Knowledge Management Strategic Framework - Derby City Primary ...

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Knowledge 
Management 
Strategy 
December
2009
Performance and Knowledge Management Directorate 




DRAFT Version 1.9
Updated: 24/12/2009

Business Intelligence Unit 
Knowledge for better decisions



Author Alis
on Wynn, Assistant Director of Knowledge Management/ Head
of Business Intelligence
Sponsor Rakesh Marwaha, Director of Performance and Knowledge
Management
Approval
Date of release
Review date March 2011
1

2

CONTENTS

 
1
 
Introduction and context.............................................................................................3
 
1.1
 
The national picture.............................................................................................3
 
1.2
 
The regional picture.............................................................................................4
 
1.3
 
The local picture...................................................................................................5
 
1.4
 
Costs....................................................................................................................7
 
1.5
 
Benefits................................................................................................................8
 
1.6
 
Vision...................................................................................................................9
 
1.7
 
Key aims..............................................................................................................9
 
2
 
what is knowledge?..................................................................................................10
 
2.1
 
Data...................................................................................................................10
 
2.2
 
Information.........................................................................................................10
 
2.3
 
Knowledge.........................................................................................................11
 
3
 
A knowledge framework for derby............................................................................14
 
3.1
 
The right people with the right skills...................................................................14
 
3.2
 
The right information..........................................................................................15
 
3.3
 
The right systems...............................................................................................16
 
3.4
 
The right culture.................................................................................................17
 
3.5
 
Implementation..................................................................................................17
 
4
 
Summary..................................................................................................................17
 
5
 
References...............................................................................................................18
 



1 INTRODUCTION AND CONTEXT
Information is all around us in NHS Derby City, the local health economy and wider – in
datasets, books, newspapers, the internet, and perhaps most of all, with individuals. We
all carry a huge amount of information with us through the things we have read, learnt,
done or experienced. Our problem is not lack of information, but in turning this
information into knowledge and making it accessible and available enabling us to
answer the right questions at the right time – “Knowledge ultimately assumes value
when it affects decision-making and is translated into action” (De Long, 2000, p. 126).
This is why we need a knowledge management strategy…
“…the need is to deliver the right information, at the right time, to the right
person, and in the right format. Failing to do so is an impediment to the
implementation of evidence based medicine. In this context, Knowledge
Management can play an important role by organizing knowledge and
making it accessible.” (El Morr & Subercaze, 2010
1
)
We have already made a start on this journey, but there is some way to go and
opportunity for us to learn and improve along the way, both as individuals and as an
organisation.
1.1 The national picture
Knowledge and knowledge management have grown in importance within the NHS in
recent years and is now seen as central to delivering better health outcomes and
reducing health inequalities efficiently and effectively. Knowledge management is a key
component of World Class Commissioning. “To become world class, commissioners
will take an evidence-based approach to commissioning. They will need advanced
knowledge management, analytical, and forecasting skills, as well as an ability to listen
to and communicate with the local community” (DH/Commissioning 5). The importance
of knowledge management in World Class Commissioning is demonstrated by there
being a knowledge component in each of the competencies, with one of the eleven
competencies dedicated to knowledge management and needs assessment.
The publication of High Quality Care for All, the NHS Next Stage Review (NSR)
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highlighted the importance of information and knowledge in delivering and measuring
quality. Further, NHS Evidence has been developed ‘to provide easy access to a
comprehensive evidence base for everyone in health and social care’ (National Institute
for Health and Clinical Excellence). As part of the review, NSR also recommended that
a Quality Observatory be established in every region to enable local benchmarking,
development of metrics and the identification of opportunities to help frontline staff to
innovate and improve
3
. “Another important lesson from the NSR is the need to take an
evidence-based approach to the QIPP challenge…” and “…use the innovation to drive
and embed change”
4
.
The establishment of the National Knowledge Service following the Bristol Inquiry also
demonstrates a commitment to a strategic approach to knowledge and information at


1
Full text link: http://liris.cnrs.fr/Documents/Liris-3768.pdf

2

http://www.dh.gov.uk/en/Publicationsandstatistics/Publications/PublicationsPolicyAndGuidance/DH_08582
5

