Fielding a current idea: exploring the public health impact of electromagnetic radiation

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R
evie
w
Article
Fielding
a
current
idea:
explo
ring
the
public
healt
h
impact
of
elect
romagnetic
r
adiation
Stephen
J.
Genuis
!
Facult
y
o
f
M
e
dicine,
Universit
y
o
f
Alber
ta,
2935

66
Str
eet,
Edmont
on,
AB,
Canada
T6K
4C
1
R
eceived
26
May
2006;
received
in
revised
form
12
January
2007;
accepted
2
April
2007
KEYWOR
DS
Dirty
electricity;
Electromagnetic
fields;
Electromagnetic
radiation;
Ground
current;
Human
exposure
assessment;
Non-ionizing
radiation
Summary
Several
publications
in
the
scientific
literature
have
raised
concern
about
the
individual
and
public
health
impact
of
adverse
non-ionizing
radiation
(a-NIR)
from
electromagnetic
field
(EMF)
exposure
emanating
from
certain
power
,
electrical
and
wireless
devices
commonly
found
in
the
home,
workplace,
school
and
community
.
Despite
the
many
challenges
in
establishing
irrefutable
scientific
proof
of
harm
and
the
various
gaps
in
elucidating
the
precise
mechanisms
of
harm,
epidemiological
analyses
continue
to
suggest
considerable
potential
for
injury
and
affliction
as
a
result
of
a-NIR
exposure.
As
environmental
health
has
not
been
emphasized
in
medical
education,
some
clinicians
are
not
fully
aware
of
possible
EMF-related
health
problems
and,
as
a
result,
manifestations
of
a-NIR
may
remain
misdiagnosed
and
ineffectually
managed.
It
is
important
for
physicians
and
public
health
officials
to
be
aware
of
the
fundamental
science
and
clinical
implications
of
EMF
exposure.
A
review
of
the
scientific
literature
relating
to
the
link
between
electromagnetic
radiation
and
human
health,
several
public
health
recommenda-
tions,
and
four
case
histories
are
presented
for
consideration.
&
2007
The
R
oyal
Institute
of
Public
Health.
Published
by
Elsevier
Ltd.
All
rights
reserved.
‘A
new
scient
ific
truth
does
not
triu
mph
by
convinci
ng
its
opponent
s
and
makin
g
the
m
see
the
light,
but
rather
beca
use
its
oppo
nents
eventua
lly
die,
and
a
new
genera
tion
grows
up
that
is
famil
iar
wit
h
it.’
Max
Plan
ck
(Nobel
P
rize
W
inn
er

P
hysics)
.
It
was
only
a
few
deca
des
ago
when
individ
uals
queue
d
u
p
i
n
shoe
shops
and
malls
to
view
their
meta
tarsals
under
fluo
roscopy
machi
nes;
with
exper
t
reassu
rance
that
such
a
novelty
was
perfect
ly
safe,
the
increase
d
cancer
rates
in
part
icipants
came
as
a
surprise.
Whi
le
there
is
recogni
tion
of
the
potentia
l
cellu
lar
and
ti
ssue
dama
ge
associa
ted
with
expos
ure
to
ion
izing
radiat
ion
from
X-rays
,
electr
omagneti
c
radiation
(EMR)
emanat
ing
from
power
lines,
mobile
phone
s,
comm
on
electr
ical
devi
ces
and
some
types
of
machi
nery
has
also
begun
to
att
ract
recent
atten-
tion
as
a
pot
ential
healt
h
haza
rd.
Con
flicting
AR
TI
CL
E
I
N
P
RE
S
S
www
.elsev
ierhealth.com/journals/pubh
0033-3506
/$
-
see
front
matter
&
2007
The
R
oyal
Institute
of
Public
Health.
Published
by
Elsevier
Ltd.
All
rights
reserved.
doi:
10.1016/j.pu
he.2007.04
.008
!
Correspond
ing
author
.
T
el.:
+1
780
450
3504;
fax:
+1
780
490
1803.
E-mail
address:
sgenuis@ualbe
rta.ca.
Please
cite
this
article
as:
Genuis
SJ.
Fielding
a
current
idea:
exploring
the
public
health
impact
of
electromagn
etic
radiation.
Public
Health
(2007),
doi:
10.1016/j
.puhe.20
07.04.008
infor
mation
is
fou
nd
in
the
medica
l
literature
;
whil
e
some
reports
dismis
s
t
h
e
alleged
risk
asso-
cia
ted
with
EMR,
various
interna
tional
bodies
incl
uding
the
W
orld
Health
Or
ganizati
on
1
and
the
Interna
tional
Agency
for
R
esearch
on
Cancer
2
(IAR
C)
ha
ve
cal
led
for
inten
se
invest
igation
of
the
impac
t
o
f
non-ion
izing
radiation
(NIR)
on
hum
an
hea
lth
in
response
to
mount
ing
researc
h
suggest
ing
a
lin
k
bet
ween
adverse
EMR
and
vari
ous
afflict
ions
incl
uding
reproduc
tive
dysf
unction
,
cance
r
and
cent
ral
nervo
us
syste
m
(CNS)
disorders
.
Overv
iew
of
electromagnet
ic
spectru
m
and
NIR
Radiat
ion
refers
to
a
type
of
energy
that
is
given
off
or
‘radiates

