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Nov 5, 2013 (3 years and 9 months ago)

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The Web and E
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mail

Chapter 7

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Chapter Contents


Section A: Web Technology


Section B: Search Engines


Section C: E
-
commerce


Section D: E
-
mail


Section E: Web and E
-
mail Security

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SECTION

A

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Web Technology


Web Basics


HTML


HTTP


Web Browsers


Cookies


Web Page Authoring


HTML Scripts

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Web Basics


The Web is an interlinked collection of
document, image, video, and sound files


A Web site contains a collection of related
information


Podcasts


RSS vs. Atom


Videocasting

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Web Basics


A Web page is the product or output of one or more
Web
-
based files displayed in a format similar to a
page in a book


A Web browser is client software that displays Web
page elements and handles links between pages


Every Web page has a unique address called a
URL

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HTML


Set of specifications for creating documents
that a browser can display as a Web page


Markup language


HTML tags


XHTML


DHTML


Ajax

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HTML

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HTTP

HTTP messages flow

between a browser

and a Web server.

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Web Browsers


Help you access Web pages


Upgrade to new browser

versions as they become

available


Popular browsers:


Internet Explorer


Mozilla Firefox


Apple Safari


Netscape Navigator


Opera

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Web Browsers


Helper applications extend browser’s ability
to work with file formats


A plug
-
in is a type of helper application


A player is any helper

application or plug
-
in

that helps a browser

display a particular file

format


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Cookies


Small chunk of data generated by a Web
server and stored on computer’s hard disk


Fix problems caused by HTTP’s stateless
protocol


Relatively safe


Your computer does not have to accept
cookies

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Web Page Authoring


Text editor


HTML conversion tool


Online Web authoring
tools


Web authoring software


Microsoft FrontPage


Adobe Dreamweaver

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HTML Scripts


HTML scripts can perform complicated tasks
and respond to user actions


HTML forms


Server
-
side script


Client
-
side script


Java applet


ActiveX control


Digital Certificate

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SECTION

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Search Engines


Search Engine Basics


Formulating Searches


Citing Web
-
based Source Material

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Search Engine Basics


A Web search engine is a program designed
to help people locate information on the Web
by formulating simple keyword queries

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Search Engine Basics


A Web crawler is a computer program that is automated to
methodically visit Web sites


A search engine indexer is software that culls keywords from
a Web page and stores them in a database


A search engine’s query processor looks for your search
terms in search engine’s indexed database and returns list of
relevant Web sites


Link popularity is measured by quantity and quality of links
from one Web page to others


A meta keyword is entered into a header section of a Web
page when it is created and is supposed to describe the
page contents


Keyword stuffing

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Formulating Searches


Most search engines
work with keyword
queries in which you
enter one or more
words, called search
terms

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Formulating Searches


A Boolean operator is a word or symbol that
describes a relationship between keywords,
helping you create a more focused query

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Citing Web
-
Based Source

To copy a passage of text

from a Web page, highlight

the text, click the Edit

menu, then select Copy.

Next, switch to your own

document and use the

Paste option.

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Citing Web
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Based Source

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SECTION

C

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E
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commerce


E
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commerce Basics


Online Shopping


Online Auctions


Online Payment

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E
-
commerce Basics


Business transactions conducted
electronically over a computer

network


B2C (business
-
to
-
consumer)


C2C (consumer
-
to
-
consumer)


B2B (business
-
to
-
business)


B2G (business
-
to
-
government)

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E
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commerce Basics


Enhances traditional business models


Styles of online advertisements


Banner ad


Hover ad


Pop
-
up ad


Click
-
through rate


Ad
-
blocking software

prevents ads from

appearing on screens

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Online Shopping

In a typical shopping

session, you connect to

an online storefront and

use navigation controls

to browse through the

merchant’s catalog. As

you browse, you can

drop items into your

electronic shopping cart.

At the checkout counter,

you enter the information

necessary to pay for the

items you selected.

