrelating Decision
-
Feedback


Synchronous MMSE Decision
-
Feedback


Asynchronous Decision
-
Feedback





(7)











Total 42

REFEREN
CES:

1.
Sergio Verdu, “Multiuser detection”, Cambridge University Press, 1998
.

2. Sergio Verdu, “Recent Progress in Multiuser Detection Advances in Communication and

Control Systems”, IEEE Press, 1993.



0
9LC13

DATA COMPRESSION

3 0 0 3


INTRODUCTION:
Co
mpression Techniques
-

Overview of information theory


Modeling and Coding
-

Taxonomy of compression
techniques

Scalar and vector quantization
-

Rate distortion theory
-

Huffman coding


Non
-
Binary Huffman codes


adaptive
Huffman coding


Application

of Huffman coding
.






(7)



ARITHMETIC CODING AND DICTIONARY TECHNIQUES:
Introduction
-

coding a sequence


generating deciphering the tag


Generating a binary code


Uniqueness of arithmetic code


Algorithm, integer implementation


compari
son of Huffman and
arithmetic coding


Applications
-
Static and Adaptive dictionary


LZ77, LZ78, LZW approach


Applications


Facsimile encoding


run length coding


com
parison of MH, MR, MMR and JBIG
.





(10)


AUDIO COMPRES
SION:
Audio compression techniques
-

frequency domain and filtering
-

basic sub
-
band coding
-
application to
speech coding
-

G.722
-

application to audio coding
-

MPEG audio
-

silence suppression
-

speech compression techniques

Vocoders
.









(7)


IMAGE COMPRESION:
Predictive techniques
-

DPCM, DM
-

Contour based compression


KL transform


discrete cosine, Walsh
-

Hadamard transform
-

Wavelet based compression: quad
-
trees, EZW, SPI
HT
-

JPEG, JPEG
-
2000, JBIG
.









(9)


VIDEO COMPRESSION:
Video signal representation
-

Video compression techniques


MPEG standards
-

Motion estimation
techniques
-

H.261 family

of standards
-

DVI technology
-

Motion video compression
.



(9)

Total 42


REFERENCES:

1.

Khalid Sayood
,
“Introduction to Data Compression”, Second Edition, Morgan Kaufman, 2000
.

2.

Salomon

D
,

Data Compression The Complete Reference

, Second Edition, S
pringer, 2000
.

3.

Salomon

D
,

A Guide to Data Compression Methods”
,

Springer, 2002
.

4.

Jan Vozer, “Video Compression for Multimedia”, AP Press, New York, 1995
.

5.

Peter Symes, “Video compression Demystified”, McGraw
-
Hill, 2000.

6.

Mark Nelson
,

“Data Compression Book”,
BPB Publishers, New Delhi, 1998
.



09LC14
WAVELETS AND SUBBANDCODING












3 0 0 3


FOURIER ANALYSIS:

Signal spaces
-

concept of Convergence
-

Hilbert spaces for energy signals. Fourier basis & Fourier
Transform


failure of Fourier Transform


Need
for Time
-
Frequency Analysis, Spectrogram plot
-

Phase
-
Space plot in Time
-
Frequency plane, Time and Frequency Limitations, Tiling of the Time
-
Frequency Plane for STFT


Heisenberg’s Uncertainty
principle


Short time Fourier transform (STFT) Analysis
-

short

comings of STFT
-

Need for Wavelets.












(8)



185


CONTINUOUS WAVELET T
RANSFORM(CWT) AND MU
LTIRESOLUTION ANALYS
IS(MRA):
Wavelet basis


concept of scale
and its relation with frequency, Continuou
s time Wavelet Transform equation


series expansion using wavelets


CWT


need for
scaling function


Multi
-
Resolution Analysis (MRA)

-

Tiling of time
-
scale plane for CWT. Important wavelets: Haar, Mexican hat,
Meyer, Shannon, Daubechies.






(8)


MULTIRATE SYSTEMS, FILTER BANKS AND DISCRETE WAVELET TRANSFORM(DWT):

Decimation and Interpolation in Time
domain
-

Decimation and Interpolation in Frequency domain


Multi rate systems
for a rational factor, Two channel filter bank


Perfect Reconstruction (PR) condition


relationship between filter banks and wavelet basis


DWT


Filter banks for Daubechies
wavelet function.







(12)


SPECIAL
TOPICS:
Wavelet packet transform Multidimensional wavelets, Bi
-
orthogonal basis
-
B
-
Splines, Lifting scheme of wavelet
generation, Multiwavelets.









(8)



APPLICATIONS OF WAVELETS:

Signal Denoising
-

Sub
-
band coding of Speech and m
usic


Image Compression using 2
-
D DWT
-

Fractal Signal Analysis.









(6)






















Total 42

REFERENCES:

1.

Jai
deva C Goswami

and

Andrew K Chan, “Fundamentals of Wavelets


Theory, Algorithms and Applications”, John Wiley
and

Sons, Inc
.
, Singapore, 1999
.

2.

Soman
K

P

and
Ramachandran

K

I, “Insight into Wavelets from Theory to Practice”, Prentice Hall India, First Edi
tion,

2004
.

3.

Vetterli M,
and
Kovacevic J, "W
avelets and Sub
band Coding," Prentice Hall, 1995.

4.

Fliege. N

J,

”Multirate Digital Signal Processing”, John Wiley

and S
ons,

Newyork,1994.

5.

Stephane G

Mallat, “A Wavelet Tour of Signal Processing”, Academic

Press, Second Edition, 1999.

6.

Wornell G W, "Signal Processing with Fractals: A Wavelet based Approach

, Prentice Hall, 1995.



0
9
LC1
5

ADAPTIVE SIGNAL PROCESSING


3 0 0 3


ADAPTIVE SYSTEMS:

Definition
-

Characteristics
-

Application areas
-

Properties


Wiener Filter


Adaptive Linear Combiner
-

Performance function
-

Gradient and Minimum Mean Square Error (MMSE)
-

Gradient Search Methods
-

Newton's method,
Steepest Descent technique
.








(10)



ADAPTIVE ALGORITHMS FOR
FIR FILTERS:

Least
-
Mean
-
Square (LMS) algorithm
-

Convergence


Learning Curve
-

LMS
Variants
-

Recursive Least Squares (RLS) Algorithm
-

Exponentially Weighted RLS


Sliding Window RLS


Kalman Filter
.


(10)



ADAPTIVE ALGORITHMS FOR IIR FILTERS:

Problem formulation
-

Implications of feedback
-

MMSE techniques


Output Error
Me
thod


Equation Error Method
-

Hyperstable Adaptive Recursive Filter


SHARF
-

Limitations in use of Adaptive IIR filters
.






