# Detailed Syllabus - PSG College of Technology

Networking and Communications

Oct 26, 2013 (4 years and 8 months ago)

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09LC01 LINEAR

ALGEBRA

3 0 0 3

LINEAR EQUATIONS:

System of l
inear equations
-

Row reduction and

Echelon forms
-
Vector equations
-

The Matrix equation
Ax=b
-

Solution sets of linear systems
-

Application of linear systems
-

Linear Independence
-

Introductio
n to linear transformations
-

The Matrix of linear transformation
-

Linear modeling in engineering

(7)

MATRIX ALGEBRA:

Matrix operations
-

Inverse of a matrix
-

Characteristics of invertible matrices
-

Partitioned matrices
-

Matrix
factorizat
ions
-

Subspaces of R
n
-

Dimension
and

rank
-

Introduction to determinants
-

Properties of determinants
-

Cramer’s rule

(7)

VECTOR SPACES:

Vector spaces
and

subspaces
-

Null spaces, column spaces
and

linear transformations
-

Linearly
independent
sets; Bases
-

Coordinate systems
-

Dimension of a vector space

Rank
-

Change of basis

(7)

EIGEN VALUES AND

EIGEN VECTORS:

Eigenvectors & Eigen values
-

Characteristic equation

Diagonalization
-

Eigenvectors &
linear transformat
ions
-

Complex Eigen values
-

Applications to differential equations
-

Iterative estimates for Eigen values

(7)

ORTHOGONALITY AND

LEAST SQUARES:
Inner product, length
and

Orthogonality
-

Orthogonal sets
-

Orthogonal projections

Gram
-

Schmidt process
-

Least square problems
-

Inner product spaces
-

Applications of inner product spaces

(7)

SYMMETRIC MATRICES
AND

Diagonalization of symmetric matrices
-

-

Singular value
decomposition
-
Applications to image processing

(7)

Total 42

REFERENCES:

1.

David C

Lay, “Linear Algebra and its Applications”, Pearson Education Asia, New Delhi, 2003
.

2.

Gilbert Strang, “Linear Algebra and its Applications”, Brooks/Cole Ltd., New Delhi, Third Edition,

2003
.

3.

Seymo
ur Lipschutz

and

Marc Lipson, “Schaum's Outline of Linear Algebra”, McGraw Hill Trade; New Delhi, Third Edition,
2000
.

4.

Howard A Anton
“Elementary Linear Algebra”, John Wiley & Sons, Singapore, Eighth Edition 2000
.

09LC0
2
INFORMATION THEORY A
ND
CODING

3
0 0 3

PROBABILITY THEORY:

Events
-

Random variables
-

Distribution and density functions
-

Operations on random variables
-

Covariance
-

Correlation functions
-

Random process
-

Stationarity
-

Spectral decomposition
-

Response of linear system to
random inputs

(10)

MEMORYLESS FINITE SC
HEMES
:

Self information measure
-

Entropy function
-

Conditional Entropies
-

Characteristics of Entropy
function
-

Derivation of the noise characteristics of a channel
-

Mutual informatio
n
-

Redundancy
-

Efficiency and channel capacity
-

capacities of channels with symmetric noise structure.

(10)

CONTINUOUS CHANNELS:

Definitions of different entropies
-

Mutual information
-

Maximization of
the entropy of a continuous
random variable
-

Entropy maximization problems
-

Channel capacity under the influence of additive white Gaussian Noise.

(11)

ELEMENTS OF ENCODING
:

Se
parable binary codes
-

Shannon
-

Fano encoding
-

Necessary and sufficient conditions for
noiseless coding
-

Shannon's binary coding
-

fundamental theorem of discrete noise
-
less coding
-

Huffman's code
-

Gilbert
Moore coding
-

Fundamental theorem of di
screte coding in presence of noise
-

Error
-
detecting and error
-
correcting codes
-

Hamming's single error correcting code.

(11)

Total 42

REFEREN
CES:

1.

Reza F

M, "An Introduction to Information Theory", McGraw Hill,
2000
.

2.

Viterbei

A
and
Omura J

K, "Principles of Digital Communication and Coding", McGraw Hill, 1979.

3.

Satyanarayana P

S
,
. "Probability Theory
-

An Introduction", Dayaram Publications” 199
0.

4.

Kandasamy

P
, Thilaga
vathi K and
Gunavathi

K
, “Probability, Random Variables and Random Processes”,

S.Chand &

Co
Ltd, 2003.

5.

Mansuripur M
A, "Introduction to Information Theory"
,
Prentice Hall Inc. 1990.

6.

Srinath

M
D and Rajasekaran
P
K
,

“An Introduct
ion to Statistical Signal Processing with Application

, Prentice Hall
,

1993.

7.

Joya Thomas

and
Cover

M,
“Elements of Information theory”, John Wiley, 1991.

8.

Richard

B

W
ells, “Applied Coding and Information Theory for Engineers”, Prentice Hall, 1998.

09LC03
DIGITAL

COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUES

3 0 0 3

179

ERROR CONTROL CODING
:

Linear block codes
-

Optimum soft decision decoding of linear block codes
-

Hard decision
decoding
-

Non binary block codes and concatenated block codes
-

Polynomial representation of

codes
-

Cyclic codes
-

Convolution
codes
-

Viterbei decoding algorithm

Other decoding methods of convolutional codes
-
Turbo codes

(9)

BASEBAND SIGNALLING
CONCEPTS:
Need for line shaping of signals
-

Signaling formats
-

RZ/NRZ, Duobinary Splitphase
(Manchester) and high density bipolar coding
-

Scrambling
and

unscrambling
-

channel equalisation
-

tapped delay line and
traversal filters.

(6)

DIGITAL MODULATION S
CHEMES
:
Detection using matched filter
-

Optimum receivers for arbitrary binary signals and M'ary
orthogonal signals
-

Analysis of coherent and non coherent detection schem
es for ASK, PSK and DPSK
-

M'ary signalling schemes
-

QPSK and QAM

MSK
-

Performance of the data transmission schemes under AWGN. Trellis coded Modulation.

(9)

SYNCHRONISATION OF D
IGITAL COMMUNICATION

SYSTEM
:

General problem of synchronization
-

MAP and ML estimation of
signal parameters
-

Generalization of the estimator equations to multiple symbol intervals and multiple par
ameters
-

Data aided and
Non data aided synchronization
-

s
y
nchronization methods based on properties of wide sense cyclo
-
stationary random process
-

Carrier recovery circuits
-

Symbol clock estimation schemes.

(9)

INTRODUCTION TO SPRE
RUM SYSTEMS
:

Model of Spread spectrum Digital Communication Systems
-

spectrum signals
-

Generation and Application of PN sequences
-

FH spread spectrum signals and performance of FHSS in AWGN
-
Synchronization
-
Jamming considerations
-
Commercial App
lications
-
cellular subsytems.

(9)

Total 42

REFERENCES:

1.

Bernard Sklar, "Digital Communications", Pearson Education Asia, 2001.

2.

Das

J
, "Principles of Digital Communication", Willey Eastern Limited, 1985.

3.

Ziemer R E
and Peterson R L
, "Digital
Communications and Spread Spectrum Systems”, McMillan Publishing Co., 1985.

4.

Proakis J G, "Digital Communications", McGraw Hill Inc, 1983.

5.

Barry

S
,

Lee

E A and
Messershmitt

D

J, “Digital Communications”, Kluwer Academic Press Third Edition,

2004.

09LC04
/
09LV22
ADVANCED DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING

3 0 0 3

MULTIRATE SIGNAL PROCESSING:

Introduction
-

Sampling and Signal Reconstruction
-

Sampling rate conversion

-

Decimation by an integer factor
-

Interpolation by an integer factor
-

Sampling rate c
onversion by a ratio
nal factor
-

Sampling rate
c
onverter as a time variant system
-

Practical structures for decimators and interpolators
-

Direct form and Polyphase FIR
structures
-

FIR structures with time varying Coefficients.

(1
2
)

MULTIRATE FIR FILTER DESIGN:

Design of FIR filters for sampling rate conversion
-

Multistage
design of decimator and
interpolator
-

Applications of Interpolation and decimation in signal processing
-

Fil
t
er bank implementation
-

Two
channel filter
banks
-

QMF filter banks
-

Perfect Reconstruction Filter banks
-

Filter banks with tree structure
-

DFT filter Banks

-

Octave

Filter
Banks.

(1
0
)

POWER SPECTRAL ESTIMATION:
Estimation of spect
ra from finite duration observations of a signal
-

The Periodogram
-

Use
of DFT in Power spectral Estimation
-

Non
-
Parametric methods for Power spectrum Estimation
-

Bartlett, Wech & Blackman
-

Tukey methods
-

Comparison of performance of Non
-

Pa
rametric power spectrum Estimation methods.

(10)

PARAMETRIC METHODS OF POWER SPECTRUM ESTIMATION:

Parametric methods for Power spectru
m Estimation
-

Relationship between auto correlation and model parameters
-

AR (Auto
-

Regressive ) process and Linear prediction
-

Yule
-
Walker, Burg & Unconstrained Least squares methods
-

Moving Average (MA) and ARMA models
-

Minimum vari
ance method
-

Pisarenko's harmonic De composition Method.
-

MUSIC method
. (10)

Total 42

REFERENCES:

1.

Fliege N

J, "Multirate Digital Signal Processing", John Wi
ley and sons, 1994.

2.

Hayes M

H, "Statistical Digital Signal Processing and Modeling ", Wiley, New

York
,

1996.

3.

Sanjit
K

Mitra, "Digital Signal Processing
-
A Computer Based Approach", Tata

McGraw Hill, 2003.

4.

Proakis

J

G
and Manolakis D G
, "Digital Signal

Processing Principles, Algorithms and Applications"
,
Prentice

Hall of
India, 2002

5.

Manolakis D

G
, Ingle V
K

and
Kogon S

M
,

"Statistical and Adaptive Signal

Processing", McGraw Hill, Singapore, 2000.

6.
Vaidyanathan

P P, “Multirate Systems and Filter banks”, Prentice Hall, 1993.