3
For further information: http://www.qualityobservatory.nhs.uk

4
Letter issued by the Department of Health, 10 August 2009, Gateway Reference 12396.
http://www.ich.ucl.ac.uk/about_gosh/decision_making/trust_board_meetings/2009September30/TB30
0909_Attachment_P_QIPP_BoardLetterFinalVersion.pdf

3

natio
nal level. This has been further supported by the creation of the role of Chief
Knowledge Officer (CKO) for the NHS and for each statutory body. This national role is
carried out by the Director of the National Knowledge Service, Muir Gray. This is being
supported locally by an East Midlands working group.
Nine National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Collaborations for Leadership in
Applied Health Research and Care (CLAHRCs) have been established throughout
England to carry out research focused on the needs of patients and to support putting
research evidence into practice
5
. Knowledge exchange and translation of innovation
through organisational learning are central to the work of the CLAHRCs in implementing
research into practice.
The importance of knowledge management was further highlighted by the Mid-
Staffordshire investigation (see (Healthcare Commission)) which identified serious
shortfalls in using and sharing information that was available, but not well managed. A
review of the lessons learnt from the investigation highlighted a number of
recommendations including involving patients and the public and capturing resulting
information and also the commissioning for outcomes supported by excellent use of
appropriate data and information (Dr Thome, 2009). Both these recommendations
require a systematic approach to knowledge management.
Beyond the PCT and wider health economy, broader understanding of our communities
and cross-partner priorities set within the Sustainable Communities Strategy and
Local Area Agreement establish a wider requirement for the further development of
knowledge and knowledge management within assessment regimes such as the
Comprehensive Area Assessment.
The variety of initiatives outlined, demonstrate a commitment to knowledge and its
management at a national level. However, this variety shows a national picture that has
many pieces but without the jigsaw being put together. The next section goes on to
consider the regional perspective.
1.2 The regional picture
The plurality of activity and thinking around knowledge management at a national level is
reflected regionally. For example, the East Midlands Quality Observatory is currently
being developed and “…will provide insight into the quality of services across the East
Midlands for the public and the local NHS, supporting organisations in delivering high
quality services.” (Swift, 2009). Regional support is provided to Chief Knowledge
Officers through a regional working group and contacts and the Nottinghamshire,
Derbyshire and Lincolnshire CLAHRC is one of the nine national collaborations
supporting research into practice regionally.
We have a public health observatory in our region - the East Midlands Public Health
Observatory (EMPHO) which one of nine regional Public Health Observatories funded
by the Department of Health across England. The purpose of EMPHO is to provide
information and analysis to those working to improve health and reduce health
inequalities across the East Midlands.
Consideration is being given to the potential creation of a regional data warehouse. The
purpose of this would be to centralise high level information to assist with the strategic
planning of healthcare at a regional level. This is currently just at a proof of concept
stage, but indicates the direction of travel regionally in terms of knowledge management.