away
from
the
sourc
e
o
f
that
ene
rgy
.
Ther
e
are
differe
nt
forms
of
energy
,
each
with
disti
nct
phys
ical
properties
that
can
be
me
asured
and
expre
ssed
in
te
rms
of
frequenc
y
and
wave
-
lengths
.
Some
waves
have
a
high
fre
quency
,
some
med
ium
and
so
me
low
.
The
electrom
agnetic
spec
-
trum
is
a
name
use
d
t
o
descri
be
a
group
of
distinct
energy
form
s
that
emanate
from
various
sources
;
the
energie
s
relea
sed
are
referred
to
as
typ
es
of
EMR
(
Fig.
1
).
Exhi
biting
high
fre
quencies
are
gamm
a
rays,
X-rays
and
ultraviole
t
light;
lowe
r
fre
quencies
of
the
spectrum
incl
ude
microwav
es
and
radio
waves.
Light
wave
emission,
which
occurs
at
me
dium
frequenc
ies,
provi
des
for
norm
al
vision
and
the
ligh
t
w
e
per
ceive;
infra
-red
energy
allows
for
the
per
ception
of
hea
t.
Most
energy
form
s
such
as
X-r
ays,
ultravi
olet
energy
and
radio
wave
s
are
invisible
and
imper
cep-
tible
to
th
e
hum
an.
Without
specializ
ed
inst
rumen
-
tation
,
m
o
s
t
f
r
equencies
can
not
be
detec
ted
and
,
as
a
resul
t,
peopl
e
general
ly
do
not
appreci
ate
the
ir
expos
ure
to
energy
fields
in
the
se
range
s.
Des
pite
the
lac
k
o
f
perc
eption,
expos
ure
to
high-
frequenc
y
energy
incl
uding
X-rays
is
terme
d
‘ioniz
ing
radiat
ion’
and
is
pot
entially
damagi
ng
to
hum
an
cell
s.
By
alterin
g
t
h
e
atomic
compos
ition
of
cell
structure
s,
by
bre
aking
chemical
bonds
and
by
indu
cing
fre
e
radical
form
ation,
suf
ficient
expos
ure
to
ion
izing
radiation
may
inflict
DN
A
dama
ge
or
muta
tion,
thu
s
incre
asing
the
risk
of
malign
ancy
or
cell
death.
Non-ionizing
r
adiation
‘Non-i
onizin
g’
radiat
ion
(NIR),
gene
rally
ref
erring
to
energy
form
s
with
low
er
frequen
cies,
has
been
consid
ered
safe
by
many
scient
ists
and
wit
hout
adve
rse
effects
at
comm
on
expos
ure
level
s.
R
ecen
tly
,
howe
ver
,
increasing
evid
ence
sugge
sts
that
some
frequen
cies
of
NIR
may
have
pot
ential
to
cause
bio
logical
harm.
Most
of
the
resear
ch
on
the
health
effe
cts
of
adverse
NIR
(a-NIR)
has
been
done
at:
(1)
extremel
y
low-
frequenc
y
(ELF
)
ene
rgy
wave
s
produce
d
and
emitted
by
power
stations,
power
lines
and
some
elec
trical
equipme
nt;
and
(2)
radio
and
microwa
ve
fr
equencies
given
off
by
wirele
ss
commu
nication
technolog
ies,
cordless
and
cellu
lar
pho
nes,
and
some
elec
trical
material
s.
Curr
ent
study
is
also
investiga
ting
the
pot
ential
sequ
elae
of
intense
exposur
e
t
o
a-NIR
as
a
r
e
sult
of
voltage
origin
ating
from
‘dirt
y
electr
icity’
and
‘ground
cur
rent’.
Just
as
clean
w
ater
can
become
pollute
d
when
it
travels
thro
ugh
a
conta
minated
enviro
nment
,
elec
-
tricit
y
beco
mes
increas
ingly
pollute
d
w
hen
it
comes
into
conta
ct
wit
h
assorted
types
of
electr
o-
nic
equi
pment.
R
egular
or
‘clean’
elec
tricity
ent
ers
build
ings
at
a
frequen
cy
of
50/60
Hz;
powe
r
become
s
‘dirt
y’
or
poll
uted
when
it
develops
scattere
d
high
er-fre
quency
signal
s
a
s
a
resul
t
o
f
conta
ct
with
equi
pment
such
as
comput
ers,
plasm
a
televi
sions
and
some
applian
ces.
NIR
generated
by
dirt
y
power
may
radiat
e
t
o
con
taminate
the
adjacent
envi
ronment
and
is
alleged
to
be
AR
TI
CL
E
I
N
P
RE
S
S
Non–Ionizing Radiation
Ionizing Radiation
Extremely
Low
Freq
uen
cy
Radi
o
freque
ncy
Microwave
Infra-
red
Visible
Light
Ultraviolet
X-Ray
s
Gamma
Ray
s
Non
Perceptible
Perceptible
Non
Perceptible
Possible Biological Damage
at Some Frequencies
Destructive to
Living Tissue
Figure
1
Electromagnetic
spectrum

types
of
radiation.
S.J.
Genuis
2
Please
cite
this
article
as:
Genuis
SJ.
Fielding
a
current
idea:
exploring
the
public
health
impact
of
electromagn
etic
radiation.
Public
Health
(2007),
doi:
10.1016/j.pu
he.2007.04
.008
pot
entially
harmful.
3
Groun
d
cur
rent,
some
times
ref
erred
to
as
‘stray
curre
nt,’
is
electr
icity
that
is
not
confined
to
elec
trical
wiring.
Ele
ctrical
curre
nt
foll
ows
the
path
of
lea
st
re
sistanc
e
and
can
flow
thro
ugh
any
and
all
avai
lable
paths
includin
g
earth,
wires
and
various
objects
.
Acco
rdingly
,
electr
ical
volta
ge
can
transmi
t
through
the
ground
and
into
buil
ding
structu
res
through
such
devices
as
metal
pipes
or
rods
in
plumbi
ng
equipme
nt,
re
sulting
in
a-
NIR
scatteri
ng
into
the
adjacen
t
environm
ent.
4

6
All
forms
of
a-NIR,
howeve
r
,
only
infl
ict
harm
within
the
ir
fie
lds
of
influenc
e.
A

e
l
d
i
s
‘so
methi
ng’
that
exists
in
space
aroun
d
an
objec
t
o
r
device;
the
area
over
which
the
object
exer
ts
some
form
of
phys
ical
influence
.
The
inhe
rent
pr
operties
of
the
obje
ct
or
device
produce
the
surrou
nding
fie
ld.
A
magnet
,
for
exa
mple,
cre
ates
an
invisible
fie
ld
that
can
attract
or
repel
other
objects
wit
hin
a
certain
distanc
e.
When
power
is
generated
,
transmi
tted
or
use
d,
electr
ical
mate
rials
an
d
devi
ces
produ
ce
fields
aroun
d
the
m
called
‘ele
ctric
fields

and
the
combi
nation
of
cer
tain
elements
in
vari
ous
devic
es
results
in
the
product
ion
of
bot
h
a
n
electr
ic
and
a
magnet
ic
compon
ent,
called
an
‘electrom
agne
tic
field’
(EM
F).
Anot
her
way
of
expr
essin
g
this
phen
omenon
is
to
conside
r
that
w
aves
or
rays
of
energy
are
relea
sed
outward
from
some
electrica
l
material
s,
radio
emitte
rs
and
powe
r
device
s,
but
the
inten
sity
of
the
field
of
expos
ure
rapidly
drops
off
with
increas
ing
distance
from
the
so
urce.
Shi
elding
aga
inst
some
energy
frequenc
ies,
such
as
blo
cking
X-rays
wit
h
lead
plates,
is
effi
cacious;
it
is
difficul
t,
howe
ver
,
t
o
effecti
vely
shield
against
some
energy
wave
lengths
includi
ng
ELF
EM
Fs.
Nearly
everyo
ne
in
our
society
is
expos
ed
to
some
degr
ee
of
EMF
pollution
,
yet
few
are
cogn
izant
of
the
deba
te
about
hea
lth
risks
associa
ted
with
a-NI
R.
As
subat
omic
mat
ter
in
hum
an
cells
entai
ls
the
moveme
nt
of
electr
ons,
an
d
various
biologic
al
activit
ies
incl
uding
br
ain
functi
on
and
cardi
ac
condu
ction
involv
e
meas
urable
electr
ical
activit
y
,
it
is
not
su
rprising
that
intense
electr
ical
fields
can
exer
t
infl
uence
on
the
hum
an
electrica
l
syste
m.
Altho
ugh
th
is
evolving
area
of
science
provo
kes
many
una
nswered
questions,
consid
erable
re
search
sugge
sts
that
expo
sure
to
cer
tain
frequen
cies
of
EMR
may
affect
phys
iological
proces
ses,
with
pot
ential
long-
term
sequ
elae.
7,8
EMFs
and
human
hea
lth
Wh
i
l
e
m
e
d
ic
al
st
u
d
i
e
s
c
or
re
la
t
i
n
g
EM
F
w
i
t
h
a
d
v
e
r
s
e
he
al
th
ou
tc
om
e
s
h
a
v
e
so
me
ti
me
s
y
i
e
ld
ed
ap
pa
re
nt
ly
co
nt
ra
d
i
c
t
o
r
y
r
e
s
u
l
ts
,
r
e
c
en
t
r
e
s
e
a
r
c
h
r
e
p
or
te
d
i
n
re
sp
ec
te
d
m
e
d
ic
al
jo
u
r
n
a
l
s
ha
s
u
n
c
o
v
er
e
d
ev
id
e
n
c
e
ab
ou
t
p
o
t
e
n
t
i
al
ri
s
k
.
S
tu
d
i
e
s
lo
ok
in
g
a
t
r
e
p
r
o
d
u
c
t
i
v
e
d
y
s
f
un
c
t
i
o
n,
ca
nc
e
r
p
o
t
e
n
t
i
a
l
a
n
d
C
N
S
d
is
or
d
e
r
s
ap
pe
a
r
to
su
p
p
o
r
t
pr
e
v
i
o
u
s
s
u
s
p
i
ci
o
n
s
t
h
a
t
E
M
F
ex
p
o
s
u
r
e
ma
y
p
r
e
se
n
t
a
h
e
a
l
t
h
r
i
s
k
.
EMFs
and
reproductive
dysfunction
Adve
rse
pregn
ancy
outcomes
includin
g
miscar
riage,
stillbirt
h,
pr
eterm
deliver
y
,
altered
gende
r
rat
io
and
congen
ital
anomali
es
have
all
been
linke
d
t
o
mate
rnal
EMF
expos
ure.
9

