Appendix—Access technologies - ACMA

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Australian Communications and Media Authority

November

2005

54

Appendix

Access technologies

Telecommunications services involve three main technological concepts, these being:



access

the technology that connects a user to the greater network, allowing them
to communicate with other

users or to access other types of te
lecommunications
services such as internet services;



transmission

the technology that links network components, such as telephone
exchanges, that manage and direct telecommunications traffic; and



interconnect

the links between the networks owned by differe
nt carriers that
enable the end
-
user customers of different carriers to communicate.


This chapter provides an overview of the terrestrial access technologies used to
provide telecommunications services in Australia. A summary table at the end of this
cha
pter outlines the performance attributes, the types of services and applications that
may be delivered over these access technologies. It also describes the availability of
these technologies at the end of June 2005.

Fixed voice

access technologies

General
ly, the
re are two main types of
networks used
to

deliver fixed telephone
services
.
The
se

are circuit
-
switched networks and pac
ket
-
switched networks, such as
those
using internet protocol (IP) signalling
.

All telecommunications services in
Australia use dig
ital architecture.

Circuit
-
switched networks

In
circuit
-
switched networks
,

a
dedicated

end
-
to
-
end circuit is created and
maintained

for the duration of a particular session
, usually a telephone call. Circuit
-
switched
connections are possible between almost

any two points, where the infrastructure
exists.

Circuit
-
switched access services are usually provided over networks deployed
primarily or specifically for that purpose and involve significant infrastructure
components that can only be used for voice tele
phony or a limited range of other data
services. The great majority of standard telephone services in Australia, including
fixed and mobile services and payphones, use circuit
-
switched access networks.

Packet networks

Packet networks break up each communic
ation into small individual packets of data
and sends them through the network using the most efficient route at the time of
transmission. This means that any particular communication may travel over many
different routes before being reassembled. A teleph
ony service that uses IP access
technology involves
a
n

IP
-
based
packet
-
switch
ed

network
, which may include the
public internet
.

Unlike circuit
-
switched calls,
packet network
calls do not
require a
dedicated
circuit,
and therefore use network resources much

more efficiently
.


In some cases, IP
-
telephony offerings are stand
-
alone services such as PC
-
to
-
PC
services. In other cases, IP
-
telephony services connect to the circuit
-
switched portion
of the public switched telephone network (PSTN). IP
-
telephony can op
erate on
existing telecommunications
access

infrastructure where service providers use
existing ADSL
-
based broadband access services, as is the case for most services
offered to the Australian residential market. IP
-
telephony can be supplied in a package
t
hat imitates the technology, features and performance of circuit
-
switched services or

Australian Communications and Media Authority

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2005

55

it can be supplied as a computer application
and
may require some configuration, such
as the installation and connection of telephony hardware and software through a
comp
uter, by the end
-
user.


IP
-
based

networks can enable the supply of myriad applications, services and content,
with telephony being merely one, albeit significant, example. This diversity of
functionality is a key advantage that IP
-
based

networks have over
circuit
-
switched
networks and also means it is difficult to assess IP
-
telephony technologies in isolation
from the other services using them.


Packet networks, including IP
-
based networks, do not use dedicated circuits and it is
therefore impossible to cat
egorically state what the data transmission rate of any
particular session is going to be. Reported data rates for these services are usually
theoretical maximums, which may not be achievable and vary during any particular
session. Issues such as congestio
n and distance from the transmitter (for wireless
services) all affect the actual data rate experienced.

Mobile services

As with fixed access networks in Australia, all mobile telecommunications access
networks now use digital architecture, but there is gr
eater diversity in the features and
performance attributes of mobile access technology.


Mobile technologies have developed in ‘generations’, with first
-
generation
technologies being based on analog architecture (Australia’s only analog network was
closed
at the end of 1999) and second
-
generation (2G) technologies introducing
digital architecture and basic data services (particularly SMS). Subsequent
enhancements to 2G technologies, usually described as 2.5G, enabled higher data
rates and the feasibility of

applications such as video downloads Third
-
generation
(3G) access technologies offer even higher data rates and support more sophisticated
and content
-
rich services such as video telephony. While all mobile technologies
support internet access, this appli
cation has only become a significant feature of these
services since the deployment of 2.5G services.

