DNA_programmex - Ellenbrook Portal

chatteryellvilleBiotechnology

Feb 20, 2013 (4 years and 5 months ago)

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Semester 2 programme

3B: 2: Continuity of species

DNA is a self
-
replicating and information
-
carrying molecule. The manipulation of DNA has lead to a range of applications of biotechnology, particularly in
conservation and agriculture
.
Change in a species over time, is due to the selection of inheritable characteristics best suited to the environment.


DNA


Content

Activities

3B: 2.1 replication of DNA



importance of DNA replication in the production of new daughter cells (mitosis
and
meiosis)



replication occurs during interphase



parental DNA double helix is ‘unzipped’



new nucleotides are added using each of the original DNA strands as a template



produces

two identical daughter DNA molecules.




Start vocab page. Add known words e.g heter
ozygous and add more as they come up



Notes


cells, nuclei, chromosomes, 23 pairs, structure of DNA



Revise mitosis, meiosis including table comparison



Revise cell cycle






In notes:
-




parental DNA double helix is ‘unzipped’



new nucleotides are added using

each of the original DNA strands as a template



produces

two identical daught
er DNA molecules.


Read Heinemann


DNA structure and replication

Read EB2 pg 130
-
132 and Qs pg 132



Computer tour:


http://learn.genetics.utah.edu/content/begin/tour/

http://www.dnaftb.org/dnaftb/

http://www.dnai.org/d/index.html

http://www.biotechnologyonline.gov.au/

http://www.biotechnologyonline.gov.au/biotec/whatisdna.html

http://www.biotechnologyonli
ne.gov.au/popups/int_dnazoom.html

http://www.biotechnologyonline.gov.au/popups/vid_DNAunzip.html

http://www.biotechnologyonline.gov.au/biotec/dnalook.html

3B: 2.2

protein synthesis



DNA
molecule unwinds at the point of the relevant gene



mRNA molecule is made by the copying of the nucleotide base sequence on the
DNA



mRNA leaves the nucleus via nuclear pore



mRNA attaches to ribosome



ribosome uses triplet code on mRN
A to link specific amino acids



each triplet codes for one of twenty amino acids



amino acids are linked together in the order of the codons on the mRNA
molecule



a protein is formed and is released from the ribosome into the cytoplasm of the
cell. It is the
linear arrangement of amino acids as coded for by the mRNA



tertiary structure of

proteins.





Notes


central dogma. Define transcription and translation



“Cell biology”


Protein synthesis



DNA
molecule unwinds at the point of the relevant gene



mRNA molecule is made by the copying of the nucleotide base sequence on the DNA



mRNA leaves the nucleus via nuclear pore



mRNA attaches to ribosome



ribosome uses triplet code on mRNA to link specific amino acids



each triplet codes for one of twenty amino
acids

(the genetic code)



amino acids are linked together in the order of the codons on the mRNA molecule



a protein is formed and is released from the ribosome into the cytoplasm of the cell. It is the linear
arrangement of amino acids as coded for by the m
RNA



primary, secondary,
tertiary structure of

proteins.



Given DNA sequence, determine a.a sequence


DNA replication/transcription/translation handout




Computer tour:
-

www.biotechnology.gov.au

http://www.biotechnologyonline.gov.au/popups/vid_translationadvanced.html

(video)

http://www.biotechnologyonline.gov.au/popups/int_translation.html

(Interactive)


http://learn.genetics.utah.edu/content/begin/dna/



Recombinant DNA Technology


Content

Activities

3B: 2.3

techniques:



restriction enzymes



ligation



polymerase chain reaction

(PCR)



gel electrophoresis



DNA microarrays





Powerpoint
-

"recombinant DNA technology"
-

definition, process, uses



remove DNA from
one organism and add it to the DNA of another organism



new DNA can then be used to alter the product of the host organism to

the genetic
qualities of the donated DNA



vector
is a self
-
replicating DNA molecule
e.g. plasmid or viral DNA.



Powerpoint
-

"restriction enzymes and ligation"
-

definition, process, uses



Restriction enzymes



cut DNA molecules in at a particular site

Content

Activities



different enzymes are used to manipulate individual genes from a variety of
organisms



restriction

enzymes are named after the bacterial species from which they
originated.