13
A
l
a
rge
prospe
ctive
study
publi
shed
in
Epid
emiology
,
for
exa
mple,
report
ed
on
pea
k
E
M
F
expos
ure
in
1063
preg
nant
wom
en
arou
nd
the
San
Fran
cisco
area
.
After
part
icipants
w
ore
a
magnet
ic
fie
ld
dete
ctor
,
the
resear
chers
found
that
rates
of
pregn
ancy
loss
grew
significa
ntly
wit
h
increasing
level
s
o
f
maxi
mum
magnet
ic
field
exposur
e
i
n
routine
day-to-d
ay
life.
12
P
aternal
EMF
expos
ure
has
also
been
correlated
with
serious
pot
ential
se
quelae.
The
devel
opment
of
testicul
ar
abnorma
lities,
atypi
cal
sperm,
chro-
moso
mal
aberra
tions
and
offspr
ing
cong
enital
defects
have
all
been
linked
to
male
EMF
expo-
sure.
14

18
Switchy
ard
work
ers
expos
ed
to
electr
ical
curre
nt,
for
examp
le,
w
ere
compa
red
with
sales-
men
and
clerks
for
evide
nce
of
chrom
osom
al
anom
alies.
W
i
t
h
a
sig
nificant
increase
in
the
num
ber
of
chrom
osomal
aberrati
ons
in
switch
yard
work
ers,
18
and
an
increase
d
ten
dency
towards
malfo
rmations
amon
g
the
ir
chil
dren,
15
re
searchers
have
surmi
sed
that
EMF
exposur
e
may
be
a
factor
in
adve
rse
outco
me.
Fathe
rs
employe
d
i
n
indu
stries
with
high
er
than
averag
e
EMF
expos
ure
have
also
been
noted
to
have
offspring
w
ith
higher
rat
es
of
brain
and
spina
l
cord
tumou
rs.
16,17
EMFs
and
cancer
Nume
rous
studi
es
hav
e
inve
stiga
ted
the
allega
tion
that
intense
expos
ure
to
some
frequen
cies
of
EMR
may
be
carci
nogen
ic.
For
example
,
Intern
ationa
l
Journa
l
o
f
Cance
r
recent
ly
publi
shed
an
import
ant
popul
ation-ba
sed
case

contr
ol
study
on
the
lin
k
betw
een
childhoo
d
leukaem
ia
and
magne
tic
fields
in
Japan.
By
assess
ing
magnet
ic
fie
ld
levels
in
child
ren’
s
bedrooms
,
the
re
searchers
confir
med
that
high
EMF
expos
ure
was
associa
ted
w
ith
a
significa
ntly
high
er
risk
of
childhoo
d
leukaem
ia.
19
Furtherm
ore,
rec
ent
studie
s
r
e
ported
in
majo
r
journals
su
ch
as
The
Lancet
and
Intern
ational
Journa
l
o
f
Oncolo
gy
discus
s
the
appar
ent
lin
k
betw
een
cordless
and
cellula
r
phone
use
with
condit
ions
such
as
lymphoma
,
20
malign
ant
and
AR
TI
CL
E
I
N
P
RE
S
S
The
publi
c
health
impac
t
o
f
electr
omagn
etic
radiat
ion
3
Please
cite
this
article
as:
Genuis
SJ.
Fielding
a
current
idea:
exploring
the
public
health
impact
of
electromagn
etic
radiation.
Public
Health
(2007),
doi:
10.1016/j
.puhe.20
07.04.008
beni
gn
brai
n
t
u
mours,
21

23
as
well
as
other
pro-
blems
incl
uding
alterati
ons
in
bloo
d
pressur
e.
24
An
impo
rtant
case

con
trol
study
rep
orted
in
the
British
Me
dical
Journa
l
found
a
link
betw
een
chil
dhood
leukae
mia
and
prenata
l
prox
imity
to
high-
voltage
power
lines.
25
Compa
red
with
chi
ldren
whose
birth
address
exceede
d
600
m
from
a
high
-
volta
ge
power
line,
thos
e
with
birt
h
address
es
wit
hin
200
m
had
a
r
e
lative
risk
of
leukae
mia
of
1.69,
and
those
bet
ween
200
and
600
m
had
a
relati
ve
ris
k
o
f
1.23.
25
In
addition,
exten
sive
resear
ch
by
Johanss
on
and
others
in
Sweden
rec
ently
confir
med
that
adve
rse
EMR
has
the
pot
ential
to
induc
e
various
dermat
ologica
l
abnor
m-
alities
26
and
is
a
determi
nant
in
the
developm
ent
of
mali
gnant
melan
oma,
27,28
an
increas
ingly
prevale
nt
canc
er
th
at
was
uncomm
on
until
about
50
years
ago.
As
a
result
of
consi
derable
EMF
resear
ch
undert
aken
in
Swed
en,
it
is
interes
ting
to
note
that
Swedi
sh
authori
ties
have
officiall
y
ackn
ow-
ledged
adve
rse
EM
R
a
s
a
problem
and
have
catego
rized
electr
ohype
rsensitiv
ity
as
a
func
tional
impair
ment.
26
Althoug
h
s
e
veral
rep
orts
suggest
a
possib
le
lin
k
betw
een
certain
type
s
o
f
EMF
expos
ure
and
assor
ted
mali
gnancies
,
29

37
incl
uding
bre
ast
can
-
cer
38

41
and
chil
dhood
can
cer
,
42

45
some
studi
es
have
rep
orted
differi
ng
re
sults.
A
rec
ent
study
publi
shed
in
Cancer
Cau
ses
Control
,
for
example
,
dismis
sed
suspic
ions
of
an
associa
tion
betw
een
EMF
expos
ure
and
femal
e
breast
cancer
,
46
and
the
UK
Chi
ldhood
Ca
ncer
Stud
y
publishe
d
i
n
1999
failed
to
supp
ort
a
link
between
EMF
expo
sure
and
chi
ldhood
canc
er
.
47
After
re
viewing
the
avail
able
informa
tion
in
re
lation
to
cance
r
,
howe
ver
,
the
In
ternation
al
Agen
cy
for
R
esearch
on
Ca
ncer
(IARC)
has
advised
that
EMF
exposur
e
should
be
cla
ssified
as
a
pos
sible
carci
nogen.
2
EMFs
and
CNS
dysfunction
Th
e
C
N
S
ap
p
e
a
r
s
t
o
b
e
a
p
o
t
e
nt
ia
l
t
a
r
g
e
t
o
r
g
a
n
sy
st
em
f
o
r
a
d
v
er
se
EM
R.
In
ad
di
ti
on
to
re
p
o
r
t
s
o
f
sp
ec
i

c
E
M
F
-
r
e
l
a
t
e
d
he
al
th
p
r
o
b
l
e
m
s
,
s
u
c
h
a
s
am
yo
tr
op
h
i
c
l
a
t
e
r
a
l
sc
l
e
r
o
s
i
s,
48
Al
zh
e
i
m
e
r

s
d
i
s
-
ea
se
,
49
in
so
mn
ia
,
50
he
ad
ac
he
s
,
51
se
xu
al
d
y
sf
u
n
c
-
ti
on
,
52
c
h
r
o
n
i
c
f
at
ig
ue
,
50
l
e
a
r
n
i
ng
an
d
m
e
m
o
r
y
pr
o
b
l
e
m
s
,
53