(9)



ORDER
-
RECURSIVE ADAPTIVE FILTERS:

Lattice Digital filter structure
-

Properties
-

Estimate of reflection Coefficients
-

Order
update & Time update analysis
.






(5)


APPLICATIONS OF ADAPTIVE SIGNAL PROCESSING:

Adaptive Modeling & System Identification
-

Inverse Adaptive Modeling


Deconvolution


Equalization
-

Adaptive Interference Canceling
-

Adaptive noise canceling
-

Canceling power supply interference

in
ECG


canceling maternal ECG interference in fetal ECG
-

Adaptive echo cancellation in Telephone channels
-

Harmonic
cancellation with adaptive prediction
-

Adaptive self tuning filter
-

Adaptive Line enhancer
.

(8)











Total 42

REFERENCES:

1.

Win
drow
B

and
Stearns .S

D, "Adaptive Signal Processing"
,
Prentice Hall inc., 2001
.

2.

Haykin

S, “Adaptive Filter Theory
"
,

Prentice Hall Inc, 2002
.

3.

Cowan C

F

N

and
Grant P

M, "Adaptive Filters", Prentice H
all inc., 1985
.

4.

Alexander S

T, "Adaptive Signal Processi
ng: Theory and Applications ",

Springer


Verlag, 1990.

5.

Sayed

F,” Fundamentals of Adaptive Filters “, Wiley Interscience,2002.

6.

Diniz P

S

R, “Adaptive Filtering Algorithms and Practical Implementation”
, Kluer, 2
nd

Edition,

2004.

09LC16


FPGA BASED SYSTEM DESIGN













3 0 0 3


INTRODUCTION TO HDL
: Introduction to VHDL


Behavioral modeling


Data Flow Modeling


Structural Modeling.
Introduction to Verilog


Gate Level Modeling


Data Flow Modelin
g


Behavioral Modeling.





(8)


PROGRAMMABLE LOGIC D
EVICES
:

Basic Concepts, Programming Technologies


Progrmmable Logic Array (PLA),
Programmable Array Logic (PAL) , Programmable Logic Array (PLA), Design of State Machine using ASM Chart as a

design Tool
.













(6)


186


FIELD PROGRAMMABLE G
ATE ARRAYS:

Introduction


FPGA Technology


DSP Technology Requirement


Design
Implementation


FPGA Architectures


Xilinx


Altera Flex


Design Principles using FPGAs


Implementing DSP Function
s in
FPGA
-

Applications of FPGA to Software Radio.






(8)


Digital Signal Processing with FPGAs:

Design of Binary Adders, Multipliers and Dividers
-

Design of FIR Filters


Design of IIR Filters


Multirate Signal Processing


Decimation


Inte
rpolation


Polyphase Decomposition


Multistage Decimator


Filter Banks


DFT and FFT Algorithms


Error Control and Cryptography


Modulation and Demodulation


FPGA design of LMS
Algorithm





(10)


SOFTWARE RADIO
:
Block Diagram of Software Radio

Numerically controlled oscillator


Digital Up converters


Digital
Down Converters and demodulators


Universal Modulator and Demodulator using CORDIC. Incoherent Demodulation


digital
approach for
I and Q generation, Special Sampling Schemes. CIC filters, Residue number system and high speed filters using RNS.
Down Conversion using discrete Hilbert Transform. Undersampling receivers, Coherent Demodulation Schemes.












(10)












Total 42

REFERENCES:

1. Samir Palnitkar
,

“ Verilog HDL: A Guide to Digital Design and Synthesis”, Prentice Hall, 2003.

2. Volnei

A

Pedroni, “Circuit Design with VHDL”, Prentice Hall, 2004.

3
. Uwe Meyer

Baese, “ Digital Signal Processing with Field P
rogrammable Gate Arrays”
,
Springer, 2004.

4
. Jeffrey H Reed, “Software Radio: A Modern Approach to Radio Engineering”
,
Pearson Education Asia, 2002.

5
. James Tsui, “ Digital Techniques for Wideband Receivers”, Prentice
-
Hall of India,

2005.

6
. Mitra

S
K
,


Digital Signal Processing”, McGraw Hill, 1998.

7
. Bob Zeidman, “Designing with CPLDs and FPGAs”
,
CMP, 2002
.



0
9
LC1
7

NON
-
LINEAR DIGITAL SIGNA
L PROCESSING











3 0 0 3


INTRODUCTION:

Signal Processing Model

Signal and Noise Models


Fundamental Probl
em in Noise Removal


Mean and
Median filters


Linear versus Nonlinear filtering.







(2)


NON LINEAR FILTERS B
ASED ON MEAN
:

Principles and properties of Trimmed mean, Winsorised mean, Modified Trimmed
mean, K
-
nearest neighbour and Non
-
linear

Mean Filters.




(8)


NON LINEAR FILTERS B
ASED ON ORDERING:

Principles and properties of L
-
Filters


C
-
Filters

Rank Selection Filters


Stack
Filters


Ranked Order and Weighted order Statistic Filters
-

Linear
combination of order statistics. (8)


NON LINEAR FILTERS B
ASED ON MEDIAN :

Principles and properties of Weighted Median


Multi stage Median Filters


Median Hybrid Filters









(6)


SPECIAL NON
-
LINEAR FILTERS
:

Princ
iples and properties of M
-
Filters, R
-
Filters, Morphological Filters, soft morphological filters


Data dependent Filters


Decision Based Filters


Iterative, cascaded and recursive filters (9)


STATISTICAL ANALYSIS AND OPTIMISATION OF NON LINEAR

FILTERS:
Review of Estimation, unbiased estimation, point
estimation, M
-

estimation, R
-
Estimation, Maximum Likelihood Estimation and Scale Estimation
-

Analysis and Optimisation of L
-
filters
and Stack filters.








(9)


Total 42

REFERENCES:

1.

Ast
ola J

J

and Kuosmanen P, "Fundamentals of Nonlinear Digital Filtering”
,

CRC Press,1997
.

2.

Arce G

R
,
”Non Linear Signal Proc
essing


A Statistical Approach

,
Wiley Interscience, 2005
.

3.

Doughertz E

R an
d

Astola J

T,

”Nonlinear Filters for Image Processing”, SPI
E Optical Engineering Press,1999

4.

Barner K

E and Arce G

R,

”Nonlinear Signal and Image Processing


Theory, Methods and Applications”, CRC Press, 2004.