2G networks

Global system for mobile communications (GSM) and code division multiple access
(CDMA) are digital technologies currently used to provide the
majority of mobile
services in Australia. In addition to voice services, GSM and CDMA technologies
also support short message service (
SMS
), Australia’s most widely
-
used mobile data
application service.

2.5G

enhancements to 2G

Second
-
generation GSM was upg
raded to enable general packet radio service
(GPRS). GPRS provides additional mobile data services in areas of GSM coverage to
consumers with enabled mobile handsets.
Optus, Telstra and Vodafone have all
upgraded their GSM networks

to enable GPRS. GPRS off
ers
data transmission rates
between 20 and 40 kbit/s.

3G networks

CDMA2000 is a third
-
generation (3G) mobile standard that delivers increased system
capacity and higher data throughput over 2G CDMA systems. CDMA2000 describes

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a family of technologies inclu
ding CDMA2000 1xRTT and CDMA2000 1xEV
-
DO.
CDMA2000 1xRTT (also known as CDMA2000 1x) provides data rates of up to 144
kbit/s, but typically provides between 80 and 100 kbit/s.


Wideband CDMA

(W
-
CDMA) is a third
-
generation (3G) mobile technology that
enabl
es applications such as full
-
motion video, video
-
conferencing, broadband
internet access and video phone calls. The technology can achieve data rates of up to
2 Mbit/s, but the W
-
CDMA services in Australia currently offered on the Hutchison
‘3’ network are

typically configured to offer data rates up to 384 kbit/s.

Satellite voice services

In addition to the terrestrial mobile networks, mobile satellite services are also
available in Australia. These services provide access to mobile telecommunications
for
consumers living outside the coverage of the terrestrial mobile and fixed
broadband networks,
particularly in remote areas
.

Data services

access technologies

A diverse range of access technologies deliver data services in Australia. Many of the
technologie
s that provide voice services and messaging services also support data
applications such as email, internet browsing, peer
-
to
-
peer applications and internet
-
based multimedia services. Some of these technologies provide unconditioned access
that enable user
s to configure the service to support a range of applications that they
may choose, including for very high bandwidth requirements.


The focus of this section is on higher rate data services, offering rates above 256
kbit/s download. The only technologies
providing ubiquitous access to high data rate
services throughout Australia are some of the satellite services
. The vast majority of
high data

rate access networks and technologies are concentrated in metropolitan
areas and selected regional centres

a refl
ection of the limited range (distance
between the user’s premises and the nearest network point
-
of
-
presence) of many of
these technologies.

Fixed data access technologies


Dial
-
up internet access

Dial
-
up internet access enables users to access internet app
lications such as email and
browsing the World Wide Web by establishing a connection through a modem that
dials into the circuit switched PSTN. This technology requires a ‘call’ to be made and
establishes the data link through the voice channel of the PSTN
. This means users
incur any relevant calling charges (in addition to charges levied for internet access)
when establishing a session and users cannot use any telephones connected to the
same line during an internet session. The data rate is limited (usual
ly to a maximum of
56 kbit/s downstream) by the narrow bandwidth of the voice channel.


Dial
-
up access can be made from a copper
-
pair connection to the PSTN or using a
mobile telephony service. While access to these services is almost always available
from

any premises with a connection to the PSTN, its performance may be affected by
geographic conditions or the configuration of the access network.




Australian Communications and Media Authority

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Integrated services digital network

Integrated services d
igital
n
etwork

(ISDN) technology provides a dedicat
ed data
service that can be used to provide voice telephony and basic data services such as
internet and point
-
of
-
sale electronic payment services. It offers downstream data rates
of up to 128 kbit/s and is not generally considered to be ‘broadband’. ISDN
uses an
unique architecture that is conceptually similar to circuit
-
switched networks, but it can
function over significantly longer distances between the user’s premises and the
nearest network point
-
of
-
presence compared with

many terrestrial broadband
te
chnologies.


Digital subscriber line technologies

Various digital subscriber line (DSL) technologies are deployed in Australia, offering
data rates significantly higher than dial
-
up internet access and a wider range of
applications and services. DSL techno
logies operate over copper
-
pair access networks
originally deployed for circuit
-
switched telephony (the PSTN) and exploit the
significant bandwidth not used by those telephony services.