55
an
d
a
s
s
o
r
t
e
d
o
t
h
e
r
ma
la
d
i
e
s
,
33
,
5
6
th
e
r
e
i
s
i
n
c
re
as
in
g
e
v
i
de
nc
e
t
o
s
ug
ge
st
th
at
ne
u
r
o
p
-
sy
ch
i
a
t
r
i
c
pr
o
b
l
e
ms
ma
y
a
l
s
o
r
e
s
u
l
t
f
r
o
m
E
MR
.
Hi
gh
e
r
ra
t
e
s
o
f
d
e
p
r
e
s
s
i
v
e
s
y
m
p
t
o
m
s
a
n
d
su
ic
id
e
h
a
ve
be
en
fo
und
t
o
r
es
ul
t
f
r
o
m
E
MF
ex
po
su
re.
48
,
5
7

59
In
a
recent
epi
demiologi
cal
study
,
for
example
,
resear
chers
foun
d
that
those
liv
ing
nea
r
powe
r
lin
es
wer
e
m
o
r
e
than
twic
e
a
s
likel
y
t
o
report
sympt
oms
of
depr
ession
compared
with
contr
ols.
58
P
relimin-
ary
evidence
has
also
sugge
sted
a
pot
ential
correla
tion
betwe
en
exposur
e
t
o
EMFs
from
dirty
electr
icity
w
ith
comm
on
med
ical
condition
s
inc
lud-
ing
attention
-defic
it
disorder/
attention
-deficit
hypera
ctivity
disorder
,
asth
ma,
diabete
s
and
multi-
ple
scl
erosis.
3,60
In
re
view
,
many
independe
nt
resear
ch
project
s
have
uncove
red
a
lin
k
betw
een
adve
rse
EM
F
expos
ure
and
a
variety
of
afflict
ions
in
various
org
an
systems,
particular
ly
the
CNS.
Proposed
mechanisms
of
EMF
impact
Basic
scien
tific
study
of
the
human
body
has
dem
onstrated
that
mo
st
physiologi
cal
functi
ons
in
living
org
anisms
are
ele
ctrochem
ical
in
nature.
Livin
g
cells
are
made
up
of
mo
lecul
es
and
atoms,
which
in
tu
rn
are
made
up
of
elec
trons,
neutr
ons
and
protons
.
The
intrinsic
functio
ning
of
the
se
atoms
and
molecu
les
wit
h
homeo
stasis
of
cells,
tissues
and
org
ans
is
entirely
depen
dent
on
ordered
chemic
al
and
electr
ical
activity
.
Distu
rbance
of
intrinsi
c
elec
trical
or
chemic
al
proces
ses
wit
hin
cell
struct
ures
has
the
potent
ial
to
disru
pt
cell
func-
tioni
ng,
lea
ding
to
malfunc
tion
of
org
an
syst
ems
and
ultimatel
y
t
o
clin
ical
illnes
s.
Extensive
resear
ch
has
atte
mpted
to
elucida
te
definiti
vely
the
pre
cise
mec
hanisms
whereby
EMF
expos
ure
may
disru
pt
norm
al
phys
iology
.
F
o
r
exampl
e,
a
wide-ra
nging
resear
ch
project
ent
itled
EMFRA
PID
(Electric
and
magne
tic
fields
rese
arch
and
public
infor
mation
dissemi
nation)
w
a
s
a
5-year
US
Fede
rally
organiz
ed
effort
co-ordi
nated
by
the
Nation
al
Instit
utes
of
Health
to
assess
the
effects
of
adve
rse
EMR
on
biologi
cal
syst
ems.
61
The
results
of
this
and
many
other
initiativ
es
have
revea
led
significa
nt
informa
tion.
Bi
ol
og
ic
al
sy
st
e
m
s
i
n
c
l
u
d
i
n
g
th
e
h
u
m
a
n
or
ga
ni
sm
in
tr
in
si
c
a
l
l
y
u
s
e
so
me
fr
e
q
u
e
n
c
ie
s
o
f
E
M
R
fo
r
c
e
l
l
u
la
r
as
we
l
l
as
ho
rm
on
a
l
f
u
n
c
ti
o
n
an
d
r
e
g
u
l
a
t
i
o
n.
62
Fo
r
ex
am
p
l
e
,
im
pe
rc
e
p
t
i
b
l
e
u
l
t
r
a
vi
o
l
e
t
e
n
e
r
g
y
wa
v
e
s
f
r
o
m
su
n
l
i
g
h
t
ar
e
u
s
e
d
i
n
t
h
e
p
r
o
d
u
c
t
i
on
of
hu
ma
n
vi
ta
m
i
n
D
,
63
an
es
se
nt
ia
l
n
ut
ri
e
n
t
i
nv
o
l
v
e
d
i
n
m
y
r
i
a
d
p
h
y
s
io
lo
gi
ca
l
f
un
c
t
i
o
n
s
.
J
u
s
t
a
s
e
xt
er
na
l
e
le
c
t
r
i
c
a
l
si
gn
al
s
c
a
n
c
a
u
s
e
i
nt
e
r
f
e
r
e
nc
e
w
i
t
h
r
a
d
io
an
d
te
l
e
v
i
s
i
o
n
si
gn
al
s
r
e
s
u
l
ti
ng
in
st
at
ic
an
d
d
i
s
t
o
r
t
i
o
n
,
ex
p
o
s
u
r
e
to
ad
v
e
r
s
e
e
l
e
c
t
r
i
ca
l
f
re
qu
en
ci
e
s
c
a
n
d
i
s
r
u
p
t
h
u
m
a
n
me
ta
bo
l
i
s
m
an
d
h
om
eo
st
a
s
i
s
b
y
in
te
rf
e
r
i
n
g
w
i
t
h
n
or
ma
l
p
hy
si
ol
og
y
o
f
r
e
q
ui
re
d
en
er
gy
fr
e
q
u
e
n
c
i
e
s
.
62
Cellular
pathogenesis
of
adverse
EMR
Altho
ugh
the
cellular
pathoge
nesis
of
damage
from
EM
R
i
s
not
completel
y
unders
tood,
various
AR
TI
CL
E
I
N
P
RE
S
S
S.J.
Genuis
4
Please
cite
this
article
as:
Genuis
SJ.
Fielding
a
current
idea:
exploring
the
public
health
impact
of
electromagn
etic
radiation.
Public
Health
(2007),
doi:
10.1016/j.pu
he.2007.04
.008
hypothe
ses
have
been
propo
sed
based
on
prelimi
-
nary
evide
nce.
It
was
previou
sly
th
ought
that
the
rmal
altera
tion
of
cells
an
d
tissue
heati
ng
may
be
the
predom
inant
mechan
ism
of
harm.
More
rec
ently
,
howe
ver
,
inc
reasing
evide
nce
has
indi-
cated
th
e
pot
ential
of
EMR
to
induce
cell
str
ess
64
and
to
infl
ict
spec
ific
dama
ge
on
various
intr
acel-
lular
compone
nts
and
mechan
isms
at
non-th
ermal
level
s
o
f
E
M
F
expo
sure.
62
For
example
,
m
o
lecular
vibra
tions
fr
om
EMR
may
indu
ce
fre
e
radic
al
form
ation
and
alter
the
conforma
tion
of
prote
in
mo
lecules.
65
Adv
erse
EM
R
has
been
foun
d
t
o
affe
ct
DNA
synthesis,
to
impair
cell
divi
sion
and
to
pot
entially
alter
the
electr
ical
charge
of
ions
an
d
mo
lecules
within
cell
s.
14,6
2
By
affe
cting
electr
ical
charge
,
EMFs
may
also
modify
io
nic
structu
res
of
elemen
ts
within
cell
membra
nes,
potentia
lly
dis-
turbi
ng
the
infl
ux
and
efflux
of
vari
ous
elements
incl
uding
calcium
ion
s.
66
Ju
st
as
ce
rt
ai
n
c
h
emi
ca
l
t
o
x
i
c
an
ts
ma
y
i
n
d
u
c
e
ex
pr
es
si
on
o
f
ab
no
rm
al
ge
n
e
s
,
67
re
c
e
n
t
re
se
ar
ch
is
ex
pl
or
in
g
p
o
t
e
n
t
i
a
l
ep
ig
en
et
ic
in
flu
e
n
c
e
s
o
f
E
M
R
.
B
y
it
s
i
m
p
a
c
t
o
n
g
e
n
e
t
i
c
ex
pr
es
si
on
,
68
ad
ve
rs
e
E
M
F
s
ma
y
s
e
r
v
e
as
a
t
r
i
g
g
e
r
fo
r
t
h
e
e
xpr
es
si
on
of
pa
th
ol
og
ic
al
an
d
d
i
s
e
a
s
e
-
c
a
u
s
i
n
g
ge
ne
s.
Fu
rt
h
er-
mo
re
,
d
ir
ec
t
d
a
m
a
g
e
t
o
t
h
e
DN
A
o
f
h
u
m
a
n
ly
mp
ho
-
cy
te
s
69
a
n
d
a
lt
er
at
io
n
o
f
p
ha
go
cy
ti
c
a
ct
iv
it
y
i
n
an
im
al
ma
cr
op
ha
ge
s
70
ha
s
b
ee
n
c
o
n
fir
me
d
r
e
c
e
n
t
l
y
,
an
d
m
a
y
ac
c
o
u
n
t
f
or
ch
an
ge
s
i
n
i
m
mun
ol
og
i
c
a
l
pa
ra
me
te
rs
an
d
f
o
r
im
mun
e
s
y
s
t
e
m
d
y
s
f
u
n
c
ti
on
at
tr
ib
ut
ed
to
EM
R.
W
i
t
h
al
te
ra
ti
on
of
ce
ll
st
ru
ct
ur
es
an
d
i
m
p
a
i
r
m
e
n
t
o
f
c
e
l
l
u
l
a
r
f
un
ct
io
n
s
b
y
th
es
e
va
ri
ou
s
m
e
c
h
a
n
i
s
m
s
,
it
is
no
t
s
u
r
p
r
i
s
i
n
g
t
h
a
t
t
i
s
s
u
e
di
so
rd
e
r
s
,
or
ga
n
d
y
s
f
u
n
c
t
i
o
n
an
d
c
l
i
n
i
c
a
l
i
l
l
ne
ss
ma
y
en
su
e
.
At
te
nu
at
io
n
o
f
i
n
s
u
l
i
n
se
cr
et
io
n
c
ha
ra
c
t
e
r
-
is
ti
ca
ll
y
f
ou
nd
in
di
ab
et
es
,
f
o
r
e
x
a
m
p
l
e
,
c
a
n
b
e
in
d
u
c
e
d
o
r
a
c
c
e
n
t
u
at
ed
by
e
x
p
o
s
ure
to
ad
ve
rs
e
E
M
F
th
ro
ug
h
d
ist
or
ti
on
of
ca
lc
i
u
m
i
n