0
9
L
C18 SPEECH SIGNAL PR
OCESSING












3 0 0 3




SPEECH SIGNAL MODELLING:
Speech signal char
acteristics and classifications
-

Speech production mechanism
-

Acoustic
Theory of speech production
-

Source


Filter model
-

Lossless Tube Models
-

Digita
l Model of speech signals













(10
)


SPEECH SIGNAL ANALYSIS:

Time domain Analysis for speech processing


Short time energy and magnitude
-

short time
average zero crossing
-

Speech vs silence discrimination
-

Pitch period estimation using autocorrelation
-

Short time Fourier
analysis
-

Definition and properties
-

D
esign of digital filter banks
-

Pitch detection
-

analysis by synthesis

(1
2
)



187

SPEECH CODING:

Linear predictive coding
-

principle
-

solution of LPC equation
-

Cholesky decomposition method
-

Durbin's
method
-

Lattice formulation

Frequency domain

coding


Model based coding


LPC residual coding


(
10
)


SPEECH RECOGNITION:
Template training method
-

Hidden Markov Model

-

Gaussian Mixture model

-

connected word
recognition

-

Speaker identification/Verification.



(
10
)
















Total

4
2

REFERENCES
:

1.

R
a
b
i
ner L

R

and
Schaffer R

W, "Digital
P
rocessing of
S
peech
S
ignals"
,
Prentice
-
Hall,
E
nglewod
-

C
litts, New Jersey, 1986
.

2.

Rebner L

R


K
and
Juang B

H, "Fundamentals of Speech Recognition"
,

Pearson Education, First Indian reprint 2003
.

3.

Kondoz, "Digital Speech", John Wiley
and
Sons Ltd
.
, 1994
.

4.

Thomas F

Quatieri
,
“Discrete Time Speech Signal Processing”
,
Pearson Education, 2002
.

5.

John R
Deller, John Hansen

and P
roa
ki
s

J

G, ” Discrete Time Processing of

Speech Signals

,
IEEE Press,
1
999
.



09LC19
SMART ANTENNAS












3 0 0 3


INTRODUCTION:

Antenna gain, Phased array antenna, power pattern, beam steering, degree of freedom, optimal a
ntenna,
adaptive antennas, smart antenna
-

key benefits of smart antenna technology, wide band smart antennas, Digital radio receiver
techniques and software radio for smart antennas.




(5)


NARROW BAND PROCESSI
NG:
Signal model conventional bea
mformer, null steering beamformer, optimal beamformer,
Optimization using reference signal, beam space processing.





(7)


ADAPTIVE PROCESSING:

Sample matrix inversion algorithm, unconstrained LMS algorithm, normalized LMS algorithm,
Constrained

LMS algorithm, Perturbation algorithms, Neural network approach, Adaptive beam space processing, Implementation
issues.










(9)


BROADBAND PROCESSING
:

Tapped delay line structure, Partitioned realization, Derivative constrained processor, D
igital beam
forming, Broad band processing using DFT method.





(7)


DIRECTION OF ARRIVAL

ESTIMATION METHODS:

Spectral estimation methods, linear prediction method, Maximum entropy
method, Maximum likelihood method, Eigen structu
re methods, Music algorithm


root music and cyclic music algorithm, the
ESPRIT algorithm.









(7)


DIVERSITY COMBINING:

Spatial diversity selection combiner, switched diversity combiner, equal gain combiner, maximum ratio
combiner, optical c
ombiner.








(7)












Total 42

REFERENCES:

1.

Lal Chand Godara, “Smart Antennas” CRC press, 2004.

2.

Joseph

C

Liberti.Jr

and
Theodore S Rappaport, “Smart Antennas for Wireless Communication: IS
-
95 and Thir
d Generation
CDMA Applications”,
Prent
ice Hall
1999
.

3.

Balanis, “Antennas”, John Wiley
and
Sons, 2005.


09LC20
RF

MEMS

3 0 0 3


MICROELECTROMECHANICAL SYSTEMS(MEMS) AND RADIO FREQUENCY MEMS:
Introduction

Microfabrication for MEMS


Electromechanical transducers


Microsensing for MEMS


Mater
ials for MEMS.


(6)

MEMS MATERIALS AND F
ABRICATION TECHNIQUE
S:
Metals


Semiconductors


Thin films for MEMS and their deposition
techniques


Materials for polymer MEMS


Bulk micromachining for silicon
-
based MEMS


Silicon surface

micromaching


Microstereolithography for polymer MEMS.





(6)









RF MEMS SWITCHES
:
Introduction


Switch parameters


Basics of switching


Switches for RF and microwave a
pplications


Electrostatic switching


Approaches for low
-
actuation

voltage switches


thermal switching

MEMS switch design, modeling and
evaluation

MEMS switch design considerations.





(6)



MEMS INDUCTORS AND CA
PACITORS:

Introduction


MEMS inductors


MEMS capacitors.


(6)

MICROMACHINED RF FILTERS AND PHASE SHIFTERS:
Introduction


Modeling of mechanical filters
-

Micromechanical filters

Micromachined phase shifters : Introduction


Types of phase shifters and their limitations


MEMS phase shifters.












(7)


188

MICROMACHINED TRANSMISSION LINES AND COMPONENTS:
Introduction


Micromachined transmission lines and
components


Design, fabrication and measurements.







(5)


MICROMACHINED ANTENNA:
Introduction
-

Overview of microstrip antenna


Micromachining techniques to improve antenna
performance


Micromaching as a fabrication process for small antenna


Micromachined reconfigurable antenna.












(6)













Total 42

REFERENCES:

1.

Vijay K Varadan, Vinoy K J

and
Jose K A, "RF MEMS and Their Applications“
,
Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd, England,

reprinted April 2003.

2.

Gabriel M Rebeiz, “RF MEMS

Theory,Design and Technology “
,
John Wiley & Sons Ltd, New Jersey, 2003
.

3.

Hector J


De Los Santos,

”RF MEMS Circuit Design for Wireless communications”, Artech House, 2002.




09LC21
RADIO FREQUENCY INTEGRATED CIRCUIT DESIGN











3 0 0 3


AMPLIFIERS:

FET and bipolar transistor models



Two port power gains


stability


Amplifier design using S parameters


LNA


Differential amplifiers


DC biasing


Power amplifiers


general issues


efficiency, linearity etc., load pull, class A, AB and C
Design


Higher class power amplifiers


linearization


distributed power amplifier.




(10)


OSCILLATORS


RF OSCILLATORS:
Microwave oscillators


LC


Colpitts


negative resistance


differential oscillators


frequency synthesis methods


phase locked
loop analysis


oscillator phase noise.