5
See http://www.nihr.ac.uk/infrastructure/Pages/infrastructure_clahrcs.aspx
for further information.
4

The East M
idlands also has a number of universities which can be considered as
centres of knowledge and knowledge creation.
The picture in the region reflects the variety of initiatives happening at a national level.
However, as with the national picture there is no overarching work to bring these
initiatives together. The next section moves on to consider the picture locally.
1.3 The local picture
Effective management and delivery of knowledge is central to the successful
achievement of the three strategic aims of Healthy Derby:
 To improve the health and achieve equality of outcome for the population of
Derby
 To continuously improve the services commissioned by the Primary Care Trust
on behalf of the people of Derby
 To actively engage the people of Derby to secure their trust and give them
confidence in their public sector organisations
Whist these aims continue to be our focus, we are faced with delivering within an
extremely challenging economic climate, therefore needing to deliver improvements in
quality whilst improving productivity. This means making substantial service and cost
improvements whilst still achieving outcomes. To do this will require maximising the
information and knowledge held within the organisation but also harnessing multi-source
knowledge and learning from elsewhere to enable efficient delivery of services and
outcomes alongside effective strategic planning and priority-setting.
NHS Derby City has developed a Values Based Decision Making Framework to strike
the balance between providing services that meet the needs of the population and the
differing needs of individuals within financial constraints. This Framework sets out a
number of value based principles to be used when making all our investment and de-
investment decisions. To allow appropriate decisions based on these principles will
require effective knowledge and knowledge management. This will also support our
commitment to deliver whole system reviews and evidence-based and transparent
decision-making through appropriate governance structures such as in the Strategic
Health Improvement and Investment Committee and Integrated Risk Committee.
As an organisation we are committed to the delivery of quality and outcomes efficiently
and effectively. The development of this strategy reinforces our commitment to
delivering this based on knowledge and evidence. The following section outlines some
of our needs as an organisation for knowledge.
1.3.1 Organisational knowledge requirements
Our focus, “…should be centred on the knowledge required to perform the organizations
critical processes and tasks, while attempting to facilitate improvement and change…”
(McManus, Wilson, Fredericksen, & Snyder, 2003)
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. The knowledge needs of the
organisation are at all levels: strategic, corporate and operational and is core to our
planning, priority-setting, commissioning, de-commissioning and service improvement
decisions. Figure 1 below indicates the requirements for knowledge at these different
lev
els, what it is used for and some of the outputs that it contributes to:


6

Full text
http://www.knowledgeharvesting.org/documents/Business%20Value%20of%20Knowledge%20Management.pdf


5

Figure 1 Requirement for knowledge at strategic, corporate and operational levels

As demonstrated above, there are a range of initiatives and expectations around
knowledge management being driven nationally and regionally that indicate the need for
strategic planning of knowledge management at a local level. The challenge is to put in
place a local strategic plan that brings these initiatives and expectations together in a co-
ordinated and seamless fashion whilst also supporting the delivery of our organisational
knowledge requirements. A further challenge is to deliver a strategy and implementation
framework that is flexible enough to meet the needs of a changing national picture and
requirement for knowledge management.
Figure 2 demonstrates the inter-relationships and interdependencies of the delivery of
kno
wledge management that maximises and incorporates the initiatives happening at a
local, regional and national level alongside our requirements within the PCT. At the
heart is the delivery of a knowledge ‘product’ or products. Whilst delivered by the
Business Intelligence Unit, it incorporates information and understanding from the wider
organisation alongside consideration of broader inputs from the local, regional and
national knowledge landscape.
6

Figure 2 Inputs and inter-relationships required for consideration in the delivery of a
knowledge ‘product’


Having provided an overview of the national, regional and local context, the next
sections look at the costs and benefits of delivering appropriate knowledge products to
the organisation.
1.4 Costs
Meeting our knowledge and knowledge management requirements will have a cost to
the organisation. This will be in establishing and maintaining the relevant skills and
capacity alongside the right tools and systems. However, there will be a return on
investment through the effective and evidence-based decision-making which will be the
outcome of implementing this knowledge management framework. “It is argued that
firms unable to manage knowledge assets will be increasingly uncompetitive in the
future business environment” (Nash, 2002 cited in (McManus, Wilson, Fredericksen, &
Snyder, 2003, p. 11). However, it is difficult to measure return on investment of
knowledge workers as much of the work is intangible, however, “…cooperation has an
impact on quality of care which is seen the major aim of health care delivery, it has also
an impact on cost since it allows sharing knowledge. Indeed, Lamont argues that
regional health information organizations aim to “increase cost effective use of health
resources by sharing information among a coalition of providers, payers, employers and
other stakeholders” (Driver, 2001; Lamont, 2007; McElroy & Firestone, 2005). Besides,
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we’ve already discussed the financial impact of medical errors and adverse drug effects,
KM based decision making can help reduce errors; in fact, KM adoption in health care
was driven in some cases by the high cost of medical errors (McElroy & Firestone, 2005)
and KM will continue to represent a definite advantage in this context” (El Morr &
Subercaze, 2010, p. 11).
1.5 Benefits
Being a knowledgeable organisation with an effective framework for knowledge
management enables:
 Evidence-based strategic commissioning and de-commissioning (see Figure 3)