DSL technologies vary significantly in performance attributes and con
figuration and
there is an emerging trend towards generational evolution analogous to the evolution
of mobile access technologies, with the prime example being the evolution of
asymmetric DSL (ADSL) into longer range and faster versions, described as ADSL2

and ADSL2+.


ADSL
is asymmetrical due to the different rates for uploading and downloading data,
with the upload rate usually being a fraction of the download rate. It is theoretically
capable of download
rates

up to
8 Mbit/s

and upload
rates

of up to
1 M
bit/s
,
but there
are virtually no services offering

download
rates

of more tha
n

1
.
5

Mbit/s,

due to the
limitations of
the PSTN
.

ADSL is historically only available up to about four
kilometres from an ADSL
-
enabled exchange. However, there have been successf
ul
trials where ADSL has been provided over longer distances (between 15 and 20
kilometres) from an exchange using network extension devices.


ADSL2 permit
s
downstream
rates

of up to 12

Mbit/s u
sing the
PSTN copper pair
access network
.

It

may

also extend t
he reach of ADSL services by about 250 metres

and

adds voice channel capabilities
,

as well as an additional 256

kbit/s

upstream
capability.


T
he newer ADSL2+ standard doubles the
peak
frequency of downstream data from
1.1

MHz to 2.2

MHz, making it capable
of
data transmission rates

of
up to 25

Mbit/s
over phone lines up to two
k
ilo
m
etres

in length.

With some newer ADSL modems
being configured to support these standards, some ADSL services may
be upgraded
with no more than a
software
update and change to the

user’s agreement with their
ISP.


High DSL (HDSL) and symmetric high DSL (SHDSL)

technologies can be provided
over the same infrastructure as ADSL, but they differ in terms of the number of
copper pairs required, the symmetry of upload and download data r
ates, and the
distances over which particular data
-
transfer rates can be achieved.



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2005

58

Very high data rate DSL (VDSL)

offers

much higher data rates o
ver relatively short
distances,
between 51 and 55
Mbit/s

over
copper
lines
of
up to 300 met
res

in length.

Unli
ke other forms of DSL, it is typically deployed over hybrid networks such as
fibre
-
to
-
the
-
kerb or fibre
-
to
-
the
-
neighbourhood (discussed under ‘
Optical fibre
technologies


below) that extend optical fibre cables into the access network, with the
final conne
ction being via copper cable.


H
ybrid fibre coaxial cable
technologies

Hybrid fibre coaxial cable
(HFC) technologies involve the use of optical fibre and
coaxial cable to carry data at high rates. The optical fibre connection forms the
‘backbone’, with coa
xial cable running from fibre nodes to the customer’s premises.
These networks usually support multiple service channels in the form of voice
telephony, internet access and subscription television services.


Optical fibre technologies

Optical fibre cable s
ervices are regarded as the most reliable and highest data rate
infrastructure available for supplying telecommunications services. While other
current and emerging services may be able to deliver the same applications and
content, most of these alternativ
es are limited in geographic range from the required
base stations and the maximum available data rate. The relative disadvantage of
optical fibre as a delivery system for services is its cost, because it requires trenching
and physical installation of a b
uried or overhead cable. It is also much more expensive
to terminate.


Fibre
-
to
-
the
-
premises (FTTP) or fibre
-
to
-
the
-
home (FTTH) technology involves
installation of optical fibre cable services in the access network, from the exchange all
the way to the sub
scriber’s dwelling.


Fibre
-
to
-
the

kerb (FTTK, also known as FTTC) technology involves the deployment
of optical fibre cable infrastructure from network nodes to a point close to the
subscriber’s premises, then the use of copper cable (usually existing) to
connect the
dwelling. Unlike FTTP, the optical fibre cable component of the network is usually
shared between services. The maximum data rate achievable over an FTTK service is
significantly lower than FTTH, which is typically
25 Gbit
/s, compared with more

than
1 Gbit/s for FTTK.


Fibre
-
to
-
the
-
neighbourhood (FTTN) involves deployment of optical fibre cable
services from the exchange to a service pedestal or underground utility box and
coaxial or copper pair cable from that point to subscriber dwellings. Som
e DSL
services may be provided via FTTN, where the access network includes optical fibre
cable infrastructure for some links to and from the exchange.