(8)


RADIO FREQUENCY IC:
Introduction to RFIC


Analog and microwave design versus RFIC design


noise performance estimate


RF technology


receiver with single IF stage metallization


sh
eet resistance


skin effect


parasitic capacitance and inductance


current handling


metal capacitors


spiral inductors


quality factor


layouts in IC


mutual inductance


multilevel


measurement


packaging.







(8)


MICROWAVE POINT TO P
OINT SYSTEM DESIGN
:

Microwave transmission


link design


theoretical and practical aspects


fading design


protected and non protected microwave systems


link design


path calculation
-


spread spectrum microwave
syste
m


compatibility


safety coordinate systems


Datum’s & GPS


Receiver design


receiver architecture


dynamic range


frequency conversion and filtering


examples of practical receivers


FM broad cast, Digital cellular


Millimeter wave point to poin
t,
Direct conversion GSM receiver.




(10)


TRANSMISSION LINE EQ
UIPMENT:
Digital microwave radio


fiber optic equipment


wireline equipment


cabling grounding


Power battery back up


GPS antenna


reliability iss
ues


cell site selection


microwave repeater site selection


microwave site
and path survey


microwave antenna


mounting


measurement of RF fields


source emissions


power level and radiation
pattern


microwave instal
lation measurements and testing
. (6)
















Tota
l 42


REFERENCES:

1.

David Pozar, “Microwave and RF Design of Wireless Systems”, John Wiley, 2001.

2.

Harvey Lehpamer, “Transmission System Design Handbook for Wireless Networks”, Artech House, 2002.

3.

John Rogers
and
Calvin Plett, “Radio Frequency Integrated Ci
rcuit Design”, Artech House, 2002.

4.

Stephan A

Mass, “Non
-
Linear Microwave and RF circuits”, Artech House, Second Edition
.

5.

Ferri Losee, “RF Systems, Components and Circuits handbook”, Artech house, 2002.

6.

Larson

LE,

“RF and Microwave Circuit for Wireless App
lications”, Artech House, 1997.




09LC22
WIRELESS SYSTEMS AND

STANDARDS











3 0 0 3


INTRODUCTION:



Introduction to Wireless Local Area Networks, The Need for standardization


Future Trends


The IrDA
Standard


Introduction to IrDA: General Desc
ription


Physical Layer (SIR)


Serial Infrared Link Access Protocol (IrLAP)
-

IrDA
Link Management Protocol (Ir
-
LMP)
-

IrDA Transport Protocol: Tiny TP
-
LAN. Access Extensions for Link Management Protocol:
IrLAN.











(7)


WIRELESS SYSTEMS
:

A
dvanced Mobile Phone Systems (AMPS)


Characteristics


Operation


General Working of AMPS
Phone System


Global System for Mobile Communication


Frequency Bands and Channels


Frames


Identity Numbers


Layers, Planes and Interfaces of GSM


Internatio
nal Mobile Telecommunications (IMT
-
2000)


Spectrum Allocation


Services
provided by 3G Cellular Systems


Harmonized 3G Systems


Universal Mobile Telecommunications Systems (UMTS)









(7)



189

THE IEEE 802.11 STAN
DARD
:



Introduction to IEEE 8
02.11


General Description


Medium Access Control (MAC) for the IEEE
802.11 Wireless LANs


Physical Layer for IEEE 802.11 Wireless LANs; Radio systems


Physical Layer for IEEE 802.11 Wireless
LANs


IR Systems


Conclusions and Applications.







(7)


THE HIPERLAN

STANDARD
:



Introduction
-

Terminology


Physical Layer
-
HIPERLAN Channel Access Control (CAC)


HIPERLAN Medium Access Control (MAC)


Conclusions on HIPERLAN Type 1


Future Brand Standards.

(7)


UPCOMING STANDARDS A
N
D FUTURE TRENDS
:

The Evolution of HIPERLAN


The Evolution of IEEE 802.11


Forthcoming
IR Standards


Other RF Standards:

Digital Enhanced Cordless Technology
(DECT)


Bluetooth


Wireless ATM (WATM)


Home
RF.










(7)


RECENT ADVANCES
:

Int
roduction


Ultra Wide Band (UWB) Technology


Characteristics


Signal Propagation


Current Status
and Applications


Advantages


Disadvantages


Challenges and Future Directions.



(7)


Total 42


REFERENCES
:

1.

Assuncion Santamaria, Francisco Lo
pez
-
Hernandez, “Wireless LAN Standards and Applications”, Artech House, 2001.


2.

Dharma Prakash Agarwal

and
Qing
-

An zeng, “Introduction to Wireless and Mobile Systems”, Vikas publishing House, New
Delhi, 2004.

3.

Neeli Prasad and
Anand Prasad, “WLAN System &
Wireless IP for Next Generation Communications”, Artec House, 2002.



09LC23

WIRELESS SECURITY

3 0 0 3


WIRELESS THREATS
:

Introduction to wireless technologies
-
Wireless data networks
-
Personal Area Networks
--
Kinds of security
breaches
-

Eavesdropping
-
Commu
nication Jamming
-

RF interference
-
Covert wireless channels

DOS attack
-

Spoofing
-
Theft of
services
-
Traffic Analysis
-
Cryptographic threats
-
Wireless security Standards.


(9)









CRYPTOGRAPHY:
E
ncryption and Decryption
-

Product ciphers
-
AES (advanced Encryption Standard)
-
Pseudorandom number
Generator
-
Stream ciphers A5
,
RC4
--
Public key cryptography
-
ECC (Elliptic Curve Cryptography)
-

Cryptography in Embedded
H
ardware
.

(9)







WIRELESS LOCAL AREA NETWORK (WLAN):
Introduction

Transmission Media
-
Securing WLANS
-
WLAN products and
standard


Countermeasures
-
WEP (wired Equivalence Protocol)
-
Bluetooth security
.


(8)


SECURITY IN WIREELSS

DATA NETWORKS: W
ireless Device security issues
-

CDPD security (Cellular Digital Packet Data)
-
GPRS security (General Packet Radio Service)
-
GSM (Global System for Mobile Communication) security


I
P
-
security


(8)


WIRELESS TRANSPORT LAYER SECURITY

(WTLS):

Secure Socket Layer
-
Wireles
s Transport Layer Security
-
WAP Security
Architecture
-
WAP Gateway
.


(8)














Total 42

REFERENCES:

1.

Merritt Maxim and David

Pollino, ”Wireless Security”,
Osborne/McGraw Hill , 2002
.

2.

Nichols and Lekka, “Wireless
Security
-
Models, Threats and Solutions”, McGraw


Hill, 2002
.

3.

