WCB/McGraw

Hill
© The McGraw

Hill Companies, Inc.,1998
Thermo
dynamics
Çengel
Boles
Third Edition
Thermo
dynamics
WCB/McGraw

Hill
© The McGraw

Hill Companies, Inc.,1998
Thermo
dynamics
Çengel
Boles
Third Edition
1
CHAPTER
Basic
Concepts of
Thermodynamics
WCB/McGraw

Hill
© The McGraw

Hill Companies, Inc.,1998
Thermo
dynamics
Çengel
Boles
Third Edition
Applications of
Thermodynamics
1

1
Power plants
The human body
Air

conditioning
systems
Airplanes
Car radiators
Refrigeration systems
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Hill
© The McGraw

Hill Companies, Inc.,1998
Thermo
dynamics
Çengel
Boles
Third Edition
Crossing Closed

System Boundries
1

2
(Fig. 1

13)
Energy, not mass, crosses closed

system boundries
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Hill
© The McGraw

Hill Companies, Inc.,1998
Thermo
dynamics
Çengel
Boles
Third Edition
Closed System with Moving
Boundry
1

3
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© The McGraw

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Thermo
dynamics
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Third Edition
Crossing Control Volume
Boundaries
1

4
Mass and Energy Cross Control Volume Boundaries
WCB/McGraw

Hill
© The McGraw

Hill Companies, Inc.,1998
Thermo
dynamics
Çengel
Boles
Third Edition
System’s Internal Energy
(Fig. 1

19)
1

5
System’s Internal Energy = Sum of Microscopic Energies
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Hill
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Thermo
dynamics
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Boles
Third Edition
Quasi

Equilibrium,
Work

Producing Devices
(Fig. 1

30)
1

6
Quasi

Equilibrium, Work

Producing Devices Deliver the Most Work
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Hill
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Thermo
dynamics
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Boles
Third Edition
Compressed Process
P

V
Diagram
(Fig. 1

31)
1

7
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Hill
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Hill Companies, Inc.,1998
Thermo
dynamics
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Boles
Third Edition
Absolute, Gage, and Vacuum
Pressures
(Fig. 1

36)
1

8
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Hill
© The McGraw

Hill Companies, Inc.,1998
Thermo
dynamics
Çengel
Boles
Third Edition
The Basic Manometer
1

9
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Hill
© The McGraw

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Thermo
dynamics
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Third Edition
Temperature Scales
Comparison
(Fig. 1

48)
1

10
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Thermo
dynamics
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Third Edition
Many Ways to Supply the Same
Energy
(Fig. 1

52)
1

11
Ways to supply a room with energy equalling a 300

W electric resistance heater
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Hill
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Thermo
dynamics
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Boles
Third Edition
Bomb Calorimeter Used to
Determine Energy Content of Food
(Fig. 1

53)
1

12
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Thermo
dynamics
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Third Edition
Chapter Summary
•
Thermodynamics
is the science that primarily
deals with energy.
1

13
WCB/McGraw

Hill
© The McGraw

Hill Companies, Inc.,1998
Thermo
dynamics
Çengel
Boles
Third Edition
Chapter Summary
•
The
first law of thermodynamics
is simply an
expression of the conservation of energy
principle, and it asserts that
energy
is a
thermodynamic property.
•
The
second law of thermodynamics
asserts
that energy has
quality
as well as
quantity
, and
actual processes occur in the direction of
decreasing quality of energy.
1

14
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Hill
© The McGraw

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Thermo
dynamics
Çengel
Boles
Third Edition
Chapter Summary
•
A system of fixed mass is called a
closed
system
, or
control mass
, and a system that
involves mass transfer across its boundaries
is called an
open system
, or
control volume
.
1

15
WCB/McGraw

Hill
© The McGraw

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Thermo
dynamics
Çengel
Boles
Third Edition
Chapter Summary
•
The mass

dependent properties of a system
are called
extensive properties
and the others,
intensive properties
.
Density
is mass per unit
volume, and
specific volume
is volume per unit
mass.
1

16
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Thermo
dynamics
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Boles
Third Edition
Chapter Summary
•
The sum of all forms of energy of a system is
called
total energy
, which is considered to
consist of internal, kinetic, and potential
energies.
Internal energy
represents the
molecular energy of a system and may exist in
sensible, latent, chemical, and nuclear forms.
1

17
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Thermo
dynamics
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Boles
Third Edition
Chapter Summary
•
A system is said to be in
thermodynamic
equilibrium
if it maintains thermal, mechanical,
phase, and chemical equilibrium.
1

18
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Thermo
dynamics
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Third Edition
Chapter Summary
•
Any change from one state to another is called
a
process
.
•
A process with identical end states is called a
cycle
.
1

19
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Hill
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Thermo
dynamics
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Boles
Third Edition
Chapter Summary
•
During a
quasi

static
or
quasi

equilibrium
process, the system remains practically in
equilibrium at all times.
1

20
WCB/McGraw

Hill
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Thermo
dynamics
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Boles
Third Edition
Chapter Summary
•
The state of a simple, compressible system is
completely specified by two independent,
intensive properties.
1

21
WCB/McGraw

Hill
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Thermo
dynamics
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Boles
Third Edition
Chapter Summary
•
Force per unit area is called
pressure
, and its
unit is the
pascal
. The absolute, gage, and
vacuum pressures are related by
1

22
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Hill
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Thermo
dynamics
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Boles
Third Edition
Chapter Summary
•
Small to moderate pressure differences are
measured by a manometer, and a differential
fluid column of height h corresponds to a
pressure difference of
where
is theluid densitynd gs theocal
gravitational acceleration.
1

23
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Thermo
dynamics
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Third Edition
Chapter Summary
•
The atmospheric pressure is measured by a
barometer and is determined from
where h is the height of the liquid column
above the free surface.
1

24
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Thermo
dynamics
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Third Edition
Chapter Summary
•
The zeroth law of thermodynamics states that
two bodies are in thermal equilibrium if both
have the same temperature reading even if
they are not in contact.
1

25
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Hill
© The McGraw

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Thermo
dynamics
Çengel
Boles
Third Edition
Chapter Summary
•
The temperature scales used in the SI and the
English system today are the Celsius scale
and the Fahrenheit scale, respectively.
1

26
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Hill
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Thermo
dynamics
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Boles
Third Edition
Chapter Summary
•
The absolute temperature scale in the SI is the
Kelvin scale, which is related to the Celsius
scale by
1

27
WCB/McGraw

Hill
© The McGraw

Hill Companies, Inc.,1998
Thermo
dynamics
Çengel
Boles
Third Edition
Chapter Summary
•
In the English system, the absolute
temperature scale is the Rankine scale, which
is related to the Fahrenheit scale by
1

28
WCB/McGraw

Hill
© The McGraw

Hill Companies, Inc.,1998
Thermo
dynamics
Çengel
Boles
Third Edition
Chapter Summary
•
The magnitudes of each division of 1 K and
1
0
C are identical, and so are the magnitude of
each division of 1 R and 1
0
F. Therefore,
and
1

29
WCB/McGraw

Hill
© The McGraw

Hill Companies, Inc.,1998
Thermo
dynamics
Çengel
Boles
Third Edition
Chapter Summary
•
An important application area of
thermodynamics is the biological system.
Most diets are based on the simple energy
balance: the net energy gained by a person in
the form of fat is equal to the difference
between the energy intake from food and the
energy expended by exercise.
1

30
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