09LC05
MICROWAVE CIRCUIT DESIGN

3 0 0 3

180

MICRO
WAVE NETWORK ANALYSI
S
:

Impedance and Equivalent Voltages and Currents, Impedance and Admittance Matrices,
The Scattering

Matrix, The Transmission (ABCD) Matrix, Signal Flow Graphs,

(7)

IMPEDANCE MATCHING A
ND TUNING
:

Matching wi
th Lumped Elements, Single
-
stub Tuning, Double
-
stub Tuning, The Quarter
-
wave Transformer

Microwave Resonators: Series and Parallel Resonant Circuits, Transmission Line Resonators.

(8)

POWER DIVIDERS AND D
IRECTIONAL COUPLERS
:

Basic Properties of Dividers and Couplers, the T
-
Junction Power Divider,
The Quadrature (90º) Hybrid, Coupled Line
Directional Couplers. The Lange Coupler, the 180º Hybrid.

(9)

MICROWAVE FILTERS
:

Periodic Structures, Filter Design by the Insertion Loss Methods, Filter Transforms, Filter Implementation.
Stepped

Impedance Low
-
pass filters

Theory and Design

of Ferromagnetic components: Ferrite Isolators, Ferrite Phase Shifters,
Ferrite Circulators, Active Microwave Circuits: Detectors and Mixers,

(
10)

DESIGN OF MICROWAVE
AMPLIFIERS AND OSCIL
LATORS
:

Characteristics of RF Transistors,

Gain and Stability, Single
-

Stage
Transistor Amplifier Design, Oscillator Design.

(8)

Total 42

REFERENCES:

1.

David M
Pozar
,

“Microwave Engineering”
,

Third Edition John Wiley
and

Sons, Inc.
,

2005.

2.

Collin

R

E, “Foun
dations Microwave Engineering”, McGraw Hill International Education, 1992.

3.

Gonzalez

G
, “Microwave Transistor amplifiers

Analysis & Design”, Prentice Hall, Second Education, 1997.

09LC06

DIGITAL IMAGE PROCESSING

3 0 0 3

DIGITAL IMAGE

FUNDAMENTALS:

Elements of Digital Image Processing System
-

structure of the human eye
-

Image formation
in the eye and contrast sensitivity
-

sampling and Quantisation of an Image
-

Basic relationship between pixels
-

Imaging Geometry
Photographic film.

(5)

IMAGE TRANSFORMS:

Need for Image Transforms
-

The Discrete Fourier transform
-

properties of DFT
-

The Fast Fourier
Transform
-

Discrete cosine Transform
-

Walsh Transform
-

Hadamard Transform Hotelling Transform.

(6)

IMAGE ENHANCEMENT:

Spatial domain methods
-

Frequency domain methods
-

Histogram Modification technique
-

Neighborhood averaging Median filtering
-

Low pass filtering Averaging of multiple Images
-

Image sharpening by diff
erentiation
-

High pass filtering.

(6)

IMAGE RESTORATION:

Degradation model for continuous functions
-

Discrete formulation
-

Diagonalization of circulant and Block
-
circul
ant matrices
-

Effects of Diagonalization
-

Unconstrained and constrained Restorations
-

Inverse Filtering
-

Wiener Filter
-

Constrained least
-

square Restoration.

(6)

IMAGE COMPRESSION:

Coding and Interpixel redundancies
-

Fidelity criteria
-

Image Compressions models
-

Elements of
Information theory
-

Variable length coding
-

Bit pla
ne coding
-

Lossless Predictive coding
-

Lossy predective coding
-

Transform
coding.

(6)

IMAGE SEGMENTATION A
ND REPRESENTATION:

The detection of discontinuities
-

Point, Line and Edge detections
-

operators
-

combined detection
-

Thresholding
-

Representation schemes: chain codes
-

Polygen approximation
-

Boundary
descriptors: Simple descriptors
-

Shape numbers Fourier descriptor's
-

Introduction to recognition and Interpretation.

(6)

APPLICATIONS:
Recognition of Image Patterns
-

Introduction. Decision Theoretic Pattern Classification. Bayesian Decision
Theory. Parameter estimation. Minimum Distance Classification. Non
-
parametric Classification.

Texture

and Shape Analysis.
Classification of textures. Discriminatory Power of Co
-
occurrence matrix. Drawbacks of Grey Level Co
-
occurrence Matrix (GLCM).
Tone and Texture. Weak and Strong Textures. Image Mining and Content Based Image Retrieval. Representati
on of images in a
CBIR System. Color Histogram based representation. Partition based representation. Regional Approach for image representation
.

(7)

Total 42

REFERENCES:

1.

Rafel C

Gonzalez and Richard E W
oods,

"Digital Image Processi
-

Wesley Publishing Company, 2000.

2.

Tinku Acharya

and

Ajoy

K

Ray, “Image Processing
-

Principles and Applications”, Wiley Publishers New Delhi, 2005.

3.

Anil
K

Jain, "Fundamentals of Digital Image Processing"
,
Prentice Hall of India, Pvt
.

Ltd., 1995
.

4.

Rosenfeld

A C Kak,

Digital Picture Processing
”,
.
, 1976.

5.

Hall
E

L
,

Computer Image Processing and Recognition

, Academic Press, Inc
.
, 1979
.

6.

Huang

T

S,
“Picture Processing
and Digital filtering
”,
Springer Verlag
,
Berlin
Heidelberg
,
New York, 1989.

181

0
9
LC0
7

DETECTION AND ESTIMATION

3
0
0
3

MINIMUM MEAN SQUARED

ERROR (MMSE) ESTIMAT
ION:

L
inear MMSE Estimation

Wiener Filter
-

Kalman Filter
,

Extended
Kalman Filter

-

Robust Detection and Estimation
-

Nonparametric Estimation

Applications of Detection and Estimation in Signal
Processing.

(
15
)

STATISTICAL DECISION

THEORY
:

Bayesian Hypothesis
Testing

-

Likelihood Ratio Tests
-

Minimax Hypothesis Testing

-

Neyman
Pearson Hypothesis Testing
-

Composite Hypothesis Testing
-

M’ary Hypothesis Testing

(9)

SIGNAL DETECTION IN
DISCRETE TIME:

Deterministic Signals
-

Stoc
hastic Signals

Models and Detector Structures

Performance Evaluation
-

Chernoff Bounds.

(8)

PARAMETER ESTIMATION
:
Bayesian Parameter Estimation

Linear Least Squares Estimation

Nonrandom Parameter
Estimation

Minimum Variance Unbiased Estimation

Best Linear Unbiased Estimators
-

Maximum Likelihood Estimation

Cramer Rao bound
-
Nonlinear Estimation

(
10
)

Total 42

REFERENCES:

1.

Kay

S

M
, “Fundamentals of Statistical Signal Processing, Volume 1: Estimation Theory”, Prentice Hal
l, 1993.

2.

Kay S M,

Fundamentals of Statistical Signal Processing, Volume 2: Detectio
n Theory”, Prentice Hall, 1998.

3.

Poor

H

V
, “An Introduction to Signal Detection and Estimation”, Springer
-
Verlang
, 1994.

4.

Scharf

L
L
, “
Statistical Signal Processing”, Addi
son Wesley, 1991.

5.

Sam
Shanmugam K and Breipohl A
M, “Random Signals: Detection, Estimation and Data Analysis”, John Wiley, 1988
.

09LC08
WIRELESS AND CELLULA
R COMMUNICATION

ENGINEERING

3 0 0 3

OVERVIEW OF WIRELESS

COMMUNICATIONS
:
History of Wireless Com
munications, Wireless Vision, Technical Issues, Current
Wireless Systems, Cellular Telephone Systems, Cordless Phones, Wireless LANs, Wide Area Wireless Data, Fixed Wireless
Access, Paging Systems, Satellite Networks, Bluetooth, Other Wireless Systems an
d Applications, The Wireless Spectrum,
Methods for Spectrum Allocation, Spectrum Allocations for Existing Systems
, The cellular concept system design fundamentals.

(
10
)

AND CAPACITY OF WIRE
LESS CHANNELS
:
Wave, Transmit and Receive Signal, Free
-
Space Path Loss, Two
-
Ray Model, Simplified Path Loss, Shadow Fading, Path Loss and Shadowing, Outage Probability under Path
Loss and Shadowing, Cell Coverage Area.
Statistical Multipath Channel Models:

Time
-
Varying C
hannel Impulse, Narrowband
fading models, Autocorrelation, Cross Correlation, and Power Spectral Density, Envelope and Power Distributions, Level Crossi
ng
Rate and Average Fade Duration, Wideband Fading Models, Power Delay Profile, Coherence Bandwidth, Dop
pler Power

Spectrum
and Channel Coherence,
Capacity of Wireless Channels:

Capacity in AWGN
,

Capacity of Frequency
-
.

(
12
)

DIGITAL MODULATION A
ND DETECTION
:

Signal Space Analysis,

Pass band Modulation Principles, Amplitude and Phase
Modulation, Pulse Amplitude Modulation (MPAM), Phase Shift Keying (MPSK), Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (MQAM)
Differential Modulation, Constellation, Quadrature Offset, Frequency Modulation, Frequenc
y Shift Keying (FSK) and

Minimum Shift
Keying (MSK),

Spread Spectrum and Multiuser Systems

(
12
)

CELLULAR SYSTEMS AND

INFR
ASTRUCTURE
-
BASED WIRELESS NETWO
RKS
:
Cellular System Design, Frequency Reuse in
Cellular Systems, Frequency Reuse in Code
-
Division Systems, Frequency Reuse in Time and Frequency Division Systems,
Dynamic Resource Allocation in Cellular Systems, Area Spectra
l Efficiency,

(
10
)

Total

42

REFERENCES:

1.

Andrea Goldsmith, “W
ireless Communications
”,

Cambridge

University Press
,

2007.

2.

William C

Y

Lee, “Mobile Communications Engineering, Theory and Applications”
,
Second Edition, McGraw Hill International
editions, 1998
.

3.

David
T
s
e

and

P
ramod

Viswanath, “Fundamentals of Wireless Communication”, Prentice Hall, 2003.

4.

Theodore S

Rappaport, “Wireless Communications”, Pearson Education, Asia , New Delhi, Second Edition, 2002
.