William Stallings, “Cryptography and Network Security ,Principles and practices, Pr
e
ntice Hall of India, Fourth edition, 2006
.




09LC
24

ADVANCED COMMUNICATI
ON NETWORKS

3 0 0 3


INTRODUCTION
:

I
nternet history and architecture, OSI layering, MAC and LLC Issues: Techniques for multiple access,

Adaptive LLC mechanisms for wireless links, Internet Routing Architecture: Internet Service Providers and Peering

Border Gateway Protocol (BGP), Internet Gr
oup Management Protocol (IGMP), Unidirectional Link Routing (UDLR). (3)


FLOW/CONGESTION CONT
ROL:

Implementation, modeling, fairness, stability, open
-
loop vs closed
-
loop vs hybrid, traffic
specification (LBAP, leaky
-
bucket), window vs rate, hop
-
by
-
hop
vs end
-
to
-
end, implicit vs explicit feedback, aggregate flow control,
reliable multicast. TCP variants (Tahoe, Reno, Vegas, New
-
Reno, SACK),


DECbit, Packet Pair, NETBLT, ATM Forum EERC,
T/TCP.

(5)


SCHEDULING AND BUFFE
R MANAGEMENT
:

implementation, fairness, performance bounds, admission control,

priorities, work
conservation, scheduling best
-
effort (BE) flows,

scheduling guarante
ed
-
service (GS) flows (GPS, WRR, DRR, WFQ, EDD,
RCSP),

aggregation, drop strategies (tail
-
drop, RED, WRED). (5)



190

ROUTING :
Implementation, stability/convergence, link
-
state vs distance
-
vector vs link
-
vector
, conventional routing, Routing
Information Protocol (RIP), Open Shortest Path First (OSPF), Multicast OSPF (MOSPF), Distance Vector Multicast Routing
Protocol (DVMRP), BGP instability, Fair queuing, TCP congestion control, TCP variants, Random Early De
tect, TCP RTT
estimation, Fast retransmit, Fast recovery.

(5)


TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT:
Utility function, traffic models (for Internet), self
-
similarity, traffic classes (B
E, GS), service models
(DiffServ, IntServ), class
-
based allocation, controls at different time scales,

renegotiation (RCBR), signaling (RSVP, ATM signaling),
resource translation/mapping,

admission control (worst
-
case, statistical, measurement
-
based), pric
ing, capacity planning, Integrated
Services, Resource ReSerVation Protocol (RSVP), Differentiated Services, Wireless TCP, Mobile IP, Multicast routing, Scalable

Multicast routing: Core Based Trees (CBT), Protocol Independent Multicast (PIM), Pragmatic Gene
ral Multicast (PGM), Scalable
Reliable Multicast, Overlay Networks, Peer
-
to
-
Peer Networks, Chord.


(10)


SIMULATION AND MODEL
ING:

Wide
-
Area Traffic Modeling, End
-
to
-
end Internet Packet Dynamics, Traffic Engineering, Multi
-
Protocol Label Switching (MPLS), Network Simulators: NS2, OPNET, QualNet.

(5)


IP NEXT GENERATION:
IP Next Layer (IPNL), IPV
6 features,
including transition, Mobile IPV
6 operation, Models to
sup
port(WLAN) network roaming, IPV
6 transition methods, Advanced IP routing and multihoming, IP Multicast. (4)


NETWORK TECHNOLOGIES
:

Ethernet, Fiber Channel, Scalable Coherent Interface (SCI), Myrinet, ATM, AmpNet, FireWire,
cLAN, Multi
-
homing in Enterprise networks, Bluetooth, 802.11, HiperLAN2, GPRS and Edge Services, GSM, CDMA, UMTS, 3G,
4G, Access technologies:

last mile, xDSL.







(5)












Total 42

REFERENCES:

1.

Larry Peterson and Bruce Davie, “Computer Networks: A Systems Approach”, Morgan Kaufmann, Third Edition, 2003
.

2.

Michael A

Gallo and William M

Hancock, “Computer Co
mmunications and Networking Technologies”, Thomson Learning,
2002
.

3.

Jim Kurose and Keith Ross., “Computer Networking: A Top
-
Down Approach Featuring the Internet”, Addison
-
Wesley, 2004
.

4.

William Stallings, “Data and Computer Communications”, Prentice Hall, Se
venth Edition, 2003
.

5.

Andrew S Tanenbaum, “Computer Networks”, Prentice Hall, Fourth Edition, 2002.



09
LC
25

SOFTWARE RADIO ARCHITECTURE

3 0 0 3


Introduction:

The Need for Software Radios. What Is a Software Radio? Characteristics and Benefits of a Softwar
e Radio


Design
Principles of a Software Radio.








(2)



Radio Frequency implementation issues
-
The Purpose of the RF Front
-
End. Dynamic Range
-
The Principal Challenge of
Receiver Design
-
RF Receiver Front
-
End Topologies
-

Enhanced Flexibility o
f the RF Chain with Software Radios
-
Importance of the
Components to Overall Performance
-

Transmitter Architectures and Their Issues
-

Noise and Distortion in the RF Chain. ADC and
DAC Distortion






(9)


Digital gen
eration of signals:

Introduction
-
Comparison of Direct Digital Synthesis with Analog Signal Synthesis
-
Approaches to
Direct Digital Synthesis
-
Analysis of Spurious Signals
-
Spurious Components due to Periodic Jitter
-
Band pass Signal Generation

Performance of
Direct Digital Synthesis Systems
-
Hybrid DDS
-
PLL Systems
-

Applications of direct Digital Synthesis
-
Generation of
Random Sequences
-
ROM Compression Techniques.




(9)


Analog to digital and digital to analog conversion
: Parameters of ideal data conv
erters;
-
Parameters of practical data
converters
-
Analog to digital and digital to analog conversion

Techniques to improve data converter performance
-
Common ADC
and DAC architectures.









(7)


Smart antennas:

Vector channel modeling
-
Benefits
of smart antennas
-
Structures for Beam forming Systems
-
Smart Antenna
Algorithms
-
Diversity and Space
-
Time Adaptive Signal Processing
-
Algorithms for Transmit STAP
-
Hardware Implementation of Smart
Antennas
-
Array Calibration.







(8)


Digital hardwa
re choices:

Introduction
-
Key Hardware Elements
-
DSP Processors
-
Field Programmable Gate Arrays
-
Trade
-
Offs in
Using DSPs, FPGAs, and ASICs
-
Power Management Issues
-
Using a Combination of DSPs, FPGAs, and ASICs.












(7)

















Total 42

REFERENCES:


1.