L
igation



process
used to reassemble fragments of DNA



using an e
nzyme called DNA lig
ase



recombinant

DNA is formed when DNA from different sources is combined.



Biozone restriction enzyme cutting activities



Powerpoint


“polymerase chain reaction”
definition, process, uses



technique used to produce vast quantities of identical DNA



thermal

cyclers are commonly used to amplify DNA.



Powerpoint


“gel electrophoresis”
definition, process, uses



uses
a gel to separate molecules by moving them in an electric field



molec
ules separated mainly according to size.



Perform gel electrophoresis



Powerpoi
nt


“DNA microarrays”
definition, process, uses



uses
masses of DNA probes on a DNA chip



computer

used to quantify gene activity



Biozone








3B: 2.4
processes



gene cloning



transgenic organisms



DNA profiling

Powerpoint
-

G
ene cloning



process of making large quantities of a desired piece of DNA once it has been isolated



using restriction enzymes and ligation, the gene is inserted into a vector, such as a plasmid, to
form recombinant DNA



plasmid is then inserted into a bacterial cell w
hich reproduces to form large quantities of the DNA.

Powerpoint
-

T
ransgenic organisms




produced as result of genes being moved from one species to another



techniq
ue

used in agriculture to produce better crops or animals
.


http://www.dilemmas.net.au/file.php/8/GMCrops.ppt

Animal farm series

and 10
th

of June

From Mouse to Men


Biozone Biology Modular Workbook Series Cell Microbiology and Biotechnology p. 71 Genetically
modified plants

Biozone

Biology Modular Workbook Series Cell Microbiology and Biotechnology p. 73 Using
recombinant bacteria

Powerpoint
-

DNA profiling



identifies natural variations found in DNA



identifying differences used to investigate genetic relatedness

Content

Activities



PCR (Short Tandem R
epeats)



probes

(Southern Blotting method).


Biozone

Biotechnology online


DNA profiling, play

Handout


applications of DNA technology


Assessment
-

black rose


Powerpoint


GM foods

Computer research
-

problems with GM foods


Applications of DNA
technologies


Content

Suggested activities and discussion points

3B: 2.5

recombinant DNA technology and DNA identification technology in



environmental conservation



agriculture

Choose examples of both recombinant DNA technology and DNA identification technology

Recombinant DNA technology

Environmental conservation



genetic manipulation of vectors (disease) e.g. mosquito control



control of feral pests e.g. foxes, carp, mice,
rabbits



control of exotic weeds



bioremediation

of areas polluted by heavy metals, oil or toxic chemicals
.

Agriculture



genetically modified organisms e.g. insect resistant cotton



vac
cines
e.g. bird flu, cattle tick



conversion

of wastes into useful products.

Activities:

http://www.biotechlearn.org.nz/focus_stories/biological_control_of_possums/hormone_toxins_to_red
uce_possum_fertility


http://learn.genetics.utah.edu/content/tech/cloning/

http://library.wur.nl/frontis/malaria/02_o_brochta.pdf

(mosquito)

http://www.csiro.au/org/BiotechAtCSIRO.html


Australian Veterinary Journal. Volume 78 Issue 10, pages 694

697. Published Online: 10 Mar 2000
'Cloning and transgenesis in farm animals


an Australian Perspective’

www.geneious.com

DNA Identification Technology (G
enetic Fingerprinting)

Environmental conservation



DNA
identification

technology
e.g. genetic fingerprinting



pathogen

identification
e.g. c
hytrid fungus, jarrah dieback



captive
breeding programs



variation between species



change in

diversity of the species
.

Agriculture



genetic

markers
e.g. sheep genome sequencing,

salt tolerance, drough
t resistance, disease
resistance.

Activities:

http://www.ecosmagazine.com/?act=view_file&file_id
=EC109p8.pdf

(chytrid fungus)

http://www.wool.com.au/Publications/Beyond_the_Bale/Latest_edition/page__7338.aspx

(sheep
genome)

Biozone

Biology Modular Workbook Series Cell Microbiology and Biotechnology p. 101 Investigating
genetic biodiversity