09LC09

HIGH SPEED NETWORKS

3 0 0 3

INTRODUCTION
:

Internet history and architecture, OSI layering, MAC and LLC Issues: Techniques for multi
ple access,

Adaptive LLC mechanisms for wireless links, Internet Routing Architecture: Internet Service Providers and Peering

182

Border Gateway Protocol (BGP), Internet Group Management Protocol (IGMP), Unidirectional Link Routing (UDLR). Bandwidth and
Latenc
y, High
-
Speed Technologies, Barriers and Constraints, Scalability, Virtual Overlays and Light paths, Bandwidth Aggregatio
n
and Isolation, Latency Optimiz
ation, Bandwidth, Processing, and Memory, Latency as a Constraint, Relative Scaling with High
Speed.

(
10)

FUNDAMENTALS AND DES
IGN PRINCIPLES:

Fourth Generation: Scale, Ubiquity, and Mobility, Design Principles and Tradeoffs:
Critical Path, Resource Tradeoffs, End
-
to
-
End vs. Hop
-
by
-
Hop, Protocol Layering, State and Hiera
rchy, Control Mechanisms,
Distribution of Application Data, Protocol Data Units. Design Techniques: Scaling Time and Space, Cheating and Masking the
Speed of Light, Specialized Hardware Implementation, Parallelism and Pipelining, Data Structure Optimizatio
n, Latency Reduction.

(8)

PHYSICAL LAYER:

Fiber
-
optics, single
-
mode and multimode technologies, types of optical sources and detectors, link design,
transmitter and receiver design, transmission coding.

(4)

HIGH
-
SPEED LAN:

Switched versus multiple
-
access LANs, virtual circuits versus datagrams, Layer
-
3 switching, IP lookup
algorithms, packet classification algorithms, Fast Packet Switches, Fast Datagram Switches, Active Network Nodes.

(
4)

HIGH
-
SPEED SWITCHING:

High
-
speed packet
-
switch architectures, buffering approaches, Traffic Characterization and Statistical
Multiplexing, examples.

(4)

TRAFFIC SCHEDULING I
N HIGH
-
SPEED NETWORKS:

Fair queuing algorithms, delay bounds
, fairness measures, traffic shaping,
Traffic Scheduling and Processing, Congestion Control and Routing, implementation issues.

(4)

ALL
-
OPTICAL NETWORKS:

Wavelength
-
division multiplexed (WDM) networks, photonic switching, QoS
-
based Network
A
rchitectures and Protocols, ATM Networks.

(4)

HIGH SPEED MODEMS:
ADSL, ADSL lite/G.lite, ISDL, HDSL, HDSL2, SDSL, VDSL, ISDN, Cable modems, error correction using
block and convolutional encoders, interleaving, D
SLAM.

(4)

Total 42

REFERENCES:

1.

James P

G

Sterbenz, Joseph D Touch,

and
Joe Touch, “High
-
Speed Networking: A Systematic Approach to High
-
Bandwidth
Low
-
Latency Communication”, e
-
Book, John Wiley & Sons, 2000
.

2.

Je
an Walrand

and

Pravin Varaiya
,
“High
-
Performance Communication Networks”, Morgan Kaufmann
,

Second Edition, 2000
.

3.

William Stallings., “High
-
Speed Networks and Internets: Performance and Quality of Service”, Prentice Hall
,

Second Edition,
2002
.

4.

Robert Newman
, “Broadband Communications”, Prentice Hall, 2002
.

5.

Bertsekas
D
and Gallager

R
, Data Networks, Second Ed
ition, Prentice Hall, 1992
.

6.

Jim Kurose

and Keith Ross
, “Computer Networking: A Top
-
Down Approach Featuring the Internet”, Addison
-
Wesley, 2004
.

7.

Balaji Kumar
, “Broadband Communications”, McGraw
-
Hill, 1998
.

09LC
10

ERROR CONTROL CODING

3 0 0 3

FINITE FIELD ARITHMETIC:

Definition of a finite field
-

prime size finite field GF(p)

polynomial representation

of finite field
elements
-

properties of polynomials and finite field elements

Fourier transform over a finite field

alternative visualization of
Finite Field Fourier Transform

roots and spectral components

Fast Fourier Transform

Hardware mult
ipliers using polynomial
basis ,dual basis, normal basis
-

software implementation of finite field arithmetic.

(5)

LINEAR BLOCK CODES:

Mathematics of binary codes

parity checks

generator matrix

parity check matrix

standard array

codec
design for linear block codes

dorsch algorithm decoding.

(4)

CYCLIC CODES:
P
olynomial representation

encoding by convolution

properties

systematic encoding

syndrome of a cyclic
code

implementation of encoding

decoding

multiple e
rror correction

shortened cyclic codes

expurgated cyclic codes

(4)

CONVOLUTIONAL CODES:

E
ncoder state diagram

distance structure

maximum likelihood decoding

viterbi algorithm
-

practical
implementation of viterbi
decoding

performance of convolutional codes

good convolutional codes

punctured convolutional
codes

applications of convolutional codes
-

codes for multilevel modulations.

(5)

PERFORMANCE CALCULATIONS FOR BLOCK CODES:
Hamming bound

Plo
t kin Bound

Griesmer Bound

Singleton Bound

Gilbert
-

Varsharmov Bound
-

Error detection

Random error detection performance of block codes

weight distributions

worst
case undetected error rate

burst error detection
-

output error rates using b
lock codes

detected uncorrectable codes

Application example

Optical communications.

(5)

183

BCH CODES:
Construction

roots and parity check matrices

algebraic decoding

BCH decoding and the BCH bound

decoding
in the frequency domain

decoding examples for binary BC codes
-

polynomial form of the key equation

Euclid’s method
-

Berlekamp

Massey algorithm.

(5)

REED SOLOMON CODES:

Generator polynomial for a Reed Solomon Code

Time Domain encoding

decoding
-

frequen
cy
domain encoded reed Solomon codes

Examples of Reed Solomon Decoding

erasure decoding
-
generalized minimum distance
coding

Welch
-

Berlekamp Algorithm

Singly extended Reed Solomon Code

doubly extended Reed Solomon Code.

(6)

I
TERATIVE DECODING:

Serial concatenation using inner block codes
-

Serial concatenation using inner convolutional codes

product codes

generalized array codes

applications of multistage coding

The BCJR algorithm

use of extrinsic information

recurs
ive systematic convolutional codes

MAP decoding of RSC codes

Interleaving and trellis termination

the soft output
viterbi algorithm
-

Galleger codes

serial concatenation with iterative decoding

performance and complexity issues

application
to
mobile communication

Turbo Trellis Coded Modulation.

(8)

Total 42

REFERENCES:

1.

Peter Sweeney, “Error Control Coding From theory to practice”, John Wiley and Sons, 2002.

2.

Rao T

R

N and Fujiwara

E
, “ Error Control Coding for Computer systems”, Prentice Hall, 1989
.

3.

Shu Lin and Daniel J Costello Jr, ”Error Control Coding: Fun
damentals and Application”, Prentice Hall Series in Computer
Application in Electrical Engineering,2004
.

4.

Irving S

Read and Uemin chen

X
, “Error control coding for data networks”, Springer ,1999
.

5.

Joseph Paul Odenwalder, “Error Control Coding
abit corp., 1996.

09LC11

UNICATION

3 0 0 3

PERFORMANCE CHARACTE
RIZATION OF DIGITAL
DATA TRANSMISSION
:
Detection of binary signals in AWGN
-

multiplexed signalling schemes
-

Signalling through band limited channels
-

Equal
ization of digital data transmission system
-

Realization imperfections
-

(7)

Communication in the presence of pulse noise jamming
-

Low probability detection scheme
-

Direct Sequence Sp
(DSSS) and Frequency Hop Spread Spectrum Systems and examples of Spread Spectrum Systems. (5)

EMS
:
Direct sequence spread spectrum methods e
mploying BPSK, QPSK and MSK
-

Frequency Hop
-

Coherent slow frequency Hop technique
-

Non coherent slow and fast frequency Hop spread spectrum
techniques
-

Hybrid DS/FH spread spectrum
-

Complex envelope representation of spread spe
ctrum systems.

(8)

BINARY SHIFT REGISTE
R SEQUENCES FOR SPRE

Definition
-

PN sequence generator
fundamentals
-

Maximal length sequences
-

Properties, Power

spectrum and Polynomial tables for maximal length sequences
-

Gold codes
-

Rapid Acquisition systems
-

Non
-
linear code generators.

(7)

SYNCHRONIZATION OF S
MS
:

Optimal tracking of wideband
signals
-

Early
-
late tracking loops
-

Code tracking loops for FHSS
-

Optimum synchronization techniques
-

Multiple dwell and sequential detectors
-

Synchronization
using a matched filter
-

Synchronization by estimating the received spreading code.

(7)

PERFORMANCE OF SPREA
D SPECTRUM SYSTEM
:

SS Systems communications models
-

Performance without coding under
AWGN and different jamming environments
-

spread spectrum systems performances with forward e
rror correction
-

Block coding
-

Convolutional coding and specific error correcting codes
-

Inter leaving
-

Random coding bounds.

(8)

Total 42

REFERE
NCES:

1.

Ziemer

R

E
and

Peterson R

L, "Digital Communication and Spread Spectrum Systems", Macmillan Publishing Co., 1985.

2.

Dixon

R

C, "Spread Spectrum Systems", Wiley Interscience, 1976.

3. Holms
J

K, "Coherent Spread Spectrum Systems", Wiley Interscienc
e, 1982
.

09LC
12

MULTI USER DETECTION

3 0 0 3

CODE DIVISION MULTIP
LE ACCESS CHANNEL:

Basic synchronous
and

asynchronous CDMA model

Signature waveforms

Data streams

Modulation

Antenna arrays

Background noise

Discrete time synchrono
us and asynchronous models.

(7)

184

SINGLE
-
USER MATCHED FILTER
:

Hypothesis testing

Optimal receiver for the single user channel

The Q function

The
matched filter in the CDMA system

Asymptotic Multiuser efficiency and related measure
s

Coherent single user matched filter in
Rayleigh

Differentially coherent demodulation

Noncoherent modulation.

(7)

OPTIMUM MULTIUSER DE
TECTION
:

Optimum detector for synchronous channels

Optimum detector for asynchronous channel
s

Minimum error probability in synchronous channel

K user optimum asymptotic efficiency and Near

far resistance

Minimum
error probability in the asynchronous channel

Performance analysis in Rayleigh fading

Optimum noncoherent

multiuser
detecti
on.