An accurate understanding of current and future need
 Effective strategic planning and priority-setting
 An understanding of demand and capacity
 Services based on evidence and understanding of need
 Effective performance management and understanding of over and
underperformance
 An understanding whether services or interventions are effective
 An understanding of productivity levels and opportunities for productivity gains.
Figure 3 Strategic Commissioning Process

Understand demand, access and 
capacity 
Current service evaluation 
Scenario planning
Monitor outcomes and 
activity 
Service evaluation 
Needs assessment 
Predictive modelling 
Ben
chmarking




Figure 3 shows our strategic commissioning process (for more detail see our
Procu
rement and Market Management Strategy) and the knowledge activity required
through the process.
Effective knowledge and knowledge management will allow the organisation to make
better decisions and more appropriate and targeted use of resources improving our
ability to deliver quality and achieve outcomes in a more challenging financial climate.
The next section outlines the strategic vision for knowledge management and the key
aims to be delivered by the implementation of this strategy.

1.6 Vision
To enable the successful delivery of Healthy Derby, our five-year strategic plan and in
becoming world class commissioners through turning information into meaningful,
accessible and transferable knowledge.
1.7 Key aims
 To integrate information from a range of different sources and of different types
together

 To utilise relevant systems and technology to manage, manipulate and report
information

 To develop an active ‘knowledge culture’ embedded throughout the organisation
enabling knowledge-transfer and knowledge generation

 To embed the use of knowledge in enabling continuous improvement – in the
organisation, in service delivery and in the health of the local population

 To enable effective performance management and organisational accountability

 To ensure the appropriate use of new and existing knowledge in the effective and
efficient delivery of quality care and successful outcomes.



Having set out the context in which this strategy sits the next part of this document goes
on to consider the theoretical background that informs the strategy.
.
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2 WHAT IS KNOWLEDGE?

“Kno
wledge is the full utilization of information and data, coupled with
the potential of people's skills, competencies, ideas, intuitions,
commitments and motivations”. (Grey, 2009*
7
)


Data, in itself is not knowledge, nor is information. For example, a piece of data, “…is
just a meaningless point in space and time. It is like an event out of context, a letter out
of context, a word out of context…since it is out of context, it is without a meaningful
relation to anything else” (Bellinger, 2004). Bellinger suggests that without a clear
context, individuals will tend to try and attribute meaning and context to it which is often
incorrect. This is particularly dangerous in an organisation such as ours where
significant decisions are frequently made – if based on one source or aspect of data or
information without a rounder knowledge of the meaning and context, there is a strong
possibility that these will be poor decisions (and costly, both financially and in terms of
delivering health outcomes).
The terms data, and particularly information and knowledge are often used
interchangeably, however, they are not the same:
2.1 Data
For many, data means numbers. However, “data are numbers, words or images that
have yet to be organised or analysed to answer a specific question” (Audit Commission,
2007). What makes numbers, words and images all data is their rawness. Data is
unprocessed and un-manipulated and therefore without meaning or context.
2.2 Information
Information is “produced through processing, manipulating and organising data to
answer questions, adding to the knowledge of the receiver” (Audit Commission, 2007).
Information then, is the result of activity such as analysis applied to data or combinations
of data. An information ‘product’ can come in many forms, however, the most applicable
for our organisation are: research/evidence; experience; public health; financial.
 Numerical - a huge amount of numerical data is routinely collected within the
local and national health economy and beyond, for example, for service
management and performance monitoring. The analysis of this type of data
produces numerical or statistical information.
 Research/ evidence - this encompasses information derived from research and
is commonly referred to as ‘evidence’. This could include research reports,
journal articles, protocols and guidelines and cover the range of research
methodologies, from systematic reviews and meta-analyses, randomised
controlled trials, cohort studies, surveys and case studies etc.
 Experience - this is information derived from the analysis of the experiences,
expertise and opinions of clinicians, staff, public and patients. Experience
information may be derived formally, through, for example, forums and surveys
but may also come through less formal means, for example, anecdote and hear-
say, perhaps less robust, but nonetheless a rich, valuable and important source
of information.