u
x
in
ce
ll
s.
71
EMFs
and
melatonin
metabolism
Some
inve
stigato
rs
have
explored
pot
ential
EMF
distu
rbance
of
bloo
d

brain
barrier
permeabi
lity
wit
h
resul
ting
inc
reased
suscepti
bility
to
CNS
toxica
nts.
56
P
articular
attention
,
howeve
r
,
has
rec
ently
been
devoted
to
resear
ching
the
impa
ct
of
EMR
on
pineal
glan
d
physiol
ogy
.
72
The
pine
al
glan
d
secre
tes
the
neuro
endoc
rine
horm
one
mela
-
tonin
that
is
synthe
sized
from
the
neurotr
ansm
itter
sero
tonin.
Mel
atonin
is
involved
with
reg
ulation
of
myri
ad
physiologi
cal
proces
ses
includin
g
sleep
patte
rns,
73
free
radi
cal
metab
olism,
74
bloo
d
pre
s-
sure
con
trol,
75
nitric
oxide
physiol
ogy
,
76
lipid
meta
bolism,
62
immune
syste
m
functionin
g,
77
an
d
activit
y
o
f
sex
horm
ones
such
as
oestro
gen.
78
The
potent
ial
lin
k
betwe
en
disorde
red
melato
nin
phy-
siolo
gy
and
the
deve
lopment
of
mali
gnancy
has
eme
rged
as
a
priority
area
of
invest
igation,
79
part
icularly
in
br
east
and
prosta
te
can
cer
,
mela-
noma
,
colon
cance
r
,
lun
g
canc
er
an
d
leukae
mia.
72
Adverse
EMF
expos
ure
has
the
potent
ial
to
impac
t
direct
ly
on
pine
al
gland
functi
on
by
inter-
fering
with
me
latonin
product
ion
and
meta
bo-
lism.
80,81
As
well
as
in
cance
r
,
reduced
melaton
in
level
s
have
been
obser
ved
in
assor
ted
non
-malig-
nant
cond
itions
incl
uding
coron
ary
artery
disea
se,
82
chroni
c
pain
83
and
vari
ous
psych
iatric
condit
ions
includi
ng
Alzhe
imer’
s
disease
84
and
schizop
hre-
nia.
85
Althoug
h
EMR
exposur
e
r
e
duces
melaton
in
product
ion
,
62,80,86
conc
lusive
evid
ence
of
the
direct
clinical
seq
uelae
of
specifi
c
EMR-rel
ated
pine
al
dysfu
nction
remain
s
t
o
b
e
estab
lished.
Limitations
and
research
challeng
es
Altho
ugh
pre
liminary
evidence
on
disease
patho-
genes
is
su
ch
as
me
latonin
dysregul
ation,
epige
netic
mod
ification,
DNA
disru
ption
an
d
cell
stress
is
import
ant
for
continu
ing
study
,
researc
h
designed
to
esta
blish
a
definitiv
e
link
bet
ween
EMR
and
clinica
l
health
sequela
e
faces
seve
ral
obstacle
s.
Within
the
scientific
commun
ity
,
exper
imental
studi
es
such
as
rando
mized
contr
olled
trials
w
here
subject
s
are
mani
pula
ted
acco
rding
to
study
pro-
tocol
remain
the
gold
stan
dard
to
estab
lish
disea
se
cause-
and-effect
,
a
s
well
as
effic
acy
of
interven-
tions.
Such
exper
imental
study
,
howe
ver
,
i
s
contr
a-
indica
ted
in
expos
ure
resear
ch.
Limitations
of
exposure
research
Just
as
it
would
be
ludicrous
to
perform
clin
ical
trials
on
para
chute
efficacy
by
divi
ding
skydi
vers
into
rando
mized
groups
with
some
using
parachut
es
and
some
not,
87
it
is
not
ethically
possible
to
perform
efficient
randomi
zed
con
trolled
tri
als
with
enviro
nme
ntal
is
sues
by
expos
ing
some
study
part
icipants
to
potent
ially
dangero
us
expo
sures
and
compa
ring
outco
mes
with
an
unexp
osed
con-
trol
group.
As
a
r
e
sult,
more
cumb
ersome
and
lengthy
obs
ervatio
nal
studie
s
incl
uding
epide
mio-
logic
al
cohort
studie
s
and
less
defi
nitive
case-
contr
ol
re
search
are
em
ployed
to
explo
re
aetiolog
y
of
harm.
This
pre
sents
difficul
ties,
howeve
r
,
as
epide
miolog
ical
and
case

