# watermarking scheme for image

AI and Robotics

Nov 6, 2013 (4 years and 6 months ago)

90 views

Self
-
embedding pixel wise fragile
watermarking scheme for image
authentication

Source:
Communications in Computer and Information

Science, Vol.276
, 2013,
pp.
111
-
122

Authors
:
Durgesh

Singh,
Shivendra

Shivani

and

Suneeta

Agarwal

Speaker
:
Chin
-
Yu
Sun

Date:
2013/05/22

1

Outline

Introduction

Proposed scheme

Experimental Results

Conclusions

2

Introduction

Self
-
embedding

Watermark

Original image

1. Create watermark

2. Embedding

3. Watermarked image

Self
-
embedding

3

Introduction

Hamming Distance

1101001

1110011

Hamming
Distance=3

4

Proposed scheme

Three algorithms

Authentication
𝑖𝑡
1

Generation

Authentication
𝑖𝑡
2

Generation

Authentication
𝑖𝑡
3

Generation

Two phases

Watermark embedding phase

Watermark detection phase

3 LSB

Authentication
𝑖𝑡
1

Authentication
𝑖𝑡
2

Authentication
𝑖𝑡
3

5

Proposed scheme

Authentication
𝑖𝑡
1

Generation

(Hamming Distance) mod 2

Pseudo
random
binary
matrix

Authentication
𝑖𝑡
1

Pixel

𝐾𝑦
1

6

Proposed scheme

Example

255

16

30

12

127

200

29

100

28

255 = 1111 1111

16 = 0001 0000

30 = 0001 1110

12 = 0000 1100

127 = 0111 1111

200 = 1100 1000

29 = 0001 1101

100 = 0110 0100

28 = 0001 1100

1

0

0

0

1

0

0

0

1

Host image

Pseudo random binary matrix

𝐾𝑦
1

= 10101

7

Proposed scheme

Example

1

1

1

1

1

Pixel

Output=1

1

0

1

0

1

(Hamming Distance=2) mod 2

= 0

Authentication
𝑖𝑡
1

𝐾𝑦
1

1

0

0

0

1

0

0

0

1

0

Output=0

8

Proposed scheme

Example

11111 = 0

00010 = 1

00011 = 0

00001 = 1

01111 = 1

11001 = 1

00011 = 0

01100 = 0

00011 = 1

Authentication
𝑖𝑡
1

0

1

0

1

1

1

0

0

1

9

Proposed scheme

Authentication
𝑖𝑡
2

Generation

0

0

0

Pixel

Row

Column

2 bit binary conversion of
bitwise decimal sum

Authentication
𝑖𝑡
2

10

Proposed scheme

Example

255

16

30

12

127

200

29

100

28

255 : 1111 1111

16
:

0001 0000

30
:

0001 1110

12
:

0000 1100

127
:

0111 1111

200
:

1100 1000

29
:

0001 1101

100
:

0110 0100

28
:

0001 1100

Host image

1111 1
000

0001 0
000

0001 1
000

0000 1
000

0111 1
000

1100 1
000

0001 1
000

0110 0
000

0001 1
000

0

0

1

2

1

2

11

Proposed scheme

Example

255

16

30

12

127

200

29

100

28

255 :
1111
1
000

Row: 0000 0000

Column: 0000 0000

Host image

0

0

1

2

1

2

1111 1
000

0000 0000

0000 0000

+)

1111
1
000

01 01 01 01 01 00 00 00

0

1

0

1

0

1

0

1

0

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

0

1

12

Proposed scheme

Example

255 :
1

16 :
0

30 :
1

12
: 0

127 :
1

200 :
0

29 :
1

100 :
1

28 :
1

Authentication
𝑖𝑡
2

1

0

1

0

1

0

1

1

1

13

Proposed scheme

Authentication
𝑖𝑡
3

Generation

X
-
1,Y
-
1

X
-
1, Y+1

X,Y

X+1,Y
-
1

X+1,Y+1

𝑃
𝐷1

𝑃
𝐷2

𝑃
𝐷3

𝑃
𝐷4

Calculate X=X
-
1 and Y=Y
-
1, until X=0 or Y=0

If X=0 then
𝑃
𝐷1
= C, else
𝑃
𝐷1
= R

R

C

Calculate X=X
-
1 and Y=Y+1, until X=0 or Y=

𝑁
2
-
1

If
Y=
𝑁
2
-
1 then
𝑃
𝐷
2
= R, else
𝑃
𝐷
2
=
C

Calculate X=X+1 and Y=Y
-
1, until X=
𝑁
1
-
1 or Y=0

If
X=
𝑁
1
-
1

then
𝑃
𝐷
3
= C, else
𝑃
𝐷
3
= R

Calculate X=X+1 and Y=Y+1, until X=
𝑁
1
-
1 or Y=
𝑁
2
-
1

If
X=
𝑁
1
-
1

then
𝑃
𝐷
4
= C, else
𝑃
𝐷
4
= R

0

0

1

1

2

2

14

Proposed scheme

Example

255

16

30

12

127

200

29

100

28

Host image

Calculate X=X
-
1 and Y=Y
-
1, until X=0 or Y=0

If X=0 then
𝑃
𝐷1
= C, else
𝑃
𝐷1
= R

Calculate X=X
-
1 and Y=Y+1, until X=0 or Y=

𝑁
2
-
1

If
Y=
2 then
𝑃
𝐷
2
= R, else
𝑃
𝐷
2
=
C

Calculate X=X+1 and Y=Y
-
1, until X=2 or Y=0

If X=2 then
𝑃
𝐷
3
= C, else
𝑃
𝐷
3
= R

Calculate X=X+1 and Y=Y+1, until X=2 or Y=2

If X=2 then
𝑃
𝐷
4
= C, else
𝑃
𝐷
4
= R

𝑃
𝐷1
=
0

𝑃
𝐷2
=
0

255: (0, 0)

𝑃
𝐷3
=
0

𝑃
𝐷4
=
2

15

1.