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http://www.km-forum.org/what_is.htm
accessed Aprill 2009

11
 Public Health - this includes a range of population-related health information
including, for example, demographics, deprivation, disease prevalence and
lifestyle information.
 Financial – this is the output of the processing and analysis of cost, expenditure
and budgetary data.
Despite being different types of output, all the above can be referred to as information as
they are the result of the processing and analysis of raw data – be that data numbers,
words or pictures. However, they are still not, in themselves, knowledge.
2.3 Knowledge
Knowledge is “what is known by a person or persons. Involves interpreting information
received, adding relevance and context to clarify the insights the information contains”
(Audit Commission, 2007).
Knowledge then is the understanding and interpretation of information and its setting
within a meaningful context. Figure 4 shows some of the inputs and actions required to
transfor
m data into information and information into knowledge:
Figure 4 Transitional flow from data to information to knowledge
Input  Action/ interaction 
Data 
Numbers  
Words 
Images 
Processing 
Manipulation 
Analysis  
Literature review 
Critical appraisal 
Information 
Numerical 
Research/ evidence 
Experience 
Public Health 
Financial 
Interpretation 
Relevance 
Context 
Engagement 
Knowledge 
The process of transforming data into information and information into knowledge has
been described, we now go on to describe the different types of knowledge that can be
generated.
There are numerous theories in existence regarding not only the creation of knowledge,
but also the different types of knowledge that exist. Cook and Brown (1999) define four

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types of knowledge: individual/explicit; individual/tacit; group/explicit; group/tacit. These
four types of knowledge are defined in Figure 5:
Figure 5 The four types of knowledge

INDIVIDUAL
GROUP
E
X
P
L
I
C
I
T

Explicitly known/ explainable - rules or
knowledge that can be written into a
‘manual’ or described
e.g. heart surgery: written instructions/
guidelines on how to perform a particular
procedure
Explicitly known/ explainable – for
example, group stories and anecdotes
e.g. heart surgery: shared experiences
of successes or failures, shared
practices creating a ‘body of knowledge’
amongst surgeons carrying out the same
procedure
T
A
C
I
T




Judgement and feel - not explainable,
relating, for example, to the feel for how
something should be done
e.g. heart surgery: the role of judgement
of hand or eye whilst performing a
particular procedure



Shared culture and meaning - not
explainable, a shared judgement or feel
e.g. heart surgery: shared understanding
of what is a ‘successful’ procedure –
understanding shared by surgeons in
one hospital that may not necessarily be
shared in other hospitals, for example,
increased life expectancy compared to
increased functionality
Add action=
Knowing
Heart
surgery
Source: adapted from Cook, S.D.N and Brown, J.S. (1999) ‘Bridging epistemologies: The Generative dance
between organisational knowledge and organisational knowing’ in Organization Science 10 (4) July-August
1999, pp. 381-400 (updated with local examples).
Whilst the transition of data into information and information into knowledge appears
linear and relatively straightforward, in reality it can be complex and produce knowledge
that is not explainable but rather contains a tacit or implicit element based more on ‘feel’.
Key to the generation of knowledge is the active relationship that people have with
information. Cook and Brown (1999) describe ‘knowing’ as a dynamic activity of putting
knowledge into practice. For example, having the knowledge of how to do heart surgery
is one thing, putting it into practice and successfully doing heart surgery is something
else – combining knowledge and the practice of that knowledge is knowing. The key to
us becoming a ‘knowing’ organisation then is the dynamic interaction we have either as
individuals or as groups with information and knowledge. Figure 6 shows the continuous
flow of kn
owledge and knowledge creation, the interaction between individuals and
groups as both knowledge generators and knowledge users. These interactions
themselves generate knowledge and knowledge transfer.

