Education and Traditional

carenextSoftware and s/w Development

Nov 18, 2013 (3 years and 7 months ago)

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The
Differences Between Adult
Education
and
Traditional
Undergraduate Education


Dr. Tom Phelan, President

Strategic Teaching Associates, Inc.

Associate Professor,

American Public University System

Instructor,

Elmira College

Areas of Differences


Experience


Maturity


Classroom Management


Attendance/Schedules


Full time/ Part time


Daytime/ Evening


Networking


Technology

Experience


Traditional Undergrads


Limited


Work


Travel


Research


Self
-
Direction


Broad


Technology


Flexibility


Classroom



Adult Learners


Limited


Time


Technology


Research


APA/MLA


Broad


Work


Travel


Interpersonal


Historical Perspective

Maturity


Traditional Undergrads


Age (26 average in
community colleges)


18


22 (most colleges)
Born 1992


Socially varied


most
unmarried


Diverse


Technologically mature


High Tolerance




Adult Learners


Ages to 65+


Many married with
children


Diverse


Self
-
directed


Technologically
immature


Lower Tolerance



Classroom Management


Traditional Undergrads


Attendance Problems


Instant Messaging


Accustomed to Groups


Brick & Mortar


Grade Conscious


Blackboard/Angel


Time Management



Adult Learners


Work/School Schedule
Conflicts


Discussion
-
oriented


Group work averse


More frequent breaks


Furniture /comfort


Presentation focused


Desire to share



Attendance/Schedules


Traditional Undergrads


Fixed, five day week


Daytime hours


Not too early


Not Friday afternoon


Conflicts


Sports


Special Events


Other classes


Adult Learners


Evenings/weekends


On line


Conflicts


Work travel


Family


Access to Library


Group meetings


Fixed Exam Schedule

Daytime/Evening/Any Time


Traditional Undergrads


Daytime


Five days/ week


Adult Learners


Evening or late
afternoon


Weekends


On line/ any time


Networking


Traditional Undergrads


New Concept


Social Networking vs.
Career Networks


Finding Contacts


Internet focus


Friends


Lack of Sources


Adult Learners


Work related


LinkedIn.com


Associations


Business Meetings


Conferences


Client focused


References

Technology


Traditional Undergrads


Latest Innovation


Laptop


Cell (
iphone
)


Blackberry


e
-
books


Internet Searches


Electronic/Digital


.
docx


Open Office


Skype


Poor Contingency Plans




Adult Learners


Traditional


Library


Print Media


Internet Explorer


Go To Meetings


Webinars


Word.doc


Hand
-
holding


Paper Backups

Not your Father’s Classroom


Cyrile

Houle


Benjamin Bloom


Malcolm Knowles


Allen Tough


Alexander Charters


Roger
Hiemstra


Tom Phelan

The Inquiring Mind


The Inquiring Mind: A Study of the Adult Who Continues To Learn
by Cyril
Houle

1.
M
ore people continue their education from the late 20s until age 50
than at any other time;

2.
T
he higher the formal education of the adult, the more likely it is that he
or she will take part in continuing education;

3.
L
earners were usually readily discerned as such by their friends;

4.
F
or the learning oriented, education was an almost constant rather than
occasional activity;

5.
E
nrollment in formal education is largely vocational in nature;

6.
S
ome learners attend educational classes for the activity itself and the
social opportunities the educational setting provides; and

7.
I
nfluences on learning included family background, teachers and schools,
public libraries, occupations, and the examples of friends
--
but how these
influences worked were varied.


1960

Bloom’s Taxonomy


Cognitive Domain


Knowledge


Comprehension


Application


Analysis


Synthesis


Judgment*


1956

Bloom’s Little Known Domain


Affective Domain


Receiving


Responding


Balancing


Organizing


Internalizing Values

Pedagogy to
Andragogy


The Modern Practice of Adult Education;
Andragogy

versus Pedagogy
by Malcolm Knowles (what year?)


This book is a guided inquiry into the newly emerging
technology of adult education based on an original
theory of
andragogy

(the art and science of helping
adults learn) as distinguished from pedagogy (teaching
children and youth).


Its central thesis is that adults in certain crucial
respects are different from young people as learners,
and that a different approach is needed.


1970

Allen Tough’s

Adult’s Learning Projects

http://allentough.com/

Alexander Charters

“The third stage of Adult Education into which the

world is now moving . . . might be called the knowledge
-

based stage. It is not to consider knowledge as

a product but knowledge as the basis for knowing.

Knowledge encompasses all aspects of learning, and it

behooves all adults to continue to learn in areas and at

levels appropriate for them.”

Dr. Alexander Charters,

8 September 1996

http://library.syr.edu/digital/guides/a/AlexanderNCharters/flyers/chartersflyer.pdf

Jost

Reischmann

on
Andragogy

http://www.uni
-
bamberg.de/fileadmin/andragogik/08/andragogik/andragogy/index.htm#our

Roger
Hiemstra



Perseverence

-

staying with the process of being a better professional;

learning to do better as you grow and develop as an experienced

educator of adults



Pride

-

pride in yourself, pride in your profession; this includes learning

to love yourself and recognize the personal attributes you have; it

also may need to include reading personal development books



Patience

-

with yourself, with learners; remember that something like

becoming a highly proficient and skilled self
-
directed learner takes

time



Patterns for success
-

there are existing models for teaching or

training

adults that work; individualizing the instructional process,

self
-
directed learning, etc. are some of them; find a mentor that

understands these various patterns or models and seek guidance




Persnickety
-

become more organized and disciplined in what you do;

depending on your personality style, this may take lots of effort,

but it is worth it

Hiemstra
, cont’d.



Preparation/preparedness
-

do your homework, practice

everything before you do it, refuse to "wing" it when you

are

working with adult learners



Personal philosophy
-

develop a personal philosophy

statement, statement of personal ethics, and/or a personal

statement of professional commitment that will serve as the

foundation for what you do in the future



Presentation skill development
-

continuously work on

developing your platform skills; seek feedback, obtain

evaluations, video tape yourself, etc.



Professionalism

-

develop your professional writing skills, join

and participate in a professional association, contribute to

your profession in various ways, understand professional

standards that apply to you, develop a
personal portfolio




Potentiality

-

strive to live up to the potential that is within you; I

truly believe there is a greatness in each of us that only

remains to be unlocked, to be developed; you can do it!!!

http://www
-
distance.syr.edu/adulted.html

Tom Phelan


Adults learn best when having fun


Storytelling as a teaching method


Self
-
Direction in Adult Learning


Provide opportunity for sharing experience


Reinforce basic skills


Explore new and effective technology


Use the liberal arts approach


Grading


Don’t punish adults for learning


23

Thank You!

6385 Willson Road

Vernon Center, NY 13477

(315) 829
-
4199

drtom@drtomphelan.com

www.drtomphelan.com


Dr. Tom Phelan