Chapter 1

childrenpenNetworking and Communications

Oct 26, 2013 (4 years and 18 days ago)

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Summer 13 CSEN 5303 Web Programming

Chapter_1

1

1.1

A Brief Intro to the Internet


a.
-

Origins



Time:


-

ARPAnet
-

late 1960s and early 1970s


Purpose:


-

Network reliability
continue functioning under attack



Communication
, program sharing, remote computer access


User:
For ARPA
-
funded research organizations


Usage:
Text
-
based


In addition to ARPAnet, other networks show up later
due to majority of
educational institutions

were
not connected.

Time:

-


BITnet, CSnet
-

late 1970s & early 1980s


Purpose:
email
and
file transfer
for other institutions

User:
academic institution

Usage: Still text based (later WWW has GUI)


Summer 13 CSEN 5303 Web Programming

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For a variety of reasons, neither BITnet nor CSnet became national network.


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Time:


NSFnet 1986

Purpose: Connect 5 supercomputing centers for
information exchange and resources sharing.

User: Connect 5 supercomputing centers,
la
ter available to many other universities and labs

to login.

Usage: Still text based (Later WWW has GUI)


NSFnet became popular in 1990.
1992, o
ne millions nodes are established.

1995 NSFnet became the prototype of today’s Internet. Only a small part of
NSFnet was reserved for research.

What the Internet is:


-

A world
-
wide network of computer networks


How
do
these computers connect ?


-

At the middle
level, use
TCP/IP

(Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol)


Application, which is higher level than TCP/IP, builds more layers on TCP/IP.


Network hardware, which is lower level than

TCP/IP, support TCP/IP with some layers below TCP/IP.

1.1 A Brief Intro to the Internet (continued)


-

Internet Protocol (IP) Addresses



-

Every node has a unique numeric address


-

Form: 32
-
bit binary number


-

New standard, IPv6, has 128 b
its (1998)


-

Organizations are assigned groups of IPs for

their computers

Small company: 256 IP address
, 191.57.126.0 to 191.57.126.255

Very large corporation: 16 million IP address
, 12.0.0.0 to 12.255.255.255

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Name for people
, Numeric address for machine


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United airline (
www.ual.com
) 209.87.113.93

-

Domain names



-

Form: host
-
name.domain
-
names


-

First domain is the smallest; last is the largest


-

Last domain specifies the type of organization


-

Fully qualified domain name

-

the host name


and all of the domain names


-

DNS servers
-

convert fully qualified domain names to IPs

Example: movies.comedy.marxbros.com


M
ovies

is the host name ….

Problem
: By the mid
-
1980s, several different

protocols had been invented and were being
used

on the Internet, all with different user interfaces

(Telnet, FTP, Usenet, mailto)

Not convenient to users.

telnet ww.ual.com


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telnet: allow a user to remotely login.

FTP: transfer files among computers.

Usenet: electronic bulletin board.

mailto: send e
-
mail.

This variety of protocols, each with its own user interface and useful only for
which it was designed restricted the

growth of the Internet
. Users were required
to learn all the different interfaces to gain all the advantages of the Intranet.

A better approach was developed: the World Wide Web.

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Although World Wide Web supports many protocols, the most common on
e
is HTTP.

(Server needs to generate the documents in XHTML; Browser in client
needs to interpret the XHTML and display accordingly.)


Homework:

1.

Install Apache (
www.apache.org
),
php (
www.php.net
) and mysql (
www.mysql.com
) in
your laptop.

2.

For the following products, what brand do you have access to, what is its version
number, and what is the latest available version
?

a.

Browser

b.

Web server

c.

JavaScript

d.

PHP

e.

Servlets

f.

ASP.NET

g.

Ruby

h.

Rails


3.

Search the Web for information on the history of the following technologies, and write a
brief overview of those histories:

a.

TCP/IP

b.

SGML

c.

XHTML

d.

ARPAnet

e.

BITNET

f.

XML

g.

JavaScript

h.

Flash

i.

Servlets

j.

JSP

k.

JSF

l.

Rails

m.

Ajax