Broadband over power line communications

Broadband over power line (BPL) communications is an emerging t
echnology that
uses electricity networks for the transmission of data, voice and video.

S
ubscriber
s
only need to

install a modem that plugs into an ordinary
electricity

outlet and pay a
subscription fee similar to other
i
nternet
access
service
s
.

BPL may al
so be used for in
-
building networks, such as business local area networks (LANs) and home networks.
It has been deployed in four pilot projects in Australia and is currently subject to an
ACMA review.


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2005

59

Wireless

access technologies

The deployment of wireless

access
technology has been
the most significant trend in
Australia over the last few years. Mobile wireless access technologies can generally
support access to a limited range of data services and applications. While 2G mobile
services were designed with
the primary (if not sole) intention of providing voice
services and their suitability for other applications is extremely limited, other wireless
access technologies were designed primarily for data services.


Wireless access technologies are grouped acco
rding to whether they enable fixed
access (access from a single location) or nomadic access (access from either multiple
static locations or access while mobile). Nomadic services are described as being
either ‘portable’, meaning they can be moved between
access points but usually not
able to be used while moving, and ‘mobile’, meaning they can be used while moving.


Fixed wireless technologies

Local

m
ultipoint
d
istribut
ion s
ystem (LMDS)

is a
technology

for broadband
microwave wireless transmission direct
from a local antenna to
customers

within a
line
-
of
-
sight radius
.
LMDS is an alternative to installing optical fib
r
e all the way to
the user or to adapting
subscription television

for broadband
i
nternet service
.
Some
services offer both downstream and upstr
eam service (symmetrical service); others
offer downstream only (asymmetrical service)
,

with upstream being obtained using
wire connections.

LMDS is unable to provide nomadic access due to the size of the
customer equipment, specifically the transceiver.


Multi
-
channel m
ultipoint
distribution s
ervice (MMDS)

is a broadcasting and
communications service that operates in the ultra
-
high
-
frequency (UHF) portion of
the radio spectrum between 2.1 and 2.7 GHz. MMDS is also known as wireless cable.
It was conceived
as a substitute for conventional cable television. However, it also has
applications in telephone/fax and data communications.

Both MMDS and LMDS are
frequently described as microwave services.


Wireless
mesh networks feature a distributed network of wirel
ess base stations that
may also act as transit links for managing network data traffic. While the IEEE 802.11
standards technologies can also provide nomadic access (discussed below), the
transceivers usually need to be fixed when they form part of a mesh
network to
maintain the integrity of the network.


Nomadic wireless access

p
roprietary technologies

Two access networks offer high data rate access using proprietary portable or mobile
technologies in Australia.
iBurst

uses
smart adaptive antenna technolog
y

to provide
mobile access and high data rates
in the 1.9 GHz licensed band
.
Navini

uses a b
eam
-
forming, diversity path loading technology

providing a
nomadic broadband system

in
the
3.4

GHz licensed spectrum

band


CDMA
2000

1xEV
-
DO

is an evolution of CDMA2
000 1XRTT that provides users
with average data rates of 300

600 kbit/s and the ability to ‘burst’ in excess of 1
Mbit/s up to a maximum burst data rate of 2.4 Mbit/s.





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Nomadic wireless access

o
pen standards technologies

Some access technologies are base
d on standards developed through cooperative
projects managed by
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers

(IEEE) 802
standards working groups.


The IEEE 802.11 standards (often described as wireless LAN or Wi
-
Fi) provide high
data rate wireless ac
cess over short distances that enable the deployment of hotspot
networks (where base stations are located in numerous amenities such as cafes,
libraries or universities) or mesh networks.
802.11b, or Wi
-
Fi, is a standard for
wireless LANs operating in the
2.4 GHz spectrum with a
data rate

of
up to
11 Mb
it/
s
,
while

802.11a is a standard for
W
LANs operating in the 5 GHz frequency range with
a maximum data rate of 54 Mb
it/
s.
The

802.11g

standard

is for WLANs operating in
the 2.4 GHz frequency
,

but with a maxim
um data rate of 54 Mb
it/
s.


