Robust Reversible Watermarking
via Clustering and
Enhanced Pixel

Wise Masking
Source
:
IEEE Transactions on Image Processing,
Vol. 21, No. 8, pp. 3598

3611, August 2012
Authors
:
Lingling
An,
Xinbo
Gao
,
Xuelong
Li,
Dacheng
Tao, Cheng Deng
and
Jie
Li
Presenter
: Huynh Ngoc Tu
Date
:
October 18
th
,
2012
OUTLINE
•
INTRODUCTION
•
RELATED WORK
•
PROPOSED SCHEME
•
EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS
•
CONCLUSIONS
2
INTRODUCTION
Issues of robust reversible watermarking mechanisms:
Reversibility: how to handle both overflow and underflow of pixels
Robustness: how to resist unintentional attacks
Invisibility: how to make a trade

off between robustness and invisibility
3
INTRODUCTION
Features of the proposed scheme:
Offer the robust and lossless watermark embedding
Outperform in term of reversibility, robustness, invisibility, capacity
and run

time complexity
Be applicable to different kinds of images
Be readily applicable in practice
4
5
PWM: pixel

wise
marking proposed by
Barni
et al.
Revealing the perceptual characteristics of HVS
Compute the
JND
threshold of each wavelet coefficient based on resolution sensitivity,
brightness sensitivity, and texture sensitivity
Estimate
how HVS perceives disturbances in images
Related Works
–
Pixel

wise marking (PWM)
Related Works
–
Pixel

wise marking (PWM)
6
DWT
A
f
3
18
20

9
8
30
15
3

4
6
1
7

4
5

8

6

2
A
D
V
H
LL
H
L
LH
H
H
(
)
(
)
(
)
(
)
0.02
,,,,,,
JND i j i j p i j
w
r
r w r
= Q Y P
(
)
(
)
: resolution
1.00, if 0
0.32, if 1
2, if
,.
0.16, if 2
1, otherwise
0.10, i
,
f 3
HH
r
r
w
r w
r
r
r
w
ì ü
ï ï
=
ï ï
ï ï
ì ü
ï ï
ï ï
=
ï ï
=
ï ï
ï ï ï ï
Q =
í ý í ý
ï ï ï ï
=
ï ï ï ï
ï ï
î þ
ï ï
ï ï
=
ï
ï
î þ
Q
ï
ï
(
)
(
)
(
)
(
)
(
)
(
)
3
3 3
: brightness sensitivity
1,, if ,,0.5
,,1
,,, otherwise
1
where ,,1,1
256
,
2
,
2
LL
i j i j
i j
i j
i j
i j c
i j
r
r
r
r
r
r
r r
ì ü
ï ï
 L L <
ï ï
ï ï
Y = +
í ý
ï ï
L
ï ï
ï ï
î þ
æ ö
ê ú ê ú
÷
ç
ê ú ê ú
÷
ç
L = + +
÷
ç
ê ú ê ú
÷
ç
÷
 
è ø
ë û
Y
ë û
7
DWT
A
f
3
18
20

9
8
30
15
3

4
6
1
7

4
5

8

6

2
A
D
V
H
LL
H
L
LH
H
H
(
)
(
)
(
)
(
)
0.02
,,,,,,
JND i j i j i j
w
r
r w r r
= Q Y P
(
)
(
)
(
)
3
1 1
0 0 0
,,
3
3 3
: texture sensitivity
1
,,,
16 2 2
,
1,1
2 2
,
k
k k k
k x y
LH HL HH
LL
i j
i j c x y
i j
Var c
i
x y
j
r
w
r
w
r r
r
r

+
= = =
Î
 
é ù
æ ö
÷
ç
ê ú
÷
Y = + +
ç
÷
ê ú
ç
÷
ç
è ø
ê ú
ë û
ì ü
æ ö
ï ï
÷
ï
ç
÷
´ ³ + + + +
ç
í ý
÷
ç
÷
ï
ç
è
ï
P
ø
î
å å å å
0,1
0,1
x
y
=
=
ï
ï
ï
þ
Proposed Scheme (1/8)
8
PIPA
Module
SQH
Construction
EPWM
Embedding
Host Image
Watermarked
Image
Proposed Scheme (2/8)
•
Properly inspired pixel adjustment (PIPA)
9
Proposed Scheme (3/8)
•
Properly inspired pixel adjustment (PIPA)
10
T
he
effects of changing wavelet coefficients on pixels
based on multiple sub

bands and multiple wavelet coefficients.
(
)
(
)
(
)
(
)
(
)
'
, if ,2 1
,
, if ,
:adjustment scale
t
I i j I i j
I i j
I i j I i j
h h
h h
h
ì
ï
 >  
ï
ï
=
í
ï
+ <
ï
ï
î
,2 1
: bit host image
t
t t
h h
é ù
 