contr
ol
assess
ments
of
enviro
nme
ntal
expos
ure
are
some
times
plagu
ed
by
confoun
ders
suc
h
a
s
unfolding
awar
eness
of
pre-
viousl
y
unreco
gnized
expos
ures
as
well
as
multi-
expos
ure
interac
tions.
For
examp
le,
in
comple
te
contr
adicti
on
to
some
other
rep
orts,
a
recent
study
AR
TI
CL
E
I
N
P
RE
S
S
The
publi
c
health
impac
t
o
f
electr
omagn
etic
radiat
ion
5
Please
cite
this
article
as:
Genuis
SJ.
Fielding
a
current
idea:
exploring
the
public
health
impact
of
electromagn
etic
radiation.
Public
Health
(2007),
doi:
10.1016/j
.puhe.20
07.04.008
funde
d
b
y
the
teleco
mmunica
tions
indust
ry
on
cellu
lar
phone
use
in
Denmark
concl
uded
there
is
no
link
with
the
deve
lopment
of
brai
n
tumou
rs.
88
The
compa
rison
genera
l
populat
ion
coh
ort
in
th
is
study
,
howe
ver
,
included
w
idesprea
d
users
of
cordle
ss
phon
es
which
ha
ve
rec
ently
been
impli
-
cated
with
potentia
l
EMF
risk;
20