The relatively low cost of 802.11 base station and mesh network infrastructure
coupled with the use of class
-
licensed spectrum enables the deployment of networks
covering significant portions of metropolitan and some regional ar
eas and it allows
the service to become portable despite its short ranges.


T
he

802.16 standard

(also known as WiMAX) specifies

fixed point
-
to
-
multipoint
broadband wireless systems operating
in the 10

66 GHz licensed spectrum.

An
amendment, 802.16a
, specif
ies

non

line
-
of
-
sight extensions in
the 2

11 GHz
spectrum, delivering
data rates of
up to 70 Mb
it/
s at distances up to
50 kilometres.


These standards offer fixed wireless access with the possibility of portability. The
IEEE 80.16 Working Group is developi
ng the 802.16e that may offer similar
performance attributes combined with mobility.



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2005

61

Table A
.1: Access technology performance attributes and availability

Access
technology

Rate

(downstream/

upstream)
and mobility

Distance range

Applications and services
supported

Geographic availability

ADSL

256/64 kbit/s to
1.5/1
Mbit/s
. Up to
8

Mbit/s
over short distances.

Fixed access

Within approx
.

4
km of an exchange
that is ADSL
-
enabled (up to 20

km with ADSL
extender)



Circuit
-
switched

telephony can be
provided
over the same access line



I
nternet browsing, email and peer
-
to
-
peer applications



A
udio and low
-
definition video
streaming and communications, video
conferencing



VoIP



B
usiness applications, e
-
commerce
including public key infrastructure
(PKI) encryption

Mo
re than

1,750 Telstra
ESA
s in all
states of Australia, serving all major
urban centres and most localitie
s with a
population over 1,000


All ADSL access via the Telstra copper
local loop; with exchange infrastructure
provided by approximately 15 other
carr
iers


ADSL extender only available to some
services in the Telstra Torquay ESA in

Qld
at 18 August 2005

VDSL
(v
ery high
data rate

digital
subscriber line
)

Downstream
: up to 52
Mbit/s at 300

m,
up to
13 Mbit/s at 1.
5

km
.

Upstream
: 1.5

6.4

Mbit/s

F
ixed acce
ss

Depending on the
network
configuration, up to
1.
5

km from an
exchange



Circuit
-
switched v
oice telephony and
pay TV

services over the same line,
subject to the configuration of the
network



I
nternet browsing, email and peer
-
to
-
peer applications



A
udio and h
igh
-
definition video
streaming and communications
,

and
VoIP



Video
-
on
-
d
emand and high
-
definition
IP television



E
-
commerce including PKI encryption



T
elemedicine including remote surgery

Tr
ansACT

network covering
approximately 50% of the Canberra
metropolitan

area


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2005

62

Access
technology

Rate

(downstream/

upstream)
and mobility

Distance range

Applications and services
supported

Geographic availability

HDSL
(h
igh
bit
rate
digital
subscriber line
)

and SHDSL
(single pair high
speed
digital
subscriber line
)

1.5 to 2 Mbit/s symmetric

F
ixed access

Within approx
.

4
km of ADSL
-
enabled exchange



C
annot operate voice telephony over
same access line



I
nternet

browsing, email and peer
-
to
-
peer services



A
udio and low
-
definition video
streaming and communications
(including video conferencing)



VoIP



B
usiness applications, e
-
commerce
including PKI encryption

Telstra, Optus, Powertel provi
ding
access in over 90 Telst
ra ESA
s in major
metropolitan areas

ADSL2+


24 Mbit/s up to 600 m; 4
Mbit/s at 3.7 km

Fixed access




C
an operate voice telephony over the
same access line



I
nternet browsing, email and peer
-
to
-
peer services



A
udio and standard
-
definition video
streaming and
communications and
HD
-
IPTV



VoIP



B
usiness applications, e
-
commerce
including PKI encryption



T
elemedicine including remote surgery

Available in Adelaide and Perth from
carriers such as Amnet (Amcom),
Agile, Adam Internet and iiNet

Trialled by Telstra, with w
ider
deployment announced to occur during
2005


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2005

63

Access
technology

Rate

(downstream/

upstream)
and mobility

Distance range

Applications and services
supported

Geographic availability

ADSL2


12 Mbit/s up to 1.8 km; 4
Mbit/s at 3.7 km

Fixed access

250 metres beyond
the range of ADSL



C
an operate voice telephony
over the
same access line



I
nternet browsing, email and peer
-
to
-
peer services



A
udi
o and standard
-
definition video
streaming and communications and
standard definition IPTV (SD
-
IPTV)



VoIP



business applications, e
-
commerce
including public key infrastructure
(PKI
) encryption



telemedicine


Available in Adelaide and Perth from
carriers such

as Amnet (Amcom),
Agile, Adam Internet and iiNet.

