3 SVM based Yarn Predictive Model

chardfriendlyAI and Robotics

Oct 16, 2013 (3 years and 9 months ago)

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19
th

International Conference on Production Research

A
N

I
NTELLIGENT

REASONING MODEL

FOR

Y
ARN

MANUFACTURE


J
ian
-
G
uo

Y
ang
,

Fu Zhou
,
Jing
-
Zhu Pang, Zhi
-
Jun Lv

College Of

M
echanical Engineering
,

University of
DongHua,
Ren Min Bei Road 2999, Song Jiang Zone,
Shanghai
,
P

R

China



Abstract

Although many works hav
e been done to construct prediction models on yarn processing quality, the
relation between spinning variables and yarn properties has not been established conclusively so far.
Support vector machines (SVMs), based on statistical learning theory, are gaini
ng applications in the areas
of machine learning and pattern recognition because of the high accuracy and good generalization
capability
. This study briefly introduces the SVM regression
algorithms
, and presents the SVM based
system architecture for
predic
ting

yarn properties. Model selection which amounts to search in
hyper
-
parameter

space is performed for study of suitable
parameter
s with grid
-
research method. Experimental
results have been
compar
ed with those of ANN models. The investigation indicates th
at in the small data
sets and real
-
life production, SVM models are capable of remaining the
stability

of predictive accuracy, and
more suitable for
noisy and

dynamic

spinning process


Keywords
:

Support vector machines
, Structure risk minimization, Predict
ive model, K
ernel function
,

Yarn quality





1

INTRODUCTION

Changing economic and political conditions and the
increasing globalisation of the market mean that the textile
sector faces ever challenges. To stay competitive, there is
an increasing need for co
mpanies to invest in new
products. Along the textile chain, innovative technologies
and solutions are required to continuously
optimize

the
production process. High quality standards and an
extensive technical and trade know
-
how are thus
prerequisite to ke
ep abreast of the growing dynamics of
the
sector [
1]
.
Although many works have been done to
construct prediction models on yarn processing quality, the
relation between spinning variables and yarn properties
has not been established conclusively so far.. T
he
increasing quality demands from the spinners make clear
the need to explore
innovative

ways of quality prediction
furthermore. The widespread use of artificial intelligence
(AI) has created a revolution in the domain of quality
prediction, for example,
application of artificial
neural

network (ANN)
in textile

engineering [2].
This
study

presents a
support vector machines
based
intelligent
predictive
model
for

yarn

process

quality. The relative
algorithm, model selection and experiments
are presented
in d
etail.

2

SVM

REGRESSION A
LGORITHMS

2.1

Paper title and authors

The main objective of regression is to approximate a
function
g
(x) from a given noisy set of samples

obtained from the function
g
. The
basic idea of support vector machines (S
VM) for
regression is to map the data
x

into a high dimensional
feature space via a nonlinear mapping and to perform a
linear regression in this feature space.





(1)

where
w

denotes the weight vector,
b

is
a constant known
as

“bias
”,

are called

feature
s
. Thus, the
problem of nonlinear regression

in lower
-
dimensional input
space is transformed into

a linear regression in the high
-
dimensional feature space.

The unknown parameters
w

and b in Equation (
1
) are est
imated

using the training set,

G
. To avoid over fitting and thereby

improving the
generalization capability, following regularized

functional
involving summation of the empirical risk

and a complexity
term
, is minimized

[3]


(2)

where
λ
is a regularization constant and the cost function
defined by

,

(3)

is called Vapnik

s

ε
-
insensitive loss function”
. It can be
shown that the minimizing function has the following fo
rm:


(4)

w
ith

,

and the kernel
function

describes

the
dot

product in the D
-
dimensional feature space.





(5)

It is important to note that th
e features
Φ
j

need not be
computed; rather what is

needed is the kernel function that
is very simple and has a known analytical form.

The only
condition required is that the kernel function has to satisfy
Mercer’s condition.