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Figure 6 The knowledge transfer cycle
8

Knowledge 
generators 
Business 
Intelligence Unit 
Knowledge users 
Stakeholders 
Decision makers 
Experts 
Knowledge 
‘product’ 
Knowledge 
transfer 
Knowledge 
transformation  
     Feedback 


















This section has outlined the theoretical framework for knowledge generation; the types
of knowledge created and highlighted the importance of dynamic interaction with
information and knowledge. In summary, there is a progressive development from data
to information to knowledge with increasing manipulation, interpretation and interaction.
The following section moves on to discuss how this process will be managed locally.


8
Adapted from the Knowledge Transfer Cycle by El Morr & Subercaze

14
3 A KNOWLEDGE FRAMEWORK FOR DERBY



Knowledge, like water, needs to be managed and every healthcare
organisation needs to manage knowledge, even more carefully than
they manage money’ (Gray, 2009)
9
.

“The value of Knowledge Management relates directly to the effectiveness with which
the managed knowledge enables the members of the organization to deal with today’s
situations and effectively envision and create their future” (Bellinger, 2004)

The PCT, as many organisations, is a potentially rich source of data of all kinds.
However, the focus tends to be on numerical data and whilst there are excellent
analytical skills within the organisation able to turn numerical data into information this is
generally done separately to the generation of other types of information. Of greater
concern is the limited interaction between people across the organisation and the
information generated. Without a dynamic interaction with information, knowledge
cannot be generated.

There are a number of elements that need to be put in place to deliver effective
knowledge management in NHS Derby City. These are:

 The right people with the right skills
 The right information
 The right systems
 The right culture.
3.1 The right people with the right skills
Having the right structure with the right people with the right skills is central to successful
knowledge management. The lead for knowledge management for the PCT sits within
the role of Chief Information and Knowledge Officer (CIKO) and for information
governance and information risk with the Senior Information Risk Officer (SIRO). Both of
these roles sit within the post of Director of Performance and Knowledge Management.
Day-to-day delivery of knowledge management however, is split across a range of roles
with three skill-sets:
Figure 7 The inter-relationship between generalist, specialist and very specialist skills



9
Muir Gray, J.A. (http://www.nks.nhs.uk/default.asp
) accessed July 2009.

15
3.1.1 Generalist skills
All staff within the organisation have a role to play in knowledge management,
particularly as experts within their area of work. Each member of staff has a
responsibility to understand and share their knowledge effectively within the
organisation. Further, the use and management of much information and knowledge
requires generic skills and is within the capability of all staff. Good knowledge
management within all staff will ensure staff with specialist skills are used more
effectively.
3.1.2 Specialist skills
The recently established Business Intelligence Unit (BIU) will be the ‘knowledge hub’ of
the organisation. The BIU is composed of staff with specialist skills in research
methodologies; data analysis; statistical knowledge including predictive modelling;
technical skills, for example, in applications such as Access, SPSS and GIS mapping;
literature searching and review. The broader Performance and Knowledge Management
Directorate will also provide specialist knowledge in the areas of informatics, IT,
information governance and performance. Public health and engagement will also play
a particularly important role in the provision of specialist skills. The skills required to
manage qualitative data will be further developed as skills in this area are currently
limited.
3.1.3 Very specialist skills
It would be inefficient to hold very specialist skills within the organisation due to their
limited and infrequent requirement. However, there will be circumstances when very
specialist skills are needed, for example, expertise in health economics and advanced
statistics. When required these will be brought in, for example, from the East Midlands
Public Health Observatory and universities.
3.2 The right information
Earlier in this strategy we referred to five types of key information. These are our ‘five
pillars of information’. Figure 8 shows the levels of organisational need - strategic,
corp
orate and operational and the five pillars of information running through each of the
levels. Irrespective of the level of organisational need we aim to incorporate each of
these five pillars of information within our knowledge ‘products’.
As already indicated, a key element of the strategy is to bring together information from
different sources but also of different types. As an organisation we are skilled in
quantitative data analysis, however, we do not routinely utilise qualitative data.
Fundamental to this strategy is the increased use of qualitative information, particularly
that related to public and patient experience.
Information, and therefore knowledge is only as good as the data it is built upon. High
quality data is essential for us to make confident, evidence-based decisions. Processes
for ensuring data quality is a key element of the implementation of this strategy.
However, some data will be less reliable than others. Rather than simply discounting
data that is not of the highest quality, consideration will be given to the value it would
add to the overall picture and therefore may still be used. Any concerns in the quality of
any data will be highlighted and made transparent. All staff involved with access to
information and involved in its processing will undergo relevant data quality training and
adhere to the local Data Quality Policy.
Utilising a wide range of data from a range of sources obviously has information
governance implications. Processes and procedures are in place to ensure that relevant