Jeffrey H

Reed
,

“Software Radio: A Modern Approach to Radio Engineering”, PEA Publication,

2002
.


2.

Walter Tuttle bee, “Software Defined Radio: Enabling Technologies”, Wiley Publications, 2002.

3.

Paul Burns, “Software Defined Radio fo
r 3G”, Artech House, 2002
.


4.

Markus Dillinger, “Software Defined Radio: Architectures, Systems and Functions”, 2003.




191

09LC26


WIRELESS AD

HOC NETWORKS

3 0 0 3


INTRODUCTION:

Fundamentals of Wireless Communication Technology, Characteristics of the Wireles
s Channel, Modulation
Techniques, Multiple Access Techniques, Networking Standards, Wireless Networks, Mobile IP, Ad

Hoc Wireless Networks.










(4)


MAC PROTOCOLS:

Designing a MAC Protocol for Ad

Hoc Wireles
s Networks, Classifications of MAC Protocols
-

Contention
-
Based, Contention
-
Based with Reservation Mechanisms, Contention
-
Based with Scheduling Mechanisms, MAC Protocols that Use
Directional Antennas.








(5)



ROUTING PROTOCOLS:
Designing a Routing Protocol for Ad Hoc Wireless Networks, Classifications of Routing Protocols
-
Table
-
Driven, On
-
Demand, Hybrid, Routing Protocols with Efficient Flooding Mechanisms, Hierarchical, Pow
er
-
Aware Routing Protocols









(6)


MULTICAST ROUTING:
Designing a Multicast Routing Protocol, Operation of Multicast Routing Protocols, Classifications of
Multicast Routi
ng Protocols
-

Tree
-
Based, Mesh
-
Based, Energy
-
Efficient, Multicasting with Quality of Service Guarantees.







(6)



TRANSPORT LAYER AND SECURITY PROTOCOLS:
Designing a Transport Layer Protocol for Ad Hoc Wireless Networks,
Classification of Transport Layer Solution, TCP over Ad Hoc Wireless Networks, Security in Ad Hoc Wireless Networks, Network
Security Re
quirements. Issues and Challenges in Security Provisioning, Network Security Attacks, Key Management, Secure
Routing in Ad Hoc Wireless Network


(8)


QUALITY OF SERVICE:

QoS in Ad Hoc Wireless Networks, Classifications of QoS Solutions, MAC Layer Solutions, Network Layer
Solutions, QoS Frameworks for Ad Hoc Wireless Networks.



(4)


ENERGY MANAGEMENT:

Energy Management in Ad Hoc Wireless Network
s, Classification of Energy Management Schemes
-

Battery Management Schemes, Transmission Power Management Schemes, System Power Management Schemes.












(5)


ADVANCES IN WIRELESS NETWORKS:

Ultra
-
wide
-
band radio communic
ation, Wireless fidelity systems, Optical wireless
networks, Mult
imode 802.11
-

IEEE 802.11a/b/g, wireless AD Hoc sensor Networks.



(4)


























Total 42


REFERENCES:

1.

Siva
Ram Murthy

C.

and
Manoj

B
S, “Ad Hoc Wireless Networks: Architectures and Protocols”, Prentice Hall, Jun
e

2004
.

2.

Charles E Perkins, “Ad Hoc Networking”, Addison
-
Wesley, 2001
.

3.

Toh C K,

“Ad Hoc Mobile Wireless Networks: Protocols and Systems”, Prentice Hall,

2001
.

4.

Mohammad Ilyas, “The Handbook of Ad Hoc Wireless Networks”, CRC Press, 2002
.

5.

Basagni S, Marco Conti, Silvia Giordano, Ivan Stojmenovi and
C
acute, “Mobile Ad Hoc Networking”, John Wiley
and
Sons,
2004
.





09
LC2
7

ADVANCED PROCESSOR A
RCHITECTURE

3 0
0 3


INTRODUCTION TO PARA
LLEL PROCESSING:
-

Evolution of computer systems. Generation of computer systems


Trends
towards parallel processing
-

Parallel processing mechanisms
-

parallel computer structure
-

Architectural classification schemes


Application.











(6
)


MEMORY AND I/O SUBSY
STEMS:

Hierarchical Memory structure


Virtual memory system
-

cache memory management
-

Memory allocation and management


I/O subsystems



















(4
)


MULTIPLE PROCESSOR
S

ISSUE
:
Overview of Multiple issue processors


Cache access and Instruction fetch


Dynamic branch
prediction and control speculation


Decode


Rename


Execution stages


Super scalar processors


VLIW and EPIC
Processors.

Principles
-

Classification o
f pipeline processors
-

Reservation tables


Interleaved memory organization


Design of arithmetic pipeline


Design of instruction pipeline





(8
)


VECTOR PROCESSING:

Need


Basic vector processing architecture
-

Issues in vector processing


V
ectorization and
optimization methods.













(6)


ARRAY PROCESSING:

SIMD Array processors


SIMD interconnection networks


Parallel algorithms for array processors



192

associative array processing.









(6)


MULTIPROCESSOR ARCHITECTURE:

Functional structures
-

Interconnection network


Multi cache problems and solutions


Exploiting concurrency for multiprocessing.







(6
)


PRINCIPLES OF PARALLEL ALGORI
THM DESIGN:
Design approaches
-
Design issues
-
Performance measures and analysis
-
Complexities
-
Anomalies in parallel algorithms
-

Pseudo code conventions for parallel algorithms
-
Comparison of SIMD and MIMD
algorithms.











(6)



Total 42

R
EFERENCES:

1.

Kai Hwang, "Advanced Computer Architecture: Parallelism, Scalability and Programmability", Tata McGraw Hill, 1992.

2.

Seyed Roosta
,

"Parallel Processing and Parallel Algorithms", Springer Series, 1999.

3.

John L Hennessy
,

"Computer Architecture a Qua
ntitative Approach"
,
Harcourt Asia Pvt. Ltd., 1999.

4.

Jurij Silc,

”Processor Architecture : From Superscalar to Data Flow and Beyond “
,
Springer; 1999
.


5.

David E Culler, Jaswinder Pal Singh

and Anoop Gupta,


Parallel Computer Ar
chitecture: A Hardware/Software


Approach

. 1998.

6.

http://www.intel.com/technology/architecture/index.htm





09LC
28

MICROWAVE INTEGRATED

CIRCUITS












3 0 0 3


TECHNOLOGY OF HYBRID MICS:

Dielectric substrates
-

thick film technology and materials
-

thin fil
m technology and materials


methods of testing


encapsulation of devices for MICs


mounting of active devices.