Some of the mostly used kernels
include li
near
,

polynomial,
radial basis function
, and
sigmoid. Note also that for Vapnik’s
ε
-
insensitive loss
function, the Lagrange

multipliers

are sparse, i.e.
they result in nonzero values after the optimization

(2) only
if they are on the

boundary, which means that they satisfy
the Karush

Kuhn

Tucker conditions. The
coefficients
are obtained by maximizing the

following form
:




(6)



(7)

Only a n
umber of coefficients
will be different from
zero, and the data

points associated to them are called
support vectors. Parameters

C

and
ε
are free

and have to
be decided by the user. Computing b requires a more
direct use of the

Karush

Kuhn

Tucker conditions that lead
to the quadratic programming problems

stated above. The
key idea is to pick those values for a point
on the

margin, i.e.
or
in the open interval (0, C). One

would be sufficient but for

stability purposes it is
recommended that one take the average over all points on

the margin. More det
ailed description of SVM for
regression can be found in
Ref. [3~6]

3

SVM BASED YARN PREDI
CTIVE MODEL

3.1

Model Architecture

Considering some salient features of SVM such as
the
absence

of local minima, the sparseness of the solution
and the
improved generalizati
on, there was
proposed

SVM
-
based yarn
quality

prediction system (shown as
Fig.1). The system architecture mainly consists
of three

module
s, i.e. data acquisition, reasoning machine, and
user
interface. Among

them, the user interface provides
friendly inter
active operation with the
model, including

data
cleaning, model training, parameter selection, and so on.
The data acquisition collects and transforms the various
data from yarn production process into engineering
database. The reasoning machines are a SVM
-
based yarn
process simulator in nature, which are used to train the
predictive models, and then make some real
-
world
process decision in term of the different raw materials
inputs

3.2

Model
Selections

In
the yarn

predictive learning task,
the

appropriate mode
l
and parameter estimation method should be selected to
obtain a high level of performance of the learning machine.
Lacking a priori information about the accuracy of the y
-
values, it can be difficult to come up with a reasonable
value of
ε

a prior. Instead, one would rather specify the
degree of sparseness and let the algorithms
automatically

compute
ε

from the data. This is the idea of
ν
-
SVM, a
modification of the original
ε
-
SVM introduced by
Sch
ő
lkopf, Smola, Williamson et al [6], which w
ere used to
construct the yarn predictive model in our study.
Under the
approach, the usually parameters to be

chosen are the
following:



the penalty term C which determines the tradeoff
between the complexity of the decision function and
the number of trai
ning examples misclassified;



the sparsity parameter
ν

in accordance with the noise
that is in the output values in order to get the highest
generalization accuracy.



the kernel function such that

According to the reference [7], the sparsity parameter
ν

usually may be choose in the inte
rval [0.3, 0.6], here
ν
=0.583. And radial basis function (RBF)
kernel
, given by
Equitation 8 is used:




(8)

where

σ

is the width of the RBF
kernel

parameter.


The RBF kernel nonlinearly maps samples into a higher
dimensional space,
so it, unlike the linear kernel,

can
handle the case when the relation between
inputs

and
outputs

is nonlinear.

In addition, the sigmoid kernel
behaves

like RBF for certain parameters.

The reason
using RBF kernels
is the number of hyper
-
parameters
Reasoning Machines

User Interface

Fig.
1

Yarn Quality Predictive Model Architecture

Yarn Production Process

Data Acquisition

SVM
-
based Process Simulator

Yarn Quality Prediction

Raw

Material

Yarn

Properties

Textile Engineering Database

19
th

International Conference on Production Research

which in
fluences the complexity

of model selection. The
polynomial kernel has more hyper
-
parameters than

the
RBF kernel. Finally,
for
the RBF kernel
, it

has less
numerical difficulties
;

and a
key point is
in
contrast to polynomial kernels of

which kernel values may
go to infinity or zero while the degree is large. Moreover,
it
is

note
d

that the sigmoid kernel is not valid (i.e. not the
inner product of two vectors)

under some parameters

[4].

3.3

Optimization of Model Parameter

Obviously, in the S
VM model t
here are
still
two
key
parameters
need choosing
: C and
σ.
U
nfortunately
, i
t is
difficult to

know

beforehand which C and

σ

are the best for
one problem.
Our

goal is
just about
to identify good

(C, σ)
so that the
model

can accurately predict unknown data
(i.e., testing data).