23
a
determi
nant
that
w
a
s
not
fully
re
alized
at
the
outset
of
the
epide
miolog
ical
study
an
d
a
conf
ounde
r
which
pot
entially
negates
the
report
ed
outcome
s.
Nume
r-
ous
conce
rns
relatin
g
t
o
m
e
thodolog
y
and
bias
have
also
plagu
ed
this
Danish
study
.
89
Multip
le
concomitan
t
expo
sures
are
another
major
confounde
r
i
n
some
envi
ronment
al
resear
ch.
Synergi
sm
and
interacti
on
of
mu
ltiple
exposur
es
from
various
chemical,
electr
ical
or
infe
ctious
sour
ces
may
confound
re
search
outcome
s.
Fo
r
exampl
e,
some
clinici
ans
have
obs
erved
that
compr
omised
pati
ents
wit
h
accumul
ated
chemic
al
toxica
nts
may
be
mo
re
suscep
tible
to
EMR
influence
beca
use
of
toxica
nt-induc
ed
loss
of
tolera
nce
or
‘spreadi
ng’;
90
a
pheno
men
on
where
individu
als
affe
cted
by
one
type
of
adve
rse
envi
ronment
al
expos
ure
beco
me
mo
re
sensiti
ve
to
other
expo
-
sures.
91,9
2
Other
difficu
lties
plagu
e
obser
vational
expos
ure
resear
ch.
W
ith
long
lags
between
expo
-
sure
and
illnes
s,
for
exa
mple,
studie
s
that
have
shor
t
foll
ow-up
per
iods
do
not
provide
opportuni
ty
for
illness
to
mani
fest
and
conclusion
s
may
be
erroneo
us.
In
add
ition,
unique
individu
al
host
sen
sitivity
to
expos
ure
based
on
disti
nctive
health
status
and
genomi
c
make-
up
prese
nts
a
challenge
when
interpr
eting
quan
titative
data.
The
resul
t
i
s
that
EMR
studi
es
have
a
high
probabili
ty
of
significa
ntly
undere
stimatin
g
the
risks
of
adve
rse
hea
lth
effects.
93
In
review
,
epidemi
ologica
l
study
of
adve
rse
expos
ures
does
not
genera
lly
esta
blish
indisputa
ble
evide
nce
for
or
against
a
cause-and
-effect
hypoth
-
esis.
In
observ
ational
environm
ental
re
search,
a
weigh
t
o
f
evidence
linking
hea
lth
seq
uelae
to
an
expos
ure
is
produc
ed
and
increase
d
risks
mu
st
be
interpr
eted
in
context.
Credibl
e
interpr
etat
ion
of
find
ings
is
esta
blished
when
unbiased
and
qual
ified
scient
ists
examin
e
t
h
e
evid
ence
wit
h
a
n
open
mind.
A
conclusio
n
i
s
the
n
calcula
ted
based
on
the
funda
men
tal
ques
tion:
‘Is
there
an
other
way
of
expla
ining
the
find
ings;
is
there
another
an
swer
mo
re
likel
y
than
cause
-and-effect
?’
When
a
con
-
clusio
n
i
s
reache
d,
the
impact
on
publ
ic
hea
lth
is
consid
ered
and
prote
ction
strateg
ies
are
amende
d
as
necess
ary
.
T
h
i
s
impr
ecise
approach
,
how
ever
,
rout
inely
re
nders
the
science
of
hum
an
expos
ure
asse
ssment
and
enviro
nme
ntal
me
dicine
vulnerable
to
criticism
and
con
troversy;
a
vuln
erability
that
has
consist
ently
been
exploite
d
b
y
interes
t
groups
.
Exposure
research
and
vested
interests
With
incomp
lete
unders
tandin
g
o
f
patho
genet
ic
mecha
nisms
and
intr
ansige
nt
disbeli
ef
by
some
voca
l
r
e
searchers
,
many
scient
ists
have
been
quic
k
to
dismis
s
any
alleged
hea
lth
hazard
re
lated
to
EMF
expos
ure.
Medical
histor
y
has
confir
med,
how
ever
,
that
controve
rsy
is
custo
mary
w
hen
envi
ronment
al
issue
s
involve
si
zeable
econom
ic
and
hea
lth
impli-
catio
ns.
Hava
s,
a
pion
eer
in
EMR
re
search,
noted
that
despit
e
con
siderable
evid
ence,
‘asbesto
s,
lead
,
acid
rain
,
tobacc
o
smoke
,
DDT
,
and
PCBs
were
all
conte
ntious
issues
and
w
ere
deba
ted
for
deca
des
in
scien
tific
publi
cations
and
in
the
popu
lar
press
before
the
ir
health
effects
and
the
mechan-
isms
responsible
were
unde
rstood’.
14
As
with
prev
ious
example
s,
the
re
are
str
ong
pol
itical
and
econ
omic
reasons
for
wan
ting
no
adverse
seq
uelae
to
EMF
exposur
e.
94
V
ested
interes
ts
have
been
effecti
ve
in
delayin
g
r
e
strictive
EM
F
legisl
ation
by
injec
ting
confusi
on
and
doubt
into
scient
ific
deba
te,
by
focusi
ng
on
uncert
ainties
,
and
by
defle
cting
attention
from
ha
rm
potent
ial.
95,96
Numero
us
exa
mples
have
been
discus
sed
in
the
scient
ific
litera
ture
where
claims
of
envi
ronment
al
harm
hav
e
been
challen
ged
by
researc
hers
w
h
o
fail
to
disclo
se
cove
rt
ti
es
to
indu
stry
.
96
The
influence
of
eco
nomic
interes
ts
on
me
dical
journ
als
has
also
been
discus
sed
exten
sively
in
re
cent
publi
ca-
tions,
97,98
along
wit
h
exampl
es
where
some
editors
and
journ
al
staff
have
suppress
ed
publi
catio
n
o
f
scient
ific
results
that
are
adve
rse
to
the
interes
ts
of
indu
stry
.
96,99
In
the
area
of
adve
rse
EMF
expos
ure
and
cellular
phone
s,
for
exampl
e,
it
has
been
sugge
sted
that
indep
endent
study
re
sults
have
diffe
red
consid
erably
fr
om
indu
stry-funde
d
study
.
89
After
reviewi
ng
the
resear
ch
on
EMR
ext
ensively
,
the
Interna
tional
Comm
ission
for
Ele
ctromag
netic
Safe
ty
concl
uded
in
2006
that
presen
t
sourc
es
of
funding
for
EMF
study
are
biasing
the
‘anal
ysis
and
interpr
etatio
n
o
f
resear
ch
to
wards
rej
ection
of
evide
nce
of
possib
le
publ
ic
hea
lth
links’.
100
How
does
society
at
large
respo
nd
to
mix
ed
mess
ages
and
uncert
ainty
from
the
scient
ific
commu
nity?
W
i
t
h
enormo
us
potentia
l
t
o
genera
te
misinfo
r-
mation
,
publicatio
n
o
f
impr
ecise
science
has
influen
ced
academ
ic
an
d
s
o
cial
thought
pro-
foun
dly
.
96
In
respo
nse
to
confl
icting
scient
ific
allega
tions,
legislato
rs
and
the
general
public
comm
only
feel
uncomfo
rtable
and
are
unable
to
dete
rmine
the
legiti
macy
of
scient
ific
debate.
14
When
doubt
and
con
fusion
are
introduc
ed,
the
publi
c
are
often
quic
k
t
o
disre
gard
data
that
appe
ar
distu
rbing
or
unwe
lcome.
The
typical
out-
come
in
the
shor
t
t
e
r
m
i
s
‘paralysis
by
analysi
s’;
by
intr
oductio
n
o
f
contrary
infor
mation
and
AR
TI
CL
E
I
N
P
RE
S
S
S.J.
Genuis
6
Please
cite
this
article
as:
Genuis
SJ.
Fielding
a
current
idea:
exploring
the
public
health
impact
of
electromagn
etic
radiation.
Public
Health
(2007),
doi:
10.1016/j.pu
he.2007.04
.008
rec
ommen
dations
for
furthe
r
study
,
restrictive
legislat
ion
is
effec
tively
sta
lled
for
yea
rs
or
even
deca
des.
If
th
e
enviro
nmental
expos
ure
in
ques
tion
is
eventua
lly
prove
n
t
o
b
e
h
a
zardous,
as
has
often
been
the
case
historica
lly
,
individ
ual
and
publi
c
hea
lth
is
compr
omis
ed
in
the
interi
m.
Quo
vadis
The
study
of
envi
ronment
al
medicin
e
and
the
relati
onship
betw
een
human
expos
ures
and
adve
rse
hea
lth
outcomes
has
not
yet
been
incorpor
ated
into
most
medica
l
educ
ation
program
mes.
101
At
the
same
time
,
howe
ver
,
escalat
ing
news
re
ports
of
conce
rns
such
as
reproduct
ive
dysf
unction
in
teache
rs
work
ing
nea
r
powe
r
lines
and
neuro
lo-
gica
l
sequ
elae
in
peopl
e
resi
ding
in
close
prox
i-
mity
to
mobile
phone
masts
hav
e
evoke
d
public
awar
eness
of
ele
ctromag
netic
contamin
ation
as
an
emerging
enviro
nmental
hea
lth
issue;
as
a
resul
t,
primary
care
phys
icians
are
increasingl
y
ques
tioned
abo
ut
EMF-rel
ated
health
risk
s.
102
Acco
rdingly
,
i
t
beho
ves
the
medica
l
comm
unity
to
consid
er
a
cre
dible
re
sponse
to
this
up-an
d-comin
g
issue
.
Most
w
ould
agree
that
the
home,
school
,
work
-
plac
e
and
commun
ity
nee
d
t
o
b
e
fre
e
from
dange
rous
exposur
es,
and
that
individu
als
need
to
be
aware
of
the
risk/bene
fit
rat
io
of
EM
F
expo
-
sures.
Severa
l
r
e
comme
ndations
have
been
sugge
sted
by
envi
ronment
al
health
groups
and
scient
ific
organiza
tions
studyi
ng
the
EMF
concern
.
It
is
the
genera
lly
held
scient
ific
view
that
incom
plete
EM
F
knowle
dge
becko
ns
ongo
ing
unbi
ased
resear
ch,
not
dismissal
of
the
issue.
103
The
W
orld
Health
Organi
zation
has
re
comme
nded
intensi
ve
resear
ch,
65
and
vari
ous
scient
ists
have
called
for
an
intern
ational
scient
ific
commis-
sion
to
monitor
this
eme
rging
hazard.
100
Fu
rther
rec
ommen
dations
and
ideas
are
presen
ted
for
consid
eration
.
Public
health
recommendations
!
T
o
ascert
ain
effecti
ve
publi
c
health
policy
,
scient
ific
integr
ity
and
reliabil
ity
among
resear
-
chers,
med
ical
publi
cations,
official
guidel
ines
and
academ
ic
inst
itutions
must
be
establishe
d
t
o
ensur
e
credibl
e
resear
ch
and
disse
mination
of
resul
ts.
96,104
!
Easily
acc
essible
me
asureme
nt
me
thodolog
ies
for
adverse
EM
R
are
req
uired.
As
well
as
gauss
meters
to
dete
ct
ELF/ra
diofrequ
ency
radi
ation,
for
exa
mple,
micr
osurge
meters
pur
ported
to
detec
t
‘dirty’
electr
icity
have
been
intro-
duced.
60
New
technol
ogies
need
to
be
evaluated
expedi
tiously
and
incor
porated
if
cre
dible.
!
Adverse
biologi
cal
impact
has
been
descri
bed
for
expos
ure
level
s
m
u
c
h
below
current
EMR
stan-
dards
.
Allowa
ble
leve
ls
should
be
amende
d
t
o
provide
so
und
prote
ction
of
publi
c
hea
lth.
62
!
Ongoi
ng
epidemi
ologica
l
r
e
search
and
monito
r-
ing
of
hea
lth
effects
on
EM
R-expose
d
populat
ions
should
be
unde
rtaken
and
re
ported.
An
inde
pen-
dent
commis
sion
devoid
of
confl
icts
of
interes
t
should
overs
ee
such
work
.
!
R
egulat
ions
to
minimi
ze
expos
ure
to
adve
rse
EMR
should
be
enforce
d
b
y
governm
ent
s
and
power
authori
ties.
!
P
otentia
lly
ha
rmful
radiofr
equen
cies
from
tele-
commu
nication
s
tech
nology
should
be
asse
ssed
and
regu
lated
by
authori
ties.
For
example
,
i
n
respo
nse
to
compla
ints
from
citiz
ens
in
Brussels
about
sleep
disrup
tions
foll
owing
the
instal
lation
of
mobile
phone
mas
ts
nea
r
the
ir
homes
,
Belgi
an
autho
rities
recently
appro
ved
a
bill
to
regu
late
such
masts
to
minimi
ze
EM
R
exposur
e.
105
!
Emer
ging
prot
ective
equip
ment
should
be
assess
ed
indep
endently
and
impleme
nted
if
useful.
Graham