(7)

DECORRELATING DETECT
OR
:

Optimum linear multiuser detection

Minimum Mean Square Error (MMSE) linear multiuser
detection

Performance of MMSE linear multiuser detection

Adaptive MMSE linear multiuser detection

Canonical repres
entation
of linear multiuser detectors

Blind MMSE multiuser detector.

(7)

NON
-

DECORRELATING DETECT
OR:

Optimum linear multiuser detection

Minimum Mean Square Error (MMSE) linear
multiuser detection

Performance of MMSE li
near multiuser detection

Adaptive MMSE linear multiuser detection

Canonical
representation of linear multiuser detectors

Blind MMSE multiuser detector.

(7)

DECISION
-
DRIVEN MULTIUSER DET
ECTORS:

Successive Cancellation

Performance Analy
sis of Successive Cancellation

Synchronous Decorrelating Decision
-
Feedback

Synchronous MMSE Decision
-
Feedback

Asynchronous Decision
-
Feedback

(7)

Total 42

REFEREN
CES:

1.
Sergio Verdu, “Multiuser detection”, Cambridge University Press, 1998
.

2. Sergio Verdu, “Recent Progress in Multiuser Detection Advances in Communication and

Control Systems”, IEEE Press, 1993.

0
9LC13

DATA COMPRESSION

3 0 0 3

INTRODUCTION:
Co
mpression Techniques
-

Overview of information theory

Modeling and Coding
-

Taxonomy of compression
techniques

Scalar and vector quantization
-

Rate distortion theory
-

Huffman coding

Non
-
Binary Huffman codes

Huffman coding

Application

of Huffman coding
.

(7)

ARITHMETIC CODING AND DICTIONARY TECHNIQUES:
Introduction
-

coding a sequence

generating deciphering the tag

Generating a binary code

Uniqueness of arithmetic code

Algorithm, integer implementation

compari
son of Huffman and
arithmetic coding

Applications
-
Static and Adaptive dictionary

LZ77, LZ78, LZW approach

Applications

Facsimile encoding

run length coding

com
parison of MH, MR, MMR and JBIG
.

(10)

AUDIO COMPRES
SION:
Audio compression techniques
-

frequency domain and filtering
-

basic sub
-
band coding
-
application to
speech coding
-

G.722
-

application to audio coding
-

MPEG audio
-

silence suppression
-

speech compression techniques

Vocoders
.

(7)

IMAGE COMPRESION:
Predictive techniques
-

DPCM, DM
-

Contour based compression

KL transform

discrete cosine, Walsh
-

-

Wavelet based compression: quad
-
trees, EZW, SPI
HT
-

JPEG, JPEG
-
2000, JBIG
.

(9)

VIDEO COMPRESSION:
Video signal representation
-

Video compression techniques

MPEG standards
-

Motion estimation
techniques
-

H.261 family

of standards
-

DVI technology
-

Motion video compression
.

(9)

Total 42

REFERENCES:

1.

Khalid Sayood
,
“Introduction to Data Compression”, Second Edition, Morgan Kaufman, 2000
.

2.

Salomon

D
,

Data Compression The Complete Reference

, Second Edition, S
pringer, 2000
.

3.

Salomon

D
,

A Guide to Data Compression Methods”
,

Springer, 2002
.

4.

Jan Vozer, “Video Compression for Multimedia”, AP Press, New York, 1995
.

5.

Peter Symes, “Video compression Demystified”, McGraw
-
Hill, 2000.

6.

Mark Nelson
,

“Data Compression Book”,
BPB Publishers, New Delhi, 1998
.

09LC14
WAVELETS AND SUBBANDCODING

3 0 0 3

FOURIER ANALYSIS:

Signal spaces
-

concept of Convergence
-

Hilbert spaces for energy signals. Fourier basis & Fourier
Transform

failure of Fourier Transform

Need
for Time
-
Frequency Analysis, Spectrogram plot
-

Phase
-
Space plot in Time
-
Frequency plane, Time and Frequency Limitations, Tiling of the Time
-
Frequency Plane for STFT

Heisenberg’s Uncertainty
principle

Short time Fourier transform (STFT) Analysis
-

short

comings of STFT
-

Need for Wavelets.

(8)

185

CONTINUOUS WAVELET T
RANSFORM(CWT) AND MU
LTIRESOLUTION ANALYS
IS(MRA):
Wavelet basis

concept of scale
and its relation with frequency, Continuou
s time Wavelet Transform equation

series expansion using wavelets

CWT

need for
scaling function

Multi
-
Resolution Analysis (MRA)

-

Tiling of time
-
scale plane for CWT. Important wavelets: Haar, Mexican hat,
Meyer, Shannon, Daubechies.

(8)

MULTIRATE SYSTEMS, FILTER BANKS AND DISCRETE WAVELET TRANSFORM(DWT):

Decimation and Interpolation in Time
domain
-

Decimation and Interpolation in Frequency domain

Multi rate systems
for a rational factor, Two channel filter bank

Perfect Reconstruction (PR) condition

relationship between filter banks and wavelet basis

DWT

Filter banks for Daubechies
wavelet function.

(12)

SPECIAL
TOPICS:
Wavelet packet transform Multidimensional wavelets, Bi
-
orthogonal basis
-
B
-
Splines, Lifting scheme of wavelet
generation, Multiwavelets.

(8)

APPLICATIONS OF WAVELETS:

Signal Denoising
-

Sub
-
band coding of Speech and m
usic

Image Compression using 2
-
D DWT
-

Fractal Signal Analysis.

(6)

Total 42

REFERENCES:

1.

Jai
deva C Goswami

and

Andrew K Chan, “Fundamentals of Wavelets

Theory, Algorithms and Applications”, John Wiley
and

Sons, Inc
.
, Singapore, 1999
.

2.

Soman
K

P

and
Ramachandran

K

I, “Insight into Wavelets from Theory to Practice”, Prentice Hall India, First Edi
tion,

2004
.

3.

Vetterli M,
and
Kovacevic J, "W
avelets and Sub
band Coding," Prentice Hall, 1995.

4.

Fliege. N

J,

”Multirate Digital Signal Processing”, John Wiley

and S
ons,

Newyork,1994.

5.

Stephane G

Mallat, “A Wavelet Tour of Signal Processing”, Academic

Press, Second Edition, 1999.

6.

Wornell G W, "Signal Processing with Fractals: A Wavelet based Approach

, Prentice Hall, 1995.

0
9
LC1
5

3 0 0 3

Definition
-

Characteristics
-

Application areas
-

Properties

Wiener Filter

-

Performance function
-

Gradient and Minimum Mean Square Error (MMSE)
-

-

Newton's method,
Steepest Descent technique
.

(10)

FIR FILTERS:

Least
-
Mean
-
Square (LMS) algorithm
-

Convergence

Learning Curve
-

LMS
Variants
-

Recursive Least Squares (RLS) Algorithm
-

Exponentially Weighted RLS

Sliding Window RLS

Kalman Filter
.

(10)

ADAPTIVE ALGORITHMS FOR IIR FILTERS:

Problem formulation
-

Implications of feedback
-

MMSE techniques

Output Error
Me
thod

Equation Error Method
-

Hyperstable Adaptive Recursive Filter

SHARF
-

Limitations in use of Adaptive IIR filters
.

(9)

ORDER
-

Lattice Digital filter structure
-

Properties
-

Estimate of reflection Coefficients
-

Order
update & Time update analysis
.

(5)

APPLICATIONS OF ADAPTIVE SIGNAL PROCESSING:

Adaptive Modeling & System Identification
-

Deconvolution

Equalization
-

-

-

Canceling power supply interference

in
ECG

canceling maternal ECG interference in fetal ECG
-

Adaptive echo cancellation in Telephone channels
-

Harmonic
cancellation with adaptive prediction
-

Adaptive self tuning filter
-

.

(8)

Total 42

REFERENCES:

1.

Win
drow
B

and
Stearns .S

D, "Adaptive Signal Processing"
,
Prentice Hall inc., 2001
.

2.

Haykin

S, “Adaptive Filter Theory
"
,

Prentice Hall Inc, 2002
.

3.

Cowan C

F

N

and
Grant P

M, "Adaptive Filters", Prentice H
all inc., 1985
.

4.

Alexander S

T, "Adaptive Signal Processi
ng: Theory and Applications ",

Springer

Verlag, 1990.

5.

Sayed

F,” Fundamentals of Adaptive Filters “, Wiley Interscience,2002.

6.

Diniz P

S

R, “Adaptive Filtering Algorithms and Practical Implementation”
, Kluer, 2
nd

Edition,

2004.

09LC16

FPGA BASED SYSTEM DESIGN

3 0 0 3

INTRODUCTION TO HDL
: Introduction to VHDL

Behavioral modeling

Data Flow Modeling

Structural Modeling.
Introduction to Verilog

Gate Level Modeling

Data Flow Modelin
g

Behavioral Modeling.

(8)

PROGRAMMABLE LOGIC D
EVICES
:

Basic Concepts, Programming Technologies

Progrmmable Logic Array (PLA),
Programmable Array Logic (PAL) , Programmable Logic Array (PLA), Design of State Machine using ASM Chart as a

design Tool
.

(6)

186

FIELD PROGRAMMABLE G
ATE ARRAYS:

Introduction

FPGA Technology

DSP Technology Requirement

Design
Implementation

FPGA Architectures

Xilinx

Altera Flex

Design Principles using FPGAs

Implementing DSP Function
s in
FPGA
-

Applications of FPGA to Software Radio.

(8)

Digital Signal Processing with FPGAs:

Design of Binary Adders, Multipliers and Dividers
-

Design of FIR Filters

Design of IIR Filters

Multirate Signal Processing

Decimation

Inte
rpolation

Polyphase Decomposition

Multistage Decimator

Filter Banks

DFT and FFT Algorithms

Error Control and Cryptography

Modulation and Demodulation

FPGA design of LMS
Algorithm

(10)

:
Block Diagram of Software Radio

Numerically controlled oscillator

Digital Up converters

Digital
Down Converters and demodulators

Universal Modulator and Demodulator using CORDIC. Incoherent Demodulation

digital
approach for
I and Q generation, Special Sampling Schemes. CIC filters, Residue number system and high speed filters using RNS.
Down Conversion using discrete Hilbert Transform. Undersampling receivers, Coherent Demodulation Schemes.

(10)

Total 42

REFERENCES:

1. Samir Palnitkar
,

“ Verilog HDL: A Guide to Digital Design and Synthesis”, Prentice Hall, 2003.