Therefore,

a common way is to
separa
te training data to two parts of which one is
considered

unknown in training the
model
. Then the
prediction accuracy on
data

set
s

can more

precisely reflect
the performance on
predict
ing unknown data.
The
procedure

for improved model

is
called as
cross
-
val
idation.

The cross
-
validation procedure can
also
prevent the over
-
fitting problem

furthermore
.

In
this

study,
the regression function was built with a given set of
parameters {C,
σ}
.
The performance of the parameter set

is
measured by the

computational

risk, here mean squared
error (
MSE
, see Equation 9)

on the last subset. The above

procedure is repeated
p

times, so that each subset is used
once

for testing. Averaging the MSE over t
he
p

trials gives
an

estimate of the expected generalization error for
training on

sets of size
,
l

is the number of
training data.


(9)

where
q

is the sample number of tested subset in the
training set;
and

are the
observed value and
predicted value under
tested subset, respectively. In
order to capture the better pairs of (C,
σ
), a

grid
-
search


[8] on C and
σ

is employed in this work. Firstly, in term of
possible range of the two parameters, C and
σ

were
divided r pairs; t
hen

each pair of the parameters was tried
using cross
-
validation and the one with the best cross
-
validatio
n accuracy was picked up as optimal parameters
of the model.

4

T
HE EXPERIMENTS STUDY

In this work, a small
population

(a total of twenty
-
six
different data samples) from real worsted spinning was
acquired. To
demonstrate

the generalization performance
of SVM

model, different experiments were
completed

and
comparisons

with ANN models.To make problem more
simply, like most ANN models[2, 9], some
fibre

properties
and processing information were selected as the SVM
model

s inputs, which were mean
fibre

diameter (
MFD,
μ
m), diameter distribute (CVD, %), hauteur (HT, mm), fiber
length distribution (CVH, %), short fiber content (SFC, %),
yarn count (CT, tex), twist (TW, t.p.m), draft ratio (DR),
spinning speed (SS, r.p.m),
traveler

number (TN). Four
yarn properties, n
amely
unevenness

(CV %), elongation at
break (EB, %), break force (BF, cN) and end
-
down per
1000 spindle hour (ED), served as the SVM model

s
outputs.

One of the primary aspects of developing a SVM
regression model is the selection of the
penalty term
C

an
d
the width of the RBF
kernel

parameter
σ
. To optimize
the two parameters, the

grid
-
search


method above was
applied in the present work. In fact, optimizing the model
parameters need an
iterative

process which can
continuously

shrink

the searching area and as a result,
obtain a satisfying solu
tion. Table
1

lists the final searching
area and optimal values of the four SVM models,
respectively.

After the completion of model development or training, all
the models based on SVM (and ANN) were subjected to
the unseen testing data set. Statistical par
ameters such as
the correlation coefficient between the actual and
predicted values (R), mean squared error, and mean
error%, were used to compare the predictive power of the
SVM
-
based and ANN
-
based models. Results are shown in
Table
2
. It has observed that

for ANN models, the mean
error (%)
of three models

is more than
10% except that the
CV% remains about
5%
, and the correlation coefficient
(R)

of the CV% and EB models is very low, shown as 0.76 and
0.67 respectively. However, for SVM models, the mean
erro
r (%)
is
less

than
10% except that the ED is still high,
and the correlation coefficient
(R)

of all models is improved
to more than 0.80. On the other hand, the cases with over
10% error also decrease from 5 and 6 in ANN models to 2
and 3 in SVM models. In

fact, among all four yarn
properties considered in our work, end
-
down per 1000
spindle hours could be affected by different operators and
observers [10]
,
which data often
result

in undermining the
prediction accuracy of various regression models. Even
so,

for ED, almost all
statistical

parameters using SVM
model seem to be much better than using ANN model

5

CONCLUSIONS

Support vector machines are a new learning
-
by
-
example paradigm with many potential applications in
science and engineering. The salient featu
res of SVM
include
the absence

of local minima, the sparseness of the
solution and the
improved generalization
.