2
.

3.

4
.

1.

2
.

3.

4
.

Proposed scheme

Example

𝑃
𝐷1
=
0

𝑃
𝐷2
=
0

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

𝑃
𝐷3
=
0

𝑃
𝐷4
=
2

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0

=
𝑏
𝑖
(
𝑃
𝐷1
)

=
𝑏
𝑖
(
𝑃
𝐷
2
)

=
𝑏
𝑖
(
𝑃
𝐷
3
)

=
𝑏
𝑖
(
𝑃
𝐷
4
)

255 : 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

=
𝑏


1
=
𝑏
𝑖
𝑃
𝐷1

𝑏


2
=
𝑏
𝑖
𝑃
𝐷
2

𝑏𝑖𝑡 𝑖ℎ𝑡ℎ𝑖𝑡
(
𝑏

)


3
=
𝑏
𝑖
𝑃
𝐷
3

𝑡𝑤
𝑏𝑖𝑡 𝑖ℎ𝑡ℎ𝑖𝑡
(
𝑏

)


4
=
𝑏
𝑖
𝑃
𝐷
4

𝑡ℎ𝑟𝑏𝑖𝑡
𝑖ℎ𝑡ℎ𝑖𝑡
(
𝑏

)


12
=

1


2


34
=

3


4

3
=


12


34


2


1
=
1
1111


2
=
1
1111


3
=
1
1111


4
=
1
1101


12
=
0
0000


34
=
0
0010

3
=
1

Authentication
𝑖𝑡
3

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

16

Proposed scheme

Watermark
embedding
phase

Authentication
𝑖𝑡
3

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Authentication
𝑖𝑡
2

1

0

1

0

1

0

1

1

1

Authentication
𝑖𝑡
1

0

1

0

1

1

1

0

0

1

3 LSB

Authentication
𝑖𝑡
1

Authentication
𝑖𝑡
2

Authentication
𝑖𝑡
3

255

16

30

12

127

200

29

100

28

Host image

17

255 : 1111 1111

16
:

0001 0000

30
:

0001 1110

12
:

0000 1100

127
:

0111 1111

200
:

1100 1000

29
:

0001 1101

100
:

0110 0100

28
:

0001 1100

Proposed scheme

Watermark
embedding
phase

Authentication
𝑖𝑡
3

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Authentication
𝑖𝑡
2

1

0

1

0

1

0

1

1

1

Authentication
𝑖𝑡
1

0

1

0

1

1

1

0

0

1

255 : 1111 1
011

16 : 0001 0
100

30 : 0001 1
010

12 : 0000 1
100

127 : 0111 1
110

200 : 1100 1
100

29 : 0001 1
010

100 : 0110 0
010

28 : 0001 1
110

251

20

26

12

126

204

26

98

30

251

20

26

12

126

204

26

98

30

Watermarked image

18

Proposed scheme

Watermark
detection
phase

1

0

0

0

1

0

0

0

1

Pseudo random binary matrix

𝐾𝑦
1

= 10101

251

20

26

12

126

204

26

98

30

Watermarked image

1111 1011

0001 0100

0001 1010

0000 1100

0111 1110

1100 1100

0001 1010

0110 0010

0001 1110

1. Extract authentication
bit2

2. Run Algorithm 2
.

3. Verify authentication
bit2

1. Extract authentication bit1

2. Run Algorithm 1.

3. Verify authentication
bit1

1. Extract authentication
bit3

2. Run Algorithm
3.

3. Verify authentication
bit3

19

Experimental Results

(a)

(b)

(c)

(a)

(b)

(c)

(a)
Watermarked

(b)
Altered

(c)
Detected

20

Experimental Results

Host image

PSNR

(Embedding)

No. of altered
pixel

Detected(%)

Lena

40.40 dB

1050

94%

Camera

man

40.07 dB

900

97%

Baboon

40.52 dB

1600

97%

Number plate

40.72 dB

130

99%

Approach

Altered

pixels

Detected

(%)

PSNR

[11]

3800

54.23%

30dB

[6]

3800

96.45%

41dB

Proposed

scheme

3800

98.21%

40.8dB

[
6
]
.

He,

H
.
-
J
.
,

Zhang,

J
.
-
S
.
,

Tai,

H
.
-
M
.:

A

Wavelet
-
Based

Fragile

Watermarking

Scheme

for

Secure

Image

Authentication
.

In
:

Shi,

Y
.
Q
.
,

Jeon
,

B
.

(eds
.
)

IWDW

2006
.

LNCS,

vol
.

4283
,

pp
.

422

432
.

Springer,

Heidelberg

(
2006
)

[
11
]
.

Wong,

P
.
W
.
,

Memon
,

N
.:

Secret

and

Public

Key

Image

Watermarking

Schemes

for

Image

Authentication

and

Ownership

Verification
.

IEEE

Transactions

on

Image

Processing

10
(
10
)

(
2001
)

21

Conclusions

The rate of detection of altered pixel is very
high

High quality

22