(8)












TECHNOLOGY OF MONOLITHIC MICS
: Processes involved in fabrication


epit
axial growth of semiconductor layer


growth of
dielectric layer


diffusion
-
ion implantation


electron beam technology.






(8)












ANALYSIS OF MICROSTRIP LINE:

Methods of conformal transformation


numeri
cal method for analysis


hybrid mode analysis


coupled mode analysis
-

method of images


losses in miscrostrips.




(8)













COUPLED MICROSTRIPS, SLOT

LINE AND COPLANAR
WA
VEGUIDES
: Coupled microstrips


even and odd mode analysis


microstrip directional couplers


branch line couplers


periodic branch line couplers


synchronous branch line couplers.




(9)












LUMPED ELEMENTS AND NON
-
RECIPROCAL COMPONENTS:
Design and fabrication using mic
rostrips


flat resistors


flat
inductors


interdigital capacitors


sandwich capacitors


ferromagnetic substrates for non
-
reciprocal devices


microstrip
circulators


latching circulators


isolators


phase shifters.




(9)














T
otal

42

REFERENCES
:

1.

Gupta
K

C and Amarjit singh,
“Microwave Integrated Circuits”
,

J
ohn Wiley and sons,

Wiley Eastern Reprint, 1978.

2.

Hoffmann


R

K
,

“Handbook of Microwave Integrated Circuits”
,
Artech House, 1987
.


0
9LC29

OPTICAL NETWORKS

3 0 0 3


FIRST GENERATION OPTICAL NETWORKS:

FDDI
-

SONET/SDH
-

Computer Interconnects


Metropolitan Area Networks


Layered Architecture
.






(5)



B
ROADCAST AND SELECT NETWORKS:

Topologies for Broadcast Networks


Media
-
Access Control (MAC) Protocols


Testbeds.











(5)



WAVELENGTH ROUTING NETWORKS:

The Optical Layer


Node Designs


Network Design and Operation


Optic
al Layer Cost
Tradeoffs


Routing and Wavelength Assignment


Architectural Variations.






(5)


VIRTUAL TOPOLOGY DESIGN:

The Virtual Topology Design Problem


Combined SONET/WDM Network Design


An Integer
Linear Programmin
g Formulation


Regular virtual Topologies


Implementation in Broadcast and Select networks.












(5)


CONTROL AND MANAGEMENT:

Network Management functions


Configuration Management


Performance Management


Faulty Management


Opt
ical

Safety


Service Interface.



(5)



193

WAVELENGTH ROUTING TESTBEDS:

ONE/Sea Me We
-
3


AON


NTT Ring


MWTN


ONTC


Alcatel’s WDM Ring


MONET.











(5)


PHOTONIC PACKE
T SWITCHING:

OTDM


Multiplexing and Demultiplexing


Synchronization


Broadcast OTDM Networks
-

Switch
-
Based Networks


OTDM Testbeds.








(6)


ACCESS NETWORKS:

Network Architecture Overview


Today’s Access Networks


Future A
ccess Networks


Optical Access
Network Architectures.








(6)


Total 42


REFERENCES
:

1.

Rajiv Ramasami Kumar
and
Sivarajan

N
, “Optical Networks : A Practical Perspective”,

Second edit
ion Harcourt Asia PTE Ltd
Singapore, 2001
.

2.

Siva Ram Murthy and

Mohan Gurusamy, “WDM Optical Networks”, Prentice
-
Hall of India Private Limited, New Delhi, 2002.



09LC30
EMBEDDED SYSTEMS










3 0 0 3

Introduction to Embedded Systems:
Embedded Syst
ems
-
Applications of Embedded Systems
-
Processors in the System
-
Other
Hardware Units
-
Software Embedded into a System
-
Exemplar Embedded Systems
-
Embedded System
-
on
-
Chip (SOC) and in VLSI
circuit.









(8)


Devices and Buses for Device Network:
I/O

Devices
-
Timer and Counting Devices
-
Serial Communication using I2C,CAN and
USB. Parallel Communication using PCI, PCIX and Advanced Parallel High Speed Buses. (8)

Device Drivers and Interrupts Servicing Mechanism:
Device Drivers
-
Pa
rallel Port Device Drivers in a System, Serial Port Device
Drivers in a System, Device Drivers for Internal Programmable Timing Devices


Interrupt Servicing Mechanism
-
Context and the
Periods for Context Switching, Deadline and Interrupt Latency.





(8)


Embedded Software Development Using IDE:
Introduction to Integrated Development Environment (IDE)
-

Programming
Concepts and Embedded Programming in Assembly and C
-

Creating a New Project


Adding Files to a Project
-
Building a Project
-
Debugging and

Simulating the application
-
Getting Embedded Software into the Target System.











(8)

REAL TIME OPERATING SYSTEMS (RTOS):

Tasks and Task States, Tasks and Data, Semaphores and Shared Data, Message
Queues, Mailboxes and P
ipes, Timer functions, Events, Memory Management, Interrupt Routines in RTOS Environment











(
7
)



CASE STUDY OF PROGRAMMING WITH RTOS





(
3
)




















Total 42

REFERENCES:

1.

Rajkamal, ”Embedded Systems: Architecture, Programming and Design”, Tata McGraw
-
Hill,2006.

2.

David E Simon, “An Embedded Software Primer” Pearson Education Asia, 2006.

3.

Arnold Berger, “Embedded System Design: An Introduction to Proc
esses, Tools, and Techniques” CMP Books, 2001.

4.

Wayne Wolf, “Computers as Components” Morgan Kaufmann Publishers, 2005.

5.

Douglas V Hall, “Microprocessors and Interfacing: Programming and Hardware”, Second Edition, Tata McGraw
-
Hill Edition,
2001.



09
LC
31

NET
WORK SYSTEM DESIGN U
SING NETWORK PROCE
S
SOR
S

3 0 0 3


INTRODUCTION. PROTOC
OLS AND PACKET FORMA
TS:

Network systems and the Internet, Applications, packet processing,
protocols and layering, layer 1 and 2, layer 3, layer 4, protocol port numbers and de
-
multip
lexing, Encapsulation and transmission.




(4)


PACKET PROC
ESSING:

Introduction, packet buffer allocation, packet buffer size and copying, protocol layering and copying,
Heterogeneity and network byte order, IP datagram fragmentation and reassembly, IP forwarding algorithm, TCP connection
recognition algorithm, TC
P splicing algorithm, Functions


Address lookup and packet forwarding, error detection and correction,
Fragmentation, segmentation and reassembly, frame and protocol de
-
multiplexing, packet classification, queuing and packet
discard, Scheduling and timing
, Authentication and privacy, traffic measurement and policing , traffic shaping, timer management.