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Online Shopping

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Shopping Carts

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Online Auctions


An online auction is the
electronic equivalent to
good old
-
fashioned yard
sales, rummage sales, and
auctions


You can expect to bid on
new, used, closeout,
overstock, or refurbished
items at an online auction


Computer software takes
the place of an auctioneer

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Online Payment


The most popular ways to make online
payments include submitting your credit card
number directly to a merchant and using a
third
-
party payment service such as PayPal


Online shoppers are justifiably worried that
personal information and credit card numbers
supplied in the course of an e
-
commerce
transaction might be hijacked and used
inappropriately

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Online Payment


A secure connection encrypts the data
transmitted between your computer and a
Web site


SSL (Secure Sockets Layer)


S
-
HTTP (secure HTTP)

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Online Payment


Person
-
to
-
person payments
are an alternative to credit
cards


The payment service is the
only entity that sees your
credit card number


Service is in its infancy


An electronic wallet is
software that stores billing
and shipping information

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Online Payment

An electronic wallet
can transfer your
billing and shipping
information to a

participating site’s

e
-
commerce Web
server when you
check out.

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E
-
mail


E
-
mail Overview


Netiquette


E
-
mail Technology

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E
-
Mail Overview


Any person with an e
-
mail account can send
and receive e
-
mail messages

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E
-
Mail Overview


Basic e
-
mail activities


Writing


Reading


Replying


Forwarding

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E
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Mail Overview


E
-
mail attachments are files that travel with
an e
-
mail message


E
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mail software converts e
-
mail attachments to
MIME


HTML
-
compliant e
-
mail software


Additional e
-
mail features

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E
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Mail Overview

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Netiquette


Internet etiquette


Meaningful subject


Use uppercase and lowercase letters


Check spelling


Be careful what you send


Be polite


Be cautious with sarcasm and humor

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Netiquette


Use smileys and text
messaging shorthand
cautiously


Use the Bcc function for
group mailings


Don’t send replies to all
recipients


Don’t send huge attachments


Explain attachments


Stay alert for viruses


Notify recipients of viruses

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E
-
mail Technology


E
-
mail systems carry and manipulate e
-
mail
messages


E
-
mail servers


Based on store
-
and
-
forward technology


Three types of e
-
mail systems widely used
today:


POP


IMAP


Web
-
based e
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mail

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E
-
mail Technology


Web
-
based e
-
mail accounts allow you to use
a browser to access your e
-
mail messages

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E
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mail Technology


A POP server is a
computer that stores
your incoming
messages until they
can be transferred to
your hard disk


E
-
mail client software


SMTP server

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SECTION

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Web and E
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mail Security


Cookie Exploits


Fake Sites


Spam


Phishing

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Cookie Exploits


An ad
-
serving cookie can track your activities
at any site containing banner ads from a third
party


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Cookie Exploits


A Flash cookie, also called a local shared object, is
the Flash equivalent of a conventional Web cookie


A Web bug or clear GIF is typically a 1x1 pixel
graphic embedded in a Web page or e
-
mail
message. It is almost invisible due to its size, and is
designed to track who’s reading the Web page or

e
-
mail message


Antispyware is a type of security software designed
to identify and neutralize Web bugs, ad
-
serving
cookies, and other spyware

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Cookie Exploits


Individuals who prefer
not to leave a trail of
their Internet activities
surf through an
anonymous proxy
service, which uses an
intermediary, or proxy,
server to relay Web
page requests after
masking the originating
IP address

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Fake Sites


A fake Web site
looks legitimate, but
has been created by
a third party to be a
very clever replica of
a legitimate Web site


Pharming is an
exploit that redirects
users to fake sites
by “poisoning” a
domain name server
with a false IP
address

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Spam


Spam is unwanted electronic junk mail about
medical products, low
-
cost loans, and fake software
upgrades that arrives in your online mailbox


A spam filter is a type of utility software that
captures unsolicited e
-
mail messages before they
reach your inbox


To combat spam sent by hijacked botnet
computers, e
-
mail authentication techniques, such
as Sender ID and DomainKeys, verify that e
-
mail
messages originate from the Internet domain from
which they claim to have been sent

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Spam

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Phishing


Phishing is an e
-
mail based scam designed
to persuade you to reveal confidential
information, such as your bank account
number or Social Security number


If you don’t want to become a phishing victim,
be suspicious of e
-
mail messages that
supposedly come from banks, ISPs, online
payment services, operating system
publishers, and online merchants

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Phishing

Chapter 7 Complete

The Web and E
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