HFC c
able

Up to 3.5 Mbit/s

Fixed access

Range is limited by
network
deployment and
configuration



C
an operate POTS
, broadband

and pay
TV over the same line, subject to the
configuration of the network.



I
nt
ernet browsing, emai
l and peer
-
to
-
peer applications



A
udio and high
-
definition vid
eo
streaming and communications



VoD and HD
-
IPTV



VoIP



B
usiness applications, e
-
commerce
including PKI encryption



T
elemedicine


Telstra and Optus networks

deployed

in
most of me
tropolitan Melbourne,
Sydney, Brisbane
and
Gold Coast


Neighborhood Cable network in
Geelong, Mildura and Ballarat


Australian Communications and Media Authority

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2005

64

Access
technology

Rate

(downstream/

upstream)
and mobility

Distance range

Applications and services
supported

Geographic availability

Broadband
powerline
communications

Fixed access




Can operate voice telephony and pay
TV over the same line, subject to the
configuration of
the network



Internet browsing, email and peer
-
to
-
peer applications



Audio and high
-
definition video
streaming and communications



VoD and high
-
definition IP television
(HD
-
IPTV)



VoIP



Business applications, e
-
commerce
including public key infrastructure
(PKI)

encryption



Telemedicine

Field trials conducted

in Hobart,
Tas
mania

in late 2004 and
Moruya,
Queanbeyan

and

Newcastle

in

N
ew
S
outh
W
ales in early 2005, with
commercial trials commenced in
September 2005

Satellite downlink,
ISDN uplink (one
-
way satellite)

Up to 512/128 kbit/s

Fixed

access

Limited by the
range of ISDN
services; up to 10
km from an ISDN
enabled exchange



C
an operate a circuit switch voice
telephony service over the same access
line



I
nternet browsing, email and peer
-
to
-
peer applications



A
udio
and low
-
definition video
streaming and communications
(including video conferencing)



VoIP



B
usiness applications, e
-
commerce
including PKI encryption

100% of
Australian population for
satellite component, 97
% for ISDN
component



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2005

65

Access
technology

Rate

(downstream/

upstream)
and mobility

Distance range

Applications and services
supported

Geographic availability

Satellite downlink,
satelli
te uplink
(two
-
way satellite)

Up to 512/512 kbit/s

Fixed access

Total coverage of
Australia.



C
an operate a circuit switch voice
telephony service

over the same access
line



I
nternet browsing, email and peer
-
to
-
peer applications



A
udio and low
-
definition vide
o
streaming and communications
(including video conferencing)



VoIP



B
usiness applications, e
-
commerce
including PKI encryption

100% of Australian population


WiFi

IEEE 802.11a/b/g

P
ortable, packet
-
switched, local
access


Up to 11 Mbit/s

(802.11b)

Up to 54

Mbit/s

(802.11g
and 802.11a)

F
ixed access

when part
of a local, usually
mesh, access network;
portable across a
hotspot network

Portable with a
subscription to a
hotspot service.

Usually within 500
m of a

wireless
access point



Internet browsing, email and

peer
-
to
-
peer services



Audio and standard
-
definition video
streaming and communications and
IPTV



VoIP



Business applications, e
-
commerce
including PKI encryption



Telemedicine



Hotspot access available nationally
in more than 1,000 hotspots in
hotels, cafes,
shops and airport
lounges in capital cities and regional
centres in all mainland states and
territories and Tasmania



Local access provided by
community
-
based co
-
operatives
using mesh network configurations
in all capital cities and more than 50
localities
in all states



Local access provided by ISPs in all
capital cities and a small number of
localities

iBurst

Portable, packet
-
switched,
metropolitan area
network

Up to 1
,
0
24
/345 kbit/s

Mobile

In some capital
cities, within 10 km
of CBD



Portable or mobile int
ernet access

Brisbane
,

Canberra
,

Gold Coast,
Melbourne
,

Sydney


Australian Communications and Media Authority

November

2005

66

Access
technology

Rate

(downstream/

upstream)
and mobility

Distance range

Applications and services
supported

Geographic availability

3G WCDMA

M
obile
cellular,
circuit and packet
-
switched

Up to
384 kbit/s

Mobile.