(8)
















NETWORK PROCESSORS:

Introduction, motivation for embedded processors, RISC Vs CISC, need for custom silicon
, definition
of NP, flexibility through programmability, instruction set, scalability with parallelism and pipelining, cause and benefits
of NP, NP
functionality, packet processing functions, Ingress and Egress processing, Parallel and distributed architec
ture, architectural roles of

194

NP, NP architectures


Introduction, architectural variety, primary architectural characteristics, Architecture, packet flow and clock
rates, software architecture, assigning functionality to the process hierarchy, issues in sc
aling an NP.








(8)


IXP1200:
Introduction, Overview of IXP, Embedded RISC processor (Strong ARM core), Packet processor hardware (Microengine
and FBI), Microengine programming, Microcode programming.





(10)




IXP2XXX:
Introduction, IXP2xxx Architecture, Microengines, Programming Models, Packet processing in a single thread, Advanced
programming, Applications: Switches, Routers, Firewall, Active Networks.



(12)
















Total 42


REFERENCES:

1.

Douglas E
Comer, “Network Systems Design using Network P
rocessors”, Intel IXP version,

Pearson Education. March 2003
.


2.

Erik J

Johnson and Aaron R

Kunze, “IXP1200 Programming”, Intel Press. M
arch

2002,

3.

Erik J


Johnson and Aaron Kunze, “IXP 2400/2800 Programming”, Intel Press, April 2003
.

4.

Uday R Naik and Prashant

R

Chandra, “Designing High Performance Networking Applications
:

Essential Insights for
Developers of IXP2XXX Network Processor Based
Systems”, Intel Press, November 2004
.

5.

Donald F Hooper, “Using IXP2400/2800 Development Tools


A Hands on Approach to Network Processor Software Design”,
Intel Press, August 2004
.

6.

Patrick Crowley, Peter Z Onufryk, Mark A

Franklin and
Haldun Hadimioglu, “Ne
twork Processors 2002: Design Principles and
Practices”, Vol 1, Morgan Kaufmann Publications, September 2002.

7.

Mark A Franklin, Patr
ick Crowley, Haldun Hadimioglu and
Peter Z Onufryk “Network Processor Design: Issues and Practices”,
Vol 2, Academic Press, D
ecember 2003.

8.

Panos C Lekkas, “Network Processors: Architectures, Protocols and Platforms (Telecom Engineering)

, McGraw Hill, July
2003
.





0
9
LC
32

MULTIRATE SIGNAL PROCESSING

3 0 0 3


DECIMATION AND INTERPOLATION:

Introduction


Representation of discre
te signals

Reducing the sampling rate



Increasing
the sample rate.
Decimation with transversal filters


Interpolation with transversal filters


Decimation with Polyphase filters


Interpolation with polyphase filters


Decimation and Interpolation with

Rational sampling factors

(12
)


TWO CHANNEL FILTER

BANKS:

Analysis and synthesis filter banks


Quadrature mirror filter banks


Filter banks with perfect
reconstruction


Paraunitary filter banks


Biorthogonal and linear phase filter banks


Transmul
iplexer filter banks.











(9)



UNIFORM M
-
CHANNEL FIILTER

BANKS:
Filter banks with tree structure


Filter banks with parallel structure


complex
modulated

filter banks

cosine modulated filter banks


Transmultiplexer filter banks. (9)





FILTER BA
N
KS WITH POLYPHASE STRUCTURE:

Fund
amental polyphase structures


polyphase QMF banks


General two
channel polyphase filter banks


General M
-
channel polyphase filter banks


Paraunitary polyphase filter banks


DFT polyphase
filter banks.
Application: Digital audio.









(
11
)






















Total 42


REFERENCES:

1.

Fliege N

J, "Multirate Digital Signal Processing", John Wiley and sons, 1994.

2.

Vaidyyanathan P
P
,
"Multirate Systems and Filter Banks", Prentice Hall Inc., 1993
.

3.

Proakis J G
a
nd

Manolakis D

G, "Digital Signal Processing Principles, Algorithms and Applications"
, Prentice H
all of
India, 2002
.

4.

Sanj
it


K

Mitra, "Digital Signal Processing
-
A Computer Based Approach", Tata McGraw Hill, 2003.




09LC41 INDUSTRIAL VISIT AND T
ECHNICAL SEMINAR

1 0 2 2

The student will make atleast two technical presentations on current topics related to the specialization. The same will be
assessed
by a committee appointed by the department. The students are expected to submit a report at the

end of the semester covering the
various aspects of his/her presentation together with the observation in industry visits. A quiz covering the above will be

held at the
end of the semester.




09LC51
DSP & EMBEDDED

SYSTEMS

LAB
ORATORY


195














0 0 3 3


1.
Design and
Implementation of

LMS, RLS and Kalman adaptive filters to remove


noise and estimat
ion of

the


Channel using

Matlab

and FPGA kit.

2.
Design and
implementation of Digital Modulation

Sc
heme
s

using Matlab and FPGA kit.

3. D
esign, Implementation and testing of a CAN protocol.

4. Design, Implementation and testing of Ethernet protocol.

5. Design, Implementation and testing of PWM concepts.





09LC52

ADVANCED RF

LABORATORY











0 0 3 3


1.

Design, simulation, fabrication a
nd testing of directional and miniaturized directional couplers for a frequency range less

than 3GHz.

2.

Design, simulation, fabrication and testing of phased array antenna for a frequency range less than 3GHz.. .

3.

Design, simulation, fabrication and testing o
f Mixers for a frequency range less than 3GHz..

4.

Design, simulation, fabrication and testing of power amplifier for a frequency range less than 3GHz..

5.

Design, simulation, fabrication and testing of different types of RF filters for a frequency range less th
an 3GHz
.





09LC5
3

ADVANCED NETWORK
S

LABORATORY












0 0 3 3


1.

Development of code in Micro C / ASM

using

Network simulator /

Developer work bench of IXP 2400 for


Packet generation , Packet classification, Packet buffering and Packet forwarding.

2.

Dev
elopment of code for AES
E
ncryption
/

Decryption and RSA digital signature scheme
.

I
mplement confidentiality and
authentication protection model using above techniques and
s
tudy the performance.

3.

Development of code
for

HMAC

and implement

authentication and
integrity protection model for image transmission.

4.

D
evelopment of parallel programming techniques to analyze the scalar processor and vector processor.





09LC5
5

OBJECT COMPUTING AND D
A
TA STRUCTURES
LABORATORY












2 0 3 4

Vide Control Systems 09EC5
5









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196