2. Volnei

A

Pedroni, “Circuit Design with VHDL”, Prentice Hall, 2004.

3
. Uwe Meyer

Baese, “ Digital Signal Processing with Field P
rogrammable Gate Arrays”
,
Springer, 2004.

4
. Jeffrey H Reed, “Software Radio: A Modern Approach to Radio Engineering”
,
Pearson Education Asia, 2002.

5
. James Tsui, “ Digital Techniques for Wideband Receivers”, Prentice
-
Hall of India,

2005.

6
. Mitra

S
K
,

Digital Signal Processing”, McGraw Hill, 1998.

7
. Bob Zeidman, “Designing with CPLDs and FPGAs”
,
CMP, 2002
.

0
9
LC1
7

NON
-
LINEAR DIGITAL SIGNA
L PROCESSING

3 0 0 3

INTRODUCTION:

Signal Processing Model

Signal and Noise Models

Fundamental Probl
em in Noise Removal

Mean and
Median filters

Linear versus Nonlinear filtering.

(2)

NON LINEAR FILTERS B
ASED ON MEAN
:

Principles and properties of Trimmed mean, Winsorised mean, Modified Trimmed
mean, K
-
nearest neighbour and Non
-
linear

Mean Filters.

(8)

NON LINEAR FILTERS B
ASED ON ORDERING:

Principles and properties of L
-
Filters

C
-
Filters

Rank Selection Filters

Stack
Filters

Ranked Order and Weighted order Statistic Filters
-

Linear
combination of order statistics. (8)

NON LINEAR FILTERS B
ASED ON MEDIAN :

Principles and properties of Weighted Median

Multi stage Median Filters

Median Hybrid Filters

(6)

SPECIAL NON
-
LINEAR FILTERS
:

Princ
iples and properties of M
-
Filters, R
-
Filters, Morphological Filters, soft morphological filters

Data dependent Filters

Decision Based Filters

Iterative, cascaded and recursive filters (9)

STATISTICAL ANALYSIS AND OPTIMISATION OF NON LINEAR

FILTERS:
Review of Estimation, unbiased estimation, point
estimation, M
-

estimation, R
-
Estimation, Maximum Likelihood Estimation and Scale Estimation
-

Analysis and Optimisation of L
-
filters
and Stack filters.

(9)

Total 42

REFERENCES:

1.

Ast
ola J

J

and Kuosmanen P, "Fundamentals of Nonlinear Digital Filtering”
,

CRC Press,1997
.

2.

Arce G

R
,
”Non Linear Signal Proc
essing

A Statistical Approach

,
Wiley Interscience, 2005
.

3.

Doughertz E

R an
d

Astola J

T,

”Nonlinear Filters for Image Processing”, SPI
E Optical Engineering Press,1999

4.

Barner K

E and Arce G

R,

”Nonlinear Signal and Image Processing

Theory, Methods and Applications”, CRC Press, 2004.

0
9
L
C18 SPEECH SIGNAL PR
OCESSING

3 0 0 3

SPEECH SIGNAL MODELLING:
Speech signal char
acteristics and classifications
-

Speech production mechanism
-

Acoustic
Theory of speech production
-

Source

Filter model
-

Lossless Tube Models
-

Digita
l Model of speech signals

(10
)

SPEECH SIGNAL ANALYSIS:

Time domain Analysis for speech processing

Short time energy and magnitude
-

short time
average zero crossing
-

Speech vs silence discrimination
-

Pitch period estimation using autocorrelation
-

Short time Fourier
analysis
-

Definition and properties
-

D
esign of digital filter banks
-

Pitch detection
-

analysis by synthesis

(1
2
)

187

SPEECH CODING:

Linear predictive coding
-

principle
-

solution of LPC equation
-

Cholesky decomposition method
-

Durbin's
method
-

Lattice formulation

Frequency domain

coding

Model based coding

LPC residual coding

(
10
)

SPEECH RECOGNITION:
Template training method
-

Hidden Markov Model

-

Gaussian Mixture model

-

connected word
recognition

-

Speaker identification/Verification.

(
10
)

Total

4
2

REFERENCES
:

1.

R
a
b
i
ner L

R

and
Schaffer R

W, "Digital
P
rocessing of
S
peech
S
ignals"
,
Prentice
-
Hall,
E
nglewod
-

C
litts, New Jersey, 1986
.

2.

Rebner L

R

K
and
Juang B

H, "Fundamentals of Speech Recognition"
,

Pearson Education, First Indian reprint 2003
.

3.

Kondoz, "Digital Speech", John Wiley
and
Sons Ltd
.
, 1994
.

4.

Thomas F

Quatieri
,
“Discrete Time Speech Signal Processing”
,
Pearson Education, 2002
.

5.

John R
Deller, John Hansen

and P
roa
ki
s

J

G, ” Discrete Time Processing of

Speech Signals

,
IEEE Press,
1
999
.

09LC19
SMART ANTENNAS

3 0 0 3

INTRODUCTION:

Antenna gain, Phased array antenna, power pattern, beam steering, degree of freedom, optimal a
ntenna,
adaptive antennas, smart antenna
-

key benefits of smart antenna technology, wide band smart antennas, Digital radio receiver
techniques and software radio for smart antennas.

(5)

NARROW BAND PROCESSI
NG:
Signal model conventional bea
mformer, null steering beamformer, optimal beamformer,
Optimization using reference signal, beam space processing.

(7)

Sample matrix inversion algorithm, unconstrained LMS algorithm, normalized LMS algorithm,
Constrained

LMS algorithm, Perturbation algorithms, Neural network approach, Adaptive beam space processing, Implementation
issues.

(9)

:

Tapped delay line structure, Partitioned realization, Derivative constrained processor, D
igital beam
forming, Broad band processing using DFT method.

(7)

DIRECTION OF ARRIVAL

ESTIMATION METHODS:

Spectral estimation methods, linear prediction method, Maximum entropy
method, Maximum likelihood method, Eigen structu
re methods, Music algorithm

root music and cyclic music algorithm, the
ESPRIT algorithm.

(7)

DIVERSITY COMBINING:

Spatial diversity selection combiner, switched diversity combiner, equal gain combiner, maximum ratio
combiner, optical c
ombiner.

(7)

Total 42

REFERENCES:

1.

Lal Chand Godara, “Smart Antennas” CRC press, 2004.

2.

Joseph

C

Liberti.Jr

and
Theodore S Rappaport, “Smart Antennas for Wireless Communication: IS
-
95 and Thir
d Generation
CDMA Applications”,
Prent
ice Hall
1999
.

3.

Balanis, “Antennas”, John Wiley
and
Sons, 2005.

09LC20
RF

MEMS

3 0 0 3

MICROELECTROMECHANICAL SYSTEMS(MEMS) AND RADIO FREQUENCY MEMS:
Introduction

Microfabrication for MEMS

Electromechanical transducers

Microsensing for MEMS

Mater
ials for MEMS.

(6)

MEMS MATERIALS AND F
ABRICATION TECHNIQUE
S:
Metals

Semiconductors

Thin films for MEMS and their deposition
techniques

Materials for polymer MEMS

Bulk micromachining for silicon
-
based MEMS

Silicon surface

micromaching

Microstereolithography for polymer MEMS.

(6)

RF MEMS SWITCHES
:
Introduction

Switch parameters

Basics of switching

Switches for RF and microwave a
pplications

Electrostatic switching

Approaches for low
-
actuation

voltage switches

thermal switching

MEMS switch design, modeling and
evaluation

MEMS switch design considerations.

(6)

MEMS INDUCTORS AND CA
PACITORS:

Introduction

MEMS inductors

MEMS capacitors.

(6)

MICROMACHINED RF FILTERS AND PHASE SHIFTERS:
Introduction

Modeling of mechanical filters
-

Micromechanical filters

Micromachined phase shifters : Introduction

Types of phase shifters and their limitations

MEMS phase shifters.

(7)

188

MICROMACHINED TRANSMISSION LINES AND COMPONENTS:
Introduction

Micromachined transmission lines and
components

Design, fabrication and measurements.

(5)

MICROMACHINED ANTENNA:
Introduction
-

Overview of microstrip antenna

Micromachining techniques to improve antenna
performance

Micromaching as a fabrication process for small antenna

Micromachined reconfigurable antenna.

(6)

Total 42

REFERENCES:

1.

Vijay K Varadan, Vinoy K J

and
Jose K A, "RF MEMS and Their Applications“
,
Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd, England,

reprinted April 2003.

2.

Gabriel M Rebeiz, “RF MEMS

Theory,Design and Technology “
,
John Wiley & Sons Ltd, New Jersey, 2003
.

3.

Hector J

De Los Santos,

”RF MEMS Circuit Design for Wireless communications”, Artech House, 2002.

09LC21
RADIO FREQUENCY INTEGRATED CIRCUIT DESIGN

3 0 0 3

AMPLIFIERS:

FET and bipolar transistor models

Two port power gains

stability

Amplifier design using S parameters

LNA

Differential amplifiers

DC biasing

Power amplifiers

general issues

efficiency, linearity etc., load pull, class A, AB and C
Design

Higher class power amplifiers

linearization

distributed power amplifier.

(10)

OSCILLATORS

RF OSCILLATORS:
Microwave oscillators

LC

Colpitts

negative resistance

differential oscillators

frequency synthesis methods

phase locked
loop analysis

oscillator phase noise.

(8)

Introduction to RFIC

Analog and microwave design versus RFIC design

noise performance estimate

RF technology

receiver with single IF stage metallization

sh
eet resistance

skin effect

parasitic capacitance and inductance

current handling

metal capacitors

spiral inductors

quality factor

layouts in IC

mutual inductance

multilevel

measurement

packaging.

(8)

MICROWAVE POINT TO P
OINT SYSTEM DESIGN
:

Microwave transmission

theoretical and practical aspects

protected and non protected microwave systems

path calculation
-

syste
m

compatibility

safety coordinate systems

Datum’s & GPS

dynamic range

frequency conversion and filtering

examples of practical receivers

FM broad cast, Digital cellular

Millimeter wave point to poin
t,
Direct conversion GSM receiver.

(10)

TRANSMISSION LINE EQ
UIPMENT:

fiber optic equipment

wireline equipment

cabling grounding

Power battery back up

GPS antenna

reliability iss
ues

cell site selection

microwave repeater site selection

microwave site
and path survey

microwave antenna

mounting

measurement of RF fields

source emissions

power level and radiation
pattern

microwave instal
lation measurements and testing
. (6)

Tota
l 42

REFERENCES:

1.