ê ú
ë û
Pixels are adjusted into a new
range:
Proposed Scheme(4/8)
11
SQH
Construction
Focus on the mean of wavelet coefficients (MWC) histogram
Design in high

pass sub

band of wavelet decomposition (HVS is less
sensitive)
Proposed Scheme(5/8)
12
SQH
Construction
DWT
A
f
3
18
20

9
8
30
15
3

4
6
1
7

4
5

8

6

2
A
D
V
H
Host Image
Block of HL
coefficients
(
)
(
)
(
)
(
)
1 1
2 2
1
,
2 2
1 26
15 3 1 7
2 2 4
h w
k k
i j
S P i j
h w
 
= =
=
 
= + + + =
´
å å
(
)
{
}
,:2 peak points
: a predefined constant for threshold co
nt
,
rol
l r
k
x x
x S
x
d
d
d
Î
£
Compute the Euclidean distance of:
(
)
(
)
(
)
(
)
{
}
If max:
all of th blocks will be retaind for emb
eddi
,
ng
min,,max
l r
d x S d x S
d
³
Þ
Proposed Scheme (6/8)
13
EPWM

based Embedding
0 1: turning parameter corresponding to t
he weight of brightness sensitivity
J
£ £
Embed watermark bit
b
k
to block
k
:
(
)
(
)
{
}
(
)
* *
*
,
: obtained MWC after th th watermark bit
is embedded
/
arg min,
l r
w
w
k k k
k
k
x x x
S k
S S abs
S S
S S
S
k
b
d S x
b
bl
Î
= 
=
=

+
: watermark strength
: global paramter
l
a
Proposed Scheme (7/8)
14
Extraction based on k

means clustering
WMC histogram in a watermarked
image
Bit “1” and “0”
Proposed scheme (8/8)
15
Extraction based on k

means clustering
Watermarked
Image
DWT
LH
LL
HL
HH
1
,...,,...,
w w w w
k m
S S S S
é ù
=
ê ú
ë û
Extract:
0, if S Class II
1, if S Class I or Class III
W
k
r
W
k
k
b
ì
ï
Î
ï
ï
=
í
ï
Î
ï
ï
î
Recover the MWCs:
r w r
k k k
S S b
bl
= 
Experimental Results
16
JND
thresholds of different masking models: (a) original
sub

band
, (b) PWM, (c) IPWM, and (d) EPWM.
0
LL
c
Experimental Results
17
I
mages
noised by different masking models:
(
a) PWM
, (
b) IPWM, and (c) EPWM with
ϑ
= 0
.
8.
Experimental Results
18
PSNRs for different tuning parameters.
Experimental Results
19
Pure capacities for different thresholds.
Experimental Results
20
PSNRs for different
thresholds
Experimental Results
21
Robustness against JPEG compression for different thresholds.
Experimental Results
22
Robustness against JPEG2000 compression for different thresholds
.
Experimental Results
23
Robustness against AGN for different thresholds
Experimental Results
24
25
26
27
W
atermarked
images of four methods. (a) Host images.
(b) HR. (c) HDC (1). (d) HDC (2). (e) WSQH

SC. The PSNRs (dB) are
given below
the watermarked images
28
CONCLUSIONS
Obtains comprehensive performance in term of reversibility,
robustness, invisibility, capacity and runtime complexity
Adjusts the watermark strength for trade

off between robustness
and invisibility
Shortfall
: the paper does not analyze its robustness against all the
known attacks
29
30
[11] C. De
Vleeschouwer
, J.
Delaigle
, and B.
Macq
, “Circular
interpretation of
bijective
transformations in lossless watermarking for media
asset
management
,”
IEEE Trans. Multimedia
, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 97
–
105, Mar
.
2003
.
[12] Z. Ni, Y. Shi, N. Ansari, W. Su, Q. Sun, and X. Lin, “Robust
lossless image
data
hiding designed for semi

fragile image authentication,”
IEEE Trans
. Circuits Syst.
Video Technol.
, vol. 18, no. 4, pp. 497
–
509, Apr
. 2008
.
[13] D.
Zou
, Y. Shi, Z. Ni, and W. Su, “A semi

fragile lossless
digital watermarking
scheme based on integer wavelet transform,”
IEEE Trans
. Circuits
Syst. Video
Technol.
, vol. 16, no. 10, pp. 1294
–
1300, Oct. 2006.
[29
] M.
Barni
, F.
Bartolini
, and A.
Piva
, “Improved wavelet

based watermarking
through pixel

wise masking,” IEEE Trans. Image Process
., vol
. 10, no. 5, pp. 783
–
791, May 2001.
[31]
G.
Xuan
, Y. Shi, P. Chai, X. Cui, Z. Ni, and X. Tong, “
Optimum histogram
pair
based image lossless data embedding,” in
Proc.
Digit Watermark
.
, 2008, pp. 264
–
278
.
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