SVMs being a
relatively new technique, their application on textile
production have
hitherto

been quite limited. However, the
elegance of the fo
rmalism
involved

and their successful
use in diverse science and engineering applications
confirm the expectations raised in this appealing learning
from examples
approach
. In this study, we presented the
SVM model for predicting the yarn properties and
compared with the BP neural network model. We have
found that like ANN model, the SVM model is able to
predict to a reasonably good accuracy in most of cases.
And a more
interest
ed
phenomenon

is that in smal
l data
set and real
-
life production, the predictive power of ANN
models appears to decrease, while SVM models are still
capable of remaining the
stability

of predictive accuracy to
some extent. The experimental results indicate that the
SVM models are more

suitable for
noisy and

dynamic

spinning process. Of course, like other
emerging

industrial

techniques,
applied

issues on SVM reaffirm the due
commitment to their further development and investigation,
such as the problems how to design the kernel function

and how to set the SVM hyper
-
parameters (to make the
industrial

model development more easily). Our research
thus far

demonstrates

that SVMs are able to provide an
alternative solution for the spinners to predict yarn
properties more
correctly

and
reliabl
y

6

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

This research was supported by
national science
foundation and
technology
support

plan

of the People
Republic of China, under contract number
70371040
and
2006BAF01A44

respectively.

7

REFERENCES


[1]
Renate Esswein,

Knowledge assures qualit
y

,
International Textile Bulletin,
2004
,

Vol15, no2,
17~21,

[2]
R. Chattonpadhyay and A. Guha,

Artificial Neural
Networks: Applications to Textiles

, Textile Progress,
2004
,
Vol35, no1, 1~42,

[3]
V. David Sanchez A,

Advanced Support Vector
Machines a
nd Kernel Methods

,
Neurocomputing
,
2003
,
Vol55, no3, 5
-
20 ,

[4]
V. N. Vapnik,
1999
,
The Nature of Statistical Learning
Theory, 2nd ed., Berlin: Springer,

31
-
188,

[5]
B. Scholkopf, C. Burges, and A. Smola,
1999
,
Advances in Kernel

Methods

Support Vect
or
Learning. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press,

5
-
73,

[6]
B. Scholkopf, Smola A. and Williamson. R.C.,
et al
,

New support vector algorithms

, Neural
Computation,
2000
,
Vol12, no4, 1207
-
1245,

[7]
Athanassia Chalimourda, B. Scholkopt, A. Smola,
“Experimentally
O
ptimal
ν

in
S
upport
V
ector
R
egression for
D
ifferent
N
oise

M
odels and
P
arameter
S
ettings”
,
IEEE

trans. on Neural Netw.,
2004
,
Vol17, no2,

127
-
141

[8]
Chih
-
Wei Hsu, Chih
-
Chung Chang, and Chih
-
Jen Lin,
A practical guide to support vector classification,
available at http://www.csie.ntu.edu.tw/~cjlin/paper

[9]
Refael B., Lijing W., Xungai W.,

P
redicting

worsted
spinning performance with an artificial neural network
model

, Textile Res. J. ,
2004
,
Vol74, no.8,

757
-
763,

[10]
Peter R. Lord,
2003
,
Handbook

of Yarn Production
(Technology, Science and Economics), Abinhton
England: Woodhead publishing Limited, 95
-
212




Table1 The optimal values of
σ
and C

Output parameter

Optimal value

CV %


Elongation at break


Breaking force


Ends
-
down






Table
2

Comparison of the predictive power of t
he SVM
-
based and ANN
-
based models

Sample No.

Predicted value using ANN model

Predicted value using SVM model

CV%

EB

BF

ED

CV%

EB

BF

ED


W21

19.32

13.81

113.89

70.41

19.66

12.85

116.24

72.06


W22

20.52

16.55

61.91

75.78

20.88

12.25

76.87

72.40


W23

15.62

12.32

153.46

39.40

16.84

15.59

156.57

42.22


W24

20.66

16.55

61.91

75.78

20.75

12.25

76.87

72.40


W25

22.60

19.77

47.00

69.84

19.66

12.76

76.86

59.31


W26

20.70

11.87

66.76

79.22

21.20

12.59

66.62

81.27


Correlation

coefficient. R

0.76

0.67

0.96

0.88

0.88

0.80

0.99

0.91

Mean squared error

0.01

0.12

0.07

0.03

0.003

0.05

0.01

0.03

Mean error%

5.73

24.35

13.67

19.99

2.85

9.23

5.52

17.29

Cases with

over 10% error

1

6

5

6

0

2

2

3