David Pozar, “Microwave and RF Design of Wireless Systems”, John Wiley, 2001.

2.

Harvey Lehpamer, “Transmission System Design Handbook for Wireless Networks”, Artech House, 2002.

3.

John Rogers
and
Calvin Plett, “Radio Frequency Integrated Ci
rcuit Design”, Artech House, 2002.

4.

Stephan A

Mass, “Non
-
Linear Microwave and RF circuits”, Artech House, Second Edition
.

5.

Ferri Losee, “RF Systems, Components and Circuits handbook”, Artech house, 2002.

6.

Larson

LE,

“RF and Microwave Circuit for Wireless App
lications”, Artech House, 1997.

09LC22
WIRELESS SYSTEMS AND

STANDARDS

3 0 0 3

INTRODUCTION:

Introduction to Wireless Local Area Networks, The Need for standardization

Future Trends

The IrDA
Standard

Introduction to IrDA: General Desc
ription

Physical Layer (SIR)

Serial Infrared Link Access Protocol (IrLAP)
-

IrDA
Link Management Protocol (Ir
-
LMP)
-

IrDA Transport Protocol: Tiny TP
-
LAN. Access Extensions for Link Management Protocol:
IrLAN.

(7)

WIRELESS SYSTEMS
:

A
dvanced Mobile Phone Systems (AMPS)

Characteristics

Operation

General Working of AMPS
Phone System

Global System for Mobile Communication

Frequency Bands and Channels

Frames

Identity Numbers

Layers, Planes and Interfaces of GSM

Internatio
nal Mobile Telecommunications (IMT
-
2000)

Spectrum Allocation

Services
provided by 3G Cellular Systems

Harmonized 3G Systems

Universal Mobile Telecommunications Systems (UMTS)

(7)

189

THE IEEE 802.11 STAN
DARD
:

Introduction to IEEE 8
02.11

General Description

Medium Access Control (MAC) for the IEEE
802.11 Wireless LANs

Physical Layer for IEEE 802.11 Wireless LANs; Radio systems

Physical Layer for IEEE 802.11 Wireless
LANs

IR Systems

Conclusions and Applications.

(7)

THE HIPERLAN

STANDARD
:

Introduction
-

Terminology

Physical Layer
-
HIPERLAN Channel Access Control (CAC)

HIPERLAN Medium Access Control (MAC)

Conclusions on HIPERLAN Type 1

Future Brand Standards.

(7)

UPCOMING STANDARDS A
N
D FUTURE TRENDS
:

The Evolution of HIPERLAN

The Evolution of IEEE 802.11

Forthcoming
IR Standards

Other RF Standards:

Digital Enhanced Cordless Technology
(DECT)

Bluetooth

Wireless ATM (WATM)

Home
RF.

(7)

:

Int
roduction

Ultra Wide Band (UWB) Technology

Characteristics

Signal Propagation

Current Status
and Applications

Challenges and Future Directions.

(7)

Total 42

REFERENCES
:

1.

Assuncion Santamaria, Francisco Lo
pez
-
Hernandez, “Wireless LAN Standards and Applications”, Artech House, 2001.

2.

Dharma Prakash Agarwal

and
Qing
-

An zeng, “Introduction to Wireless and Mobile Systems”, Vikas publishing House, New
Delhi, 2004.

3.

Anand Prasad, “WLAN System &
Wireless IP for Next Generation Communications”, Artec House, 2002.

09LC23

WIRELESS SECURITY

3 0 0 3

WIRELESS THREATS
:

Introduction to wireless technologies
-
Wireless data networks
-
Personal Area Networks
--
Kinds of security
breaches
-

Eavesdropping
-
Commu
nication Jamming
-

RF interference
-
Covert wireless channels

DOS attack
-

Spoofing
-
Theft of
services
-
Traffic Analysis
-
Cryptographic threats
-
Wireless security Standards.

(9)

CRYPTOGRAPHY:
E
ncryption and Decryption
-

Product ciphers
-
AES (advanced Encryption Standard)
-
Pseudorandom number
Generator
-
Stream ciphers A5
,
RC4
--
Public key cryptography
-
ECC (Elliptic Curve Cryptography)
-

Cryptography in Embedded
H
ardware
.

(9)

WIRELESS LOCAL AREA NETWORK (WLAN):
Introduction

Transmission Media
-
Securing WLANS
-
WLAN products and
standard

Countermeasures
-
WEP (wired Equivalence Protocol)
-
Bluetooth security
.

(8)

SECURITY IN WIREELSS

DATA NETWORKS: W
ireless Device security issues
-

CDPD security (Cellular Digital Packet Data)
-
GPRS security (General Packet Radio Service)
-
GSM (Global System for Mobile Communication) security

I
P
-
security

(8)

WIRELESS TRANSPORT LAYER SECURITY

(WTLS):

Secure Socket Layer
-
Wireles
s Transport Layer Security
-
WAP Security
Architecture
-
WAP Gateway
.

(8)

Total 42

REFERENCES:

1.

Merritt Maxim and David

Pollino, ”Wireless Security”,
Osborne/McGraw Hill , 2002
.

2.

Nichols and Lekka, “Wireless
Security
-
Models, Threats and Solutions”, McGraw

Hill, 2002
.

3.

William Stallings, “Cryptography and Network Security ,Principles and practices, Pr
e
ntice Hall of India, Fourth edition, 2006
.

09LC
24

ON NETWORKS

3 0 0 3

INTRODUCTION
:

I
nternet history and architecture, OSI layering, MAC and LLC Issues: Techniques for multiple access,

Adaptive LLC mechanisms for wireless links, Internet Routing Architecture: Internet Service Providers and Peering

Border Gateway Protocol (BGP), Internet Gr
oup Management Protocol (IGMP), Unidirectional Link Routing (UDLR). (3)

FLOW/CONGESTION CONT
ROL:

Implementation, modeling, fairness, stability, open
-
loop vs closed
-
loop vs hybrid, traffic
specification (LBAP, leaky
-
bucket), window vs rate, hop
-
by
-
hop
vs end
-
to
-
end, implicit vs explicit feedback, aggregate flow control,
reliable multicast. TCP variants (Tahoe, Reno, Vegas, New
-
Reno, SACK),

DECbit, Packet Pair, NETBLT, ATM Forum EERC,
T/TCP.

(5)

SCHEDULING AND BUFFE
R MANAGEMENT
:

implementation, fairness, performance bounds, admission control,

priorities, work
conservation, scheduling best
-
effort (BE) flows,

scheduling guarante
ed
-
service (GS) flows (GPS, WRR, DRR, WFQ, EDD,
RCSP),

aggregation, drop strategies (tail
-
drop, RED, WRED). (5)

190

ROUTING :
-
state vs distance
-
-
vector
, conventional routing, Routing
Information Protocol (RIP), Open Shortest Path First (OSPF), Multicast OSPF (MOSPF), Distance Vector Multicast Routing
Protocol (DVMRP), BGP instability, Fair queuing, TCP congestion control, TCP variants, Random Early De
tect, TCP RTT
estimation, Fast retransmit, Fast recovery.

(5)

TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT:
Utility function, traffic models (for Internet), self
-
similarity, traffic classes (B
E, GS), service models
(DiffServ, IntServ), class
-
based allocation, controls at different time scales,

renegotiation (RCBR), signaling (RSVP, ATM signaling),
resource translation/mapping,

-
case, statistical, measurement
-
based), pric
ing, capacity planning, Integrated
Services, Resource ReSerVation Protocol (RSVP), Differentiated Services, Wireless TCP, Mobile IP, Multicast routing, Scalable

Multicast routing: Core Based Trees (CBT), Protocol Independent Multicast (PIM), Pragmatic Gene
ral Multicast (PGM), Scalable
Reliable Multicast, Overlay Networks, Peer
-
to
-
Peer Networks, Chord.

(10)

SIMULATION AND MODEL
ING:

Wide
-
Area Traffic Modeling, End
-
to
-
end Internet Packet Dynamics, Traffic Engineering, Multi
-
Protocol Label Switching (MPLS), Network Simulators: NS2, OPNET, QualNet.

(5)

IP NEXT GENERATION:
IP Next Layer (IPNL), IPV
6 features,
including transition, Mobile IPV
6 operation, Models to
sup
port(WLAN) network roaming, IPV
6 transition methods, Advanced IP routing and multihoming, IP Multicast. (4)

NETWORK TECHNOLOGIES
:

Ethernet, Fiber Channel, Scalable Coherent Interface (SCI), Myrinet, ATM, AmpNet, FireWire,
cLAN, Multi
-
homing in Enterprise networks, Bluetooth, 802.11, HiperLAN2, GPRS and Edge Services, GSM, CDMA, UMTS, 3G,
4G, Access technologies:

last mile, xDSL.

(5)

Total 42

REFERENCES:

1.

Larry Peterson and Bruce Davie, “Computer Networks: A Systems Approach”, Morgan Kaufmann, Third Edition, 2003
.

2.

Michael A

Gallo and William M

Hancock, “Computer Co
mmunications and Networking Technologies”, Thomson Learning,
2002
.

3.

Jim Kurose and Keith Ross., “Computer Networking: A Top
-
Down Approach Featuring the Internet”, Addison
-
Wesley, 2004
.

4.

William Stallings, “Data and Computer Communications”, Prentice Hall, Se
venth Edition, 2003
.

5.

Andrew S Tanenbaum, “Computer Networks”, Prentice Hall, Fourth Edition, 2002.

09
LC
25

3 0 0 3

Introduction:

The Need for Software Radios. What Is a Software Radio? Characteristics and Benefits of a Softwar

Design
Principles of a Software Radio.

(2)

Radio Frequency implementation issues
-
The Purpose of the RF Front
-
End. Dynamic Range
-
The Principal Challenge of
-
-
End Topologies
-

Enhanced Flexibility o
f the RF Chain with Software Radios
-
Importance of the
Components to Overall Performance
-

Transmitter Architectures and Their Issues
-

Noise and Distortion in the RF Chain. ADC and
DAC Distortion

(9)

Digital gen
eration of signals:

Introduction
-
Comparison of Direct Digital Synthesis with Analog Signal Synthesis
-
Approaches to
Direct Digital Synthesis
-
Analysis of Spurious Signals
-
Spurious Components due to Periodic Jitter
-
Band pass Signal Generation

Performance of
Direct Digital Synthesis Systems
-
Hybrid DDS
-
PLL Systems
-

Applications of direct Digital Synthesis
-
Generation of
Random Sequences
-
ROM Compression Techniques.