Subject to the
location of base
stations and the
configuration of
cells; up to a
maximum of
approximately
35km
using a wide
-
area configuration
.



Voice telephony



SMS and MMS



Video MMS, video streaming



Broadband
i
nternet access and email



Video calls



Video streaming and video
conferencing

Adelaide, Brisbane, Canberra, Gold
Coast, Melbourne, Perth and Sydney

GSM

Mobile

cellular,
circuit
-
switched

9.6 kbit/s

Mobile

Subject to the
location of base
stations and the
configuration of
cells; up to a
maximum of
approximately
35km using a wide
-
area configuration



Voice telephony



SMS



Limited email access

A
ll urban localities. Also many regional
areas throughout Australia, particularly
on the mainland east coast

GSM GPRS
Mobile cellular
packet
-
switched

Typical speeds of 20

40 kbps,
u
p to 172.2
kbit/s

Mobile

Subject to the
location of base
stations and
the
configuration of
cells; up to a
maximum of
approximately
35km using a wide
-
area configuration



Voice telephony



SMS and MMS



Video MMS, video streaming



Internet access and email

A
ll urban localities. Also many regional
areas th
roughout Australia, particularly
on the mainland east coast


Australian Communications and Media Authority

November

2005

67

Access
technology

Rate

(downstream/

upstream)
and mobility

Distance range

Applications and services
supported

Geographic availability

CDMA

CDMA2000
1xRTT
m
obile
cellular packet
-
switched

Up to
144 kbit/s

Mobile

Subject to the
location of base
stations and the
configuration of
cells; up to a
maximum of
approximately
35km using
a wide
-
area configuration



Voice telephony



SMS and MMS



Video MMS, video streaming



Internet access and email

Adelaide, Brisbane, Canberra, Gold
Coast, Melbourne, Perth and Sydney
,

and

selected regional centres

CDMA

CDMA2000
1xEVDO
m
obile
cellular packet
-
swi
tched

Typically
300

600 kbit/s

up to a maximum of

2.4
Mbit/s

Mobile

Subject to the
location of base
stations and the
configuration of
cells; up to a
maximum of
approximately
35km using a wide
-
area configuration



Voice telephony



SMS and MMS



Video MMS, video
streaming



Internet access and email

Adelaide, Brisbane, Canberra, Gold
Coast, Melbourne, Perth and Sydney
,
and

selected regional centres

I3.4
-
3.5

GHz band
f
ixed wireless
metropolitan area
network

64/32 kbit/s

128/64 kbit/s

1,024/256 kbit/s

Portable

Limite
d to 10 km
from transmitters in
capital cities



Internet access



VoIP



Web hosting

Sydney metropolitan area

LMDS in the 2
.
8

GHz band
f
ixed
wireless
metropolitan area
network

2.048 Mbit/s (E1) or
NX64 kbit/s, STM1 ATM
link

Fixed access

Up to 8 km line
-
of
-
sigh
t between
points



Voice telephony



Wireless pay TV



Two
-
way interactive video
communications



High data rate including internet



Telemedicine



Teleconferencing

Parts of Adelaide, Brisbane
, Canberra,
Perth
, Hobart,
Melbourne

and
Sydney

and three

rural cities in V
ictoria



Australian Communications and Media Authority

November

2005

68

Access
technology

Rate

(downstream/

upstream)
and mobility

Distance range

Applications and services
supported

Geographic availability

MMDS
f
ixed
wireless
w
ide
a
rea
n
etwork

Up to
155

Mbit/s

(STN1
configuration)
.

Up to 60 km
between points

Used for television broadcasting and
increasingly fo
r two
-
way, high data rate
i
nternet access

All major urban and regional localities
in NSW,
Victoria and Queensland
Adelaide and Perth



Australian Communications and Media Authority

November

2005

69