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individuals with relevant approval have access to varying levels of data including patient
data.
Figure 8 Showing pillars of knowledge and relationship with organisational need



















Operational
need

Commissioning
Market management
Service improvement


Evaluations
Equity audits
Impact assessments

Corporate
need
Performance
management
WCC assurance
Benchmarking


Benchmarking reports
Detailed exception
analysis
WCC data packs

Strategic
need
Strategic planning
Priority-setting
Horizon-scanning
Productivity gains
Scenario planning


Needs assessments
Scenario planning
Predictive modelling
Productivity reporting


Data Evidence Experience Public Financial
Health
Five Pillars of Information
3.3 The right systems
Having the right people in skills in place alongside the right information is a great step in
terms of delivering effective knowledge management. Combining this with the right tools
and systems will give us the opportunity to make great leaps forward. The right systems
include the right technological and IT systems, for example, developments such as a
data warehouse and automated reporting, dashboards and modelling will make
knowledge much more accessible to more people and help ensure specialist skills are
utilised more effectively. Delivery of the right systems for knowledge management will
be supported by the successful delivery of our IM&T Strategy.
In addition to the right technological systems, and perhaps most importantly, will be the
establishment of appropriate ‘people’ systems or networks. Having good systems for
connecting people within the organisation is essential in the capture of knowledge, but

17
especially in the transfer and retention (or diffusion and adoption) of knowledge and
innovation.
3.4 The right culture
Even if we get in place the right people, the right information and the right systems, this
alone will not guarantee effective knowledge management. At the centre of the
successful delivery this strategy is the right organisational culture. The ‘right’ culture is
one where knowledge, in all its forms is valued and knowledge sharing is embedded
within the day-to-day life of the PCT and all its staff. “In highly competitive businesses,
an efficient KM can make the difference between success and failure; nevertheless, KM
is neither fad nor cure-all, rather it should be integrated in the organization culture” (El
Morr & Subercaze, 2010, p. 12).
To create knowledge, to utilise and manage it effectively we need, as an organisation to
be forward-thinking and innovative and therefore need to develop a culture of innovation.
Learning from best practice, other organisations and being open to new sources of
knowledge and to wide-ranging methodologies will give us greater opportunities to
efficiently and effectively deliver:
 improved health and equality of outcomes
 service improvement
 improved trust and confidence.
Having all these dimensions in place set within processes to maximise and retain the
organisations intellectual assets greatly enhances our opportunities to be efficient and
productive.
3.5 Implementation
To ensure that all these elements are put into place, implementation plans will be put in
place to support delivery of:
 the right people
 the right information
 the right systems
 the right culture
Each of these implementation plans will incorporate action plans including timescales
and action leads. Progress towards the implementation of this strategy and its related
implementation plans will be monitored and managed through the Knowledge and IT
Board
4 SUMMARY
This strategy outlines the current context, nationally, regionally and locally of knowledge
management. The purpose of the strategy is to bring together the sometimes
fragmented context whilst delivering our organisational knowledge requirements. To do
this we are putting in place: the right people; the right information; the right systems; the
right culture.
Whilst we are still early in the journey, significant progress has already been made with
the establishment of a Business Intelligence Unit. This brings together a group of
people with a range of skills who are already starting to produce a new kind of
knowledge for the organisation. In addition, a local data warehouse is also in place
bringing together information from a number of sources. This strategy builds on this
progress and will deliver ever-improving knowledge products to enable effective
decision-making to ensure the successful delivery of Healthy Derby.

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