(9)

Analog to digital and digital to analog conversion
: Parameters of ideal data conv
erters;
-
Parameters of practical data
converters
-
Analog to digital and digital to analog conversion

Techniques to improve data converter performance
-
and DAC architectures.

(7)

Smart antennas:

Vector channel modeling
-
Benefits
of smart antennas
-
Structures for Beam forming Systems
-
Smart Antenna
Algorithms
-
Diversity and Space
-
Time Adaptive Signal Processing
-
Algorithms for Transmit STAP
-
Hardware Implementation of Smart
Antennas
-
Array Calibration.

(8)

Digital hardwa
re choices:

Introduction
-
Key Hardware Elements
-
DSP Processors
-
Field Programmable Gate Arrays
-
-
Offs in
Using DSPs, FPGAs, and ASICs
-
Power Management Issues
-
Using a Combination of DSPs, FPGAs, and ASICs.

(7)

Total 42

REFERENCES:

1.

Jeffrey H

Reed
,

“Software Radio: A Modern Approach to Radio Engineering”, PEA Publication,

2002
.

2.

Walter Tuttle bee, “Software Defined Radio: Enabling Technologies”, Wiley Publications, 2002.

3.

Paul Burns, “Software Defined Radio fo
r 3G”, Artech House, 2002
.

4.

Markus Dillinger, “Software Defined Radio: Architectures, Systems and Functions”, 2003.

191

09LC26

HOC NETWORKS

3 0 0 3

INTRODUCTION:

Fundamentals of Wireless Communication Technology, Characteristics of the Wireles
s Channel, Modulation
Techniques, Multiple Access Techniques, Networking Standards, Wireless Networks, Mobile IP, Ad

Hoc Wireless Networks.

(4)

MAC PROTOCOLS:

Designing a MAC Protocol for Ad

Hoc Wireles
s Networks, Classifications of MAC Protocols
-

Contention
-
Based, Contention
-
Based with Reservation Mechanisms, Contention
-
Based with Scheduling Mechanisms, MAC Protocols that Use
Directional Antennas.

(5)

ROUTING PROTOCOLS:
Designing a Routing Protocol for Ad Hoc Wireless Networks, Classifications of Routing Protocols
-
Table
-
Driven, On
-
Demand, Hybrid, Routing Protocols with Efficient Flooding Mechanisms, Hierarchical, Pow
er
-
Aware Routing Protocols

(6)

MULTICAST ROUTING:
Designing a Multicast Routing Protocol, Operation of Multicast Routing Protocols, Classifications of
Multicast Routi
ng Protocols
-

Tree
-
Based, Mesh
-
Based, Energy
-
Efficient, Multicasting with Quality of Service Guarantees.

(6)

TRANSPORT LAYER AND SECURITY PROTOCOLS:
Designing a Transport Layer Protocol for Ad Hoc Wireless Networks,
Classification of Transport Layer Solution, TCP over Ad Hoc Wireless Networks, Security in Ad Hoc Wireless Networks, Network
Security Re
quirements. Issues and Challenges in Security Provisioning, Network Security Attacks, Key Management, Secure
Routing in Ad Hoc Wireless Network

(8)

QUALITY OF SERVICE:

QoS in Ad Hoc Wireless Networks, Classifications of QoS Solutions, MAC Layer Solutions, Network Layer
Solutions, QoS Frameworks for Ad Hoc Wireless Networks.

(4)

ENERGY MANAGEMENT:

Energy Management in Ad Hoc Wireless Network
s, Classification of Energy Management Schemes
-

Battery Management Schemes, Transmission Power Management Schemes, System Power Management Schemes.

(5)

ADVANCES IN WIRELESS NETWORKS:

Ultra
-
wide
-
ation, Wireless fidelity systems, Optical wireless
networks, Mult
imode 802.11
-

IEEE 802.11a/b/g, wireless AD Hoc sensor Networks.

(4)

Total 42

REFERENCES:

1.

Siva
Ram Murthy

C.

and
Manoj

B
S, “Ad Hoc Wireless Networks: Architectures and Protocols”, Prentice Hall, Jun
e

2004
.

2.

Charles E Perkins, “Ad Hoc Networking”, Addison
-
Wesley, 2001
.

3.

Toh C K,

“Ad Hoc Mobile Wireless Networks: Protocols and Systems”, Prentice Hall,

2001
.

4.

Mohammad Ilyas, “The Handbook of Ad Hoc Wireless Networks”, CRC Press, 2002
.

5.

Basagni S, Marco Conti, Silvia Giordano, Ivan Stojmenovi and
C
acute, “Mobile Ad Hoc Networking”, John Wiley
and
Sons,
2004
.

09
LC2
7

RCHITECTURE

3 0
0 3

INTRODUCTION TO PARA
LLEL PROCESSING:
-

Evolution of computer systems. Generation of computer systems

Trends
towards parallel processing
-

Parallel processing mechanisms
-

parallel computer structure
-

Architectural classification schemes

Application.

(6
)

MEMORY AND I/O SUBSY
STEMS:

Hierarchical Memory structure

Virtual memory system
-

cache memory management
-

Memory allocation and management

I/O subsystems

(4
)

MULTIPLE PROCESSOR
S

ISSUE
:
Overview of Multiple issue processors

Cache access and Instruction fetch

Dynamic branch
prediction and control speculation

Decode

Rename

Execution stages

Super scalar processors

VLIW and EPIC
Processors.

Principles
-

Classification o
f pipeline processors
-

Reservation tables

Interleaved memory organization

Design of arithmetic pipeline

Design of instruction pipeline

(8
)

VECTOR PROCESSING:

Need

Basic vector processing architecture
-

Issues in vector processing

V
ectorization and
optimization methods.

(6)

ARRAY PROCESSING:

SIMD Array processors

SIMD interconnection networks

Parallel algorithms for array processors

192

associative array processing.

(6)

MULTIPROCESSOR ARCHITECTURE:

Functional structures
-

Interconnection network

Multi cache problems and solutions

Exploiting concurrency for multiprocessing.

(6
)

PRINCIPLES OF PARALLEL ALGORI
THM DESIGN:
Design approaches
-
Design issues
-
Performance measures and analysis
-
Complexities
-
Anomalies in parallel algorithms
-

Pseudo code conventions for parallel algorithms
-
Comparison of SIMD and MIMD
algorithms.

(6)

Total 42

R
EFERENCES:

1.

Kai Hwang, "Advanced Computer Architecture: Parallelism, Scalability and Programmability", Tata McGraw Hill, 1992.

2.

Seyed Roosta
,

"Parallel Processing and Parallel Algorithms", Springer Series, 1999.

3.

John L Hennessy
,

"Computer Architecture a Qua
ntitative Approach"
,
Harcourt Asia Pvt. Ltd., 1999.

4.

Jurij Silc,

”Processor Architecture : From Superscalar to Data Flow and Beyond “
,
Springer; 1999
.

5.

David E Culler, Jaswinder Pal Singh

and Anoop Gupta,

Parallel Computer Ar
chitecture: A Hardware/Software

Approach

. 1998.

6.

http://www.intel.com/technology/architecture/index.htm

09LC
28

MICROWAVE INTEGRATED

CIRCUITS

3 0 0 3

TECHNOLOGY OF HYBRID MICS:

Dielectric substrates
-

thick film technology and materials
-

thin fil
m technology and materials

methods of testing

encapsulation of devices for MICs

mounting of active devices.

(8)

TECHNOLOGY OF MONOLITHIC MICS
: Processes involved in fabrication

epit
axial growth of semiconductor layer

growth of
dielectric layer

diffusion
-
ion implantation

electron beam technology.

(8)

ANALYSIS OF MICROSTRIP LINE:

Methods of conformal transformation

numeri
cal method for analysis

hybrid mode analysis

coupled mode analysis
-

method of images

losses in miscrostrips.

(8)

COUPLED MICROSTRIPS, SLOT

LINE AND COPLANAR
WA
VEGUIDES
: Coupled microstrips

even and odd mode analysis

microstrip directional couplers

branch line couplers

periodic branch line couplers

synchronous branch line couplers.

(9)

LUMPED ELEMENTS AND NON
-
RECIPROCAL COMPONENTS:
Design and fabrication using mic
rostrips

flat resistors

flat
inductors

interdigital capacitors

sandwich capacitors

ferromagnetic substrates for non
-
reciprocal devices

microstrip
circulators

latching circulators

isolators

phase shifters.

(9)

T
otal

42

REFERENCES
:

1.

Gupta
K

C and Amarjit singh,
“Microwave Integrated Circuits”
,

J
ohn Wiley and sons,

Wiley Eastern Reprint, 1978.

2.

Hoffmann

R

K
,

“Handbook of Microwave Integrated Circuits”
,
Artech House, 1987
.

0
9LC29

OPTICAL NETWORKS

3 0 0 3

FIRST GENERATION OPTICAL NETWORKS:

FDDI
-

SONET/SDH
-

Computer Interconnects

Metropolitan Area Networks

Layered Architecture
.

(5)

B
ROADCAST AND SELECT NETWORKS:

Topologies for Broadcast Networks

Media
-
Access Control (MAC) Protocols

Testbeds.

(5)

WAVELENGTH ROUTING NETWORKS:

The Optical Layer

Node Designs

Network Design and Operation

Optic
al Layer Cost

Routing and Wavelength Assignment

Architectural Variations.

(5)

VIRTUAL TOPOLOGY DESIGN:

The Virtual Topology Design Problem

Combined SONET/WDM Network Design

An Integer
Linear Programmin
g Formulation

Regular virtual Topologies

Implementation in Broadcast and Select networks.

(5)

CONTROL AND MANAGEMENT:

Network Management functions

Configuration Management

Performance Management

Faulty Management

Opt
ical

Safety

Service Interface.

(5)

193

WAVELENGTH ROUTING TESTBEDS:

ONE/Sea Me We
-
3

AON

NTT Ring

MWTN

ONTC

Alcatel’s WDM Ring

MONET.

(5)

PHOTONIC PACKE
T SWITCHING:

OTDM

Multiplexing and Demultiplexing

Synchronization

-

Switch
-
Based Networks

OTDM Testbeds.

(6)

ACCESS NETWORKS:

Network Architecture Overview

Today’s Access Networks

Future A
ccess Networks

Optical Access
Network Architectures.

(6)

Total 42

REFERENCES
:

1.

Rajiv Ramasami Kumar
and
Sivarajan

N
, “Optical Networks : A Practical Perspective”,

Second edit
ion Harcourt Asia PTE Ltd
Singapore, 2001
.

2.

Siva Ram Murthy and

Mohan Gurusamy, “WDM Optical Networks”, Prentice
-
Hall of India Private Limited, New Delhi, 2002.

09LC30
EMBEDDED SYSTEMS

3 0 0 3

Introduction to Embedded Systems:
Embedded Syst
ems
-
Applications of Embedded Systems
-
Processors in the System
-
Other
Hardware Units
-
Software Embedded into a System
-
Exemplar Embedded Systems
-
Embedded System
-
on
-
Chip (SOC) and in VLSI
circuit.

(8)

Devices and Buses for Device Network:
I/O

Devices
-
Timer and Counting Devices
-
Serial Communication using I2C,CAN and
USB. Parallel Communication using PCI, PCIX and Advanced Parallel High Speed Buses. (8)

Device Drivers and Interrupts Servicing Mechanism:
Device Drivers
-
Pa
rallel Port Device Drivers in a System, Serial Port Device
Drivers in a System, Device Drivers for Internal Programmable Timing Devices

Interrupt Servicing Mechanism
-
Context and the
Periods for Context Switching, Deadline and Interrupt Latency.

(8)

Embedded Software Development Using IDE:
Introduction to Integrated Development Environment (IDE)
-

Programming
Concepts and Embedded Programming in Assembly and C
-

Creating a New Project

Adding Files to a Project
-
Building a Project
-
Debugging and

Simulating the application
-
Getting Embedded Software into the Target System.

(8)

REAL TIME OPERATING SYSTEMS (RTOS):

Tasks and Task States, Tasks and Data, Semaphores and Shared Data, Message
Queues, Mailboxes and P
ipes, Timer functions, Events, Memory Management, Interrupt Routines in RTOS Environment

(
7
)

CASE STUDY OF PROGRAMMING WITH RTOS

(
3
)

Total 42

REFERENCES:

1.

Rajkamal, ”Embedded Systems: Architecture, Programming and Design”, Tata McGraw
-
Hill,2006.

2.

David E Simon, “An Embedded Software Primer” Pearson Education Asia, 2006.

3.

Arnold Berger, “Embedded System Design: An Introduction to Proc
esses, Tools, and Techniques” CMP Books, 2001.

4.

Wayne Wolf, “Computers as Components” Morgan Kaufmann Publishers, 2005.

5.

Douglas V Hall, “Microprocessors and Interfacing: Programming and Hardware”, Second Edition, Tata McGraw
-
Hill Edition,
2001.

09
LC
31

NET
WORK SYSTEM DESIGN U
SING NETWORK PROCE
S
SOR
S

3 0 0 3

INTRODUCTION. PROTOC
OLS AND PACKET FORMA
TS:

Network systems and the Internet, Applications, packet processing,
protocols and layering, layer 1 and 2, layer 3, layer 4, protocol port numbers and de
-
multip
lexing, Encapsulation and transmission.

(4)

PACKET PROC
ESSING:

Introduction, packet buffer allocation, packet buffer size and copying, protocol layering and copying,
Heterogeneity and network byte order, IP datagram fragmentation and reassembly, IP forwarding algorithm, TCP connection
recognition algorithm, TC
P splicing algorithm, Functions

Address lookup and packet forwarding, error detection and correction,
Fragmentation, segmentation and reassembly, frame and protocol de
-
multiplexing, packet classification, queuing and packet
discard, Scheduling and timing
, Authentication and privacy, traffic measurement and policing , traffic shaping, timer management.

(8)

NETWORK PROCESSORS:

Introduction, motivation for embedded processors, RISC Vs CISC, need for custom silicon
, definition
of NP, flexibility through programmability, instruction set, scalability with parallelism and pipelining, cause and benefits
of NP, NP
functionality, packet processing functions, Ingress and Egress processing, Parallel and distributed architec
ture, architectural roles of

194

NP, NP architectures

Introduction, architectural variety, primary architectural characteristics, Architecture, packet flow and clock
rates, software architecture, assigning functionality to the process hierarchy, issues in sc
aling an NP.

(8)

IXP1200:
Introduction, Overview of IXP, Embedded RISC processor (Strong ARM core), Packet processor hardware (Microengine
and FBI), Microengine programming, Microcode programming.

(10)

IXP2XXX:
Introduction, IXP2xxx Architecture, Microengines, Programming Models, Packet processing in a single thread, Advanced
programming, Applications: Switches, Routers, Firewall, Active Networks.

(12)

Total 42

REFERENCES:

1.

Douglas E
Comer, “Network Systems Design using Network P
rocessors”, Intel IXP version,

Pearson Education. March 2003
.

2.

Erik J

Johnson and Aaron R

Kunze, “IXP1200 Programming”, Intel Press. M
arch

2002,

3.

Erik J

Johnson and Aaron Kunze, “IXP 2400/2800 Programming”, Intel Press, April 2003
.

4.

Uday R Naik and Prashant

R

Chandra, “Designing High Performance Networking Applications
:

Essential Insights for
Developers of IXP2XXX Network Processor Based
Systems”, Intel Press, November 2004
.

5.

Donald F Hooper, “Using IXP2400/2800 Development Tools

A Hands on Approach to Network Processor Software Design”,
Intel Press, August 2004
.

6.

Patrick Crowley, Peter Z Onufryk, Mark A

Franklin and
twork Processors 2002: Design Principles and
Practices”, Vol 1, Morgan Kaufmann Publications, September 2002.

7.

Mark A Franklin, Patr
ick Crowley, Haldun Hadimioglu and
Peter Z Onufryk “Network Processor Design: Issues and Practices”,
Vol 2, Academic Press, D
ecember 2003.

8.

Panos C Lekkas, “Network Processors: Architectures, Protocols and Platforms (Telecom Engineering)

, McGraw Hill, July
2003
.

0
9
LC
32

MULTIRATE SIGNAL PROCESSING

3 0 0 3

DECIMATION AND INTERPOLATION:

Introduction

Representation of discre
te signals

Reducing the sampling rate

Increasing
the sample rate.
Decimation with transversal filters

Interpolation with transversal filters

Decimation with Polyphase filters

Interpolation with polyphase filters

Decimation and Interpolation with

Rational sampling factors

(12
)

TWO CHANNEL FILTER

BANKS:

Analysis and synthesis filter banks

Quadrature mirror filter banks

Filter banks with perfect
reconstruction

Paraunitary filter banks

Biorthogonal and linear phase filter banks

Transmul
iplexer filter banks.

(9)

UNIFORM M
-
CHANNEL FIILTER

BANKS:
Filter banks with tree structure

Filter banks with parallel structure

complex
modulated

filter banks

cosine modulated filter banks

Transmultiplexer filter banks. (9)

FILTER BA
N
KS WITH POLYPHASE STRUCTURE:

Fund
amental polyphase structures

polyphase QMF banks

General two
channel polyphase filter banks

General M
-
channel polyphase filter banks

Paraunitary polyphase filter banks

DFT polyphase
filter banks.
Application: Digital audio.

(
11
)

Total 42

REFERENCES:

1.

Fliege N

J, "Multirate Digital Signal Processing", John Wiley and sons, 1994.

2.

Vaidyyanathan P
P
,
"Multirate Systems and Filter Banks", Prentice Hall Inc., 1993
.

3.

Proakis J G
a
nd

Manolakis D

G, "Digital Signal Processing Principles, Algorithms and Applications"
, Prentice H
all of
India, 2002
.

4.

Sanj
it

K

Mitra, "Digital Signal Processing
-
A Computer Based Approach", Tata McGraw Hill, 2003.

09LC41 INDUSTRIAL VISIT AND T
ECHNICAL SEMINAR

1 0 2 2

The student will make atleast two technical presentations on current topics related to the specialization. The same will be
assessed
by a committee appointed by the department. The students are expected to submit a report at the

end of the semester covering the
various aspects of his/her presentation together with the observation in industry visits. A quiz covering the above will be

held at the
end of the semester.

09LC51
DSP & EMBEDDED

SYSTEMS

LAB
ORATORY

195

0 0 3 3

1.
Design and
Implementation of

LMS, RLS and Kalman adaptive filters to remove

noise and estimat
ion of

the

Channel using

Matlab

and FPGA kit.

2.
Design and
implementation of Digital Modulation

Sc
heme
s

using Matlab and FPGA kit.

3. D
esign, Implementation and testing of a CAN protocol.

4. Design, Implementation and testing of Ethernet protocol.

5. Design, Implementation and testing of PWM concepts.

09LC52

LABORATORY

0 0 3 3

1.

Design, simulation, fabrication a
nd testing of directional and miniaturized directional couplers for a frequency range less

than 3GHz.

2.

Design, simulation, fabrication and testing of phased array antenna for a frequency range less than 3GHz.. .

3.

Design, simulation, fabrication and testing o
f Mixers for a frequency range less than 3GHz..

4.

Design, simulation, fabrication and testing of power amplifier for a frequency range less than 3GHz..

5.

Design, simulation, fabrication and testing of different types of RF filters for a frequency range less th
an 3GHz
.

09LC5
3

S

LABORATORY

0 0 3 3

1.

Development of code in Micro C / ASM

using

Network simulator /

Developer work bench of IXP 2400 for

Packet generation , Packet classification, Packet buffering and Packet forwarding.

2.

Dev
elopment of code for AES
E
ncryption
/

Decryption and RSA digital signature scheme
.

I
mplement confidentiality and
authentication protection model using above techniques and
s
tudy the performance.

3.

Development of code
for

HMAC

and implement

authentication and
integrity protection model for image transmission.

4.

D
evelopment of parallel programming techniques to analyze the scalar processor and vector processor.

09LC5
5

OBJECT COMPUTING AND D
A
TA STRUCTURES
LABORATORY

2 0 3 4

Vide Control Systems 09EC5
5

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