Stetzer
filters
,
for
examp
le,
allegedl
y
diminis
h
dirty
electr
icity
and
pot
en-
tially
re
sult
in
health
bene
fits
w
hen
inst
alled
properly
.
3,60
Such
report
s
shoul
d
b
e
scruti
nized
scient
ifically
and
re
sults
dissemi
nated.
!
While
resear
ch
is
ongoing,
a
prec
autiona
ry
avoida
nce
strateg
y
should
be
conside
red.
100,
106
Incor
poratio
n
o
f
protec
tive
air-tub
e
hea
dsets
for
cellu
lar
phon
e
use,
for
example,
and
w
ireless-
free
zones
in
publ
ic
bui
ldings
such
as
patie
nt
area
s
i
n
hospital
s
and
sch
ools
100
might
be
favo
urable.
!
T
rai
ning
of
hea
lth
profes
sionals
and
publi
c
health
officers
about
the
EMF-health
issue
is
an
impo
r-
tant
step
in
address
ing
this
challen
ge.
!
Cl
in
i
c
i
a
n
s
sh
ou
ld
co
n
s
i
d
er
im
p
l
e
m
e
n
t
a
t
i
o
n
of
pr
e-
c
a
u
t
i
o
na
ry
av
o
i
d
a
n
c
e
w
i
t
h
i
n
d
iv
id
u
a
l
p
a
t
i
e
n
t
s
.
10
6
Ch
ro
ni
c
a
l
l
y
i
l
l
pe
op
l
e
e
x
p
o
s
e
d
t
o
E
M
R
mi
gh
t
b
e
n
e
fit
f
r
o
m
av
oi
d
a
n
c
e
o
f
h
i
g
h
E
M
F
sm
og
.
F
o
u
r
c
a
s
e
s
e
m
p
l
o
y
i
n
g
a
p
r
e
c
a
u
t
i
o
n
a
r
y
ap
pr
oa
c
h
ar
e
p
r
e
s
e
n
te
d
f
or
c
o
n
s
id
e
r
a
t
i
o
n
.
Case
reports
invo
lv
ing
EMF
exposu
re
In
each
of
the
followi
ng
cases,
impr
ovemen
t
was
realize
d
when
EMF
expos
ure
was
diminish
ed.
As
with
mo
st
envi
ronment
al
expos
ure
case
rep
orts,
howe
ver
,
i
t
i
s
impos
sible
to
prove
conc
lusively
that
neith
er
the
source
of
afflict
ion
nor
the
benefit
realized
wer
e
related
exclusiv
ely
to
envi
r-
onmen
tal
expos
ure
and
su
bsequent
interventi
on.
AR
TI
CL
E
I
N
P
RE
S
S
The
publi
c
health
impac
t
o
f
electr
omagn
etic
radiat
ion
7
Please
cite
this
article
as:
Genuis
SJ.
Fielding
a
current
idea:
exploring
the
public
health
impact
of
electromagn
etic
radiation.
Public
Health
(2007),
doi:
10.1016/j
.puhe.20
07.04.008
Without
re-
exposing
pati
ents
and
mo
nitorin
g
sequ
elae,
impr
oved
outcome
s
may
be
suggest
ive
but
absol
ute
proof
of
cau
sation
and
benefit
are
una
ttainable.
Case
history
#1
A
66-yea
r-old
wom
an
in
general
ly
goo
d
health
compla
ined
of
a
9-ye
ar
history
of
debil
itating
daily
hea
daches
and
interm
ittent
dizzin
ess.
Neurolo
gical
asse
ssment
w
a
s
unrem
arkabl
e
and
a
compu
ter
tomo
graphy
scan,
magnet
ic
resonan
ce
imaging
and
electr
oence
phalogr
am
w
ere
reporte
d
normal
.
At
a
chr
onic
pain
clinic,
the
patient
received
narco
tic
analge
sics
and
a
dia
gnosis
of
‘pr
imary
pain
disorder’.
Det
ailed
aeti
ological
hist
ory
was
unre-
mar
kable
other
than
the
patie
nt
use
d
a
n
electr
ic
toot
hbrush
six
times
a
day
for
meticulo
us
care
of
failin
g
dentition
.
Gauss
me
ter
asse
ssment
re
vealed
ino
rdinatel
y
high
levels
of
EMFs
(
4
200
mGauss
)
emanat
ing
from
the
toothbr
ush.
Within
6
weeks
of
discon
tinuing
the
use
of
an
elec
tric
toot
hbrush
,
the
headach
es
subside
d
and,
with
assis
tance,
she
was
abl
e
t
o
quickly
overco
me
her
depen
dence
on
pre
scription
analgesic
s.
Case
history
#2
A
33-yea
r-old
wom
an
wis
hing
to
have
a
large
famil
y
compla
ined
of
six
conse
cutive
pregn
ancy
losse
s.
After
two
unco
mplicate
d
pregnan
cies
wit
h
vaginal
deli
veries,
the
patie
nt
chan
ged
re
sidence
and
subseq
uently
exper
ienced
three
firs
t-trim
ester
mis
-
carria
ges.
After
asse
ssment
s
b
y
a
fami
ly
physician
,
a
gynae
cologis
t,
an
infertil
ity
spe
cialist
and
a
spec
ialty
reproduc
tive
care
uni
t,
the
patien
t
sub
-
sequ
ently
sustai
ned
three
second-t
rime
ster
loss
es
desp
ite
interve
ntions
incl
uding
clomi
phene
,
hum
an
chori
onic
gona
dotrophi
n
inje
ctions,
proges
terone
supp
lement
ation
and
counsel
ling.
From
hist
ory
,
n
o
pot
ential
dete
rminants
appeared
to
ha
ve
cha
nged
from
th
e
two
comple
ted
gesta
tions
other
than
her
emp
loyment
as
a
seam
stress
for
6
h/day
in
the
basem
ent
of
her
new
resi
dence;
an
envi
ronment
wit
h
low
ceil
ings
and
fluore
scent
lights.
Using
a
gauss
me
ter
,
the
patie
nt
recorded
high
EM
F
leve
ls
(
4
140
mGauss
)
i
n
the
vici
nity
of
her
hea
d
w
hen
fluo
rescent
ligh
ting
in
her
work
space
was
turne
d
on
and
high
EMF
leve
ls
(
"
180
mGauss)
adjace
nt
to
her
sewing
machin
e.
Fo
llowing
advice
to
minimi
ze
EMR
exposur
e
b
y
avo
iding
fluore
scent
lights
and
minimi
zing
use
of
her
sewing
machin
e,
th
e
patie
nt
prom
ptly
con
ceived
and
carried
the
pregn
ancy
to
full
term.
Case
history
#3
A
17-yea
r-old
boy
exper
iencing
a
3-y
ear
history
of
intrusive
thought
s
r
e
lating
to
religi
ous
the
mes
believed
he
ha
d
comm
itted
unpard
onable
sins
and
was
convince
d
the
devil
w
a
s
immine
ntly
tak
ing
him
to
hell
.
A
s
well
as
inc
reasing
depr
essive
symptom
s,
the
ado
lescent
display
ed
escalat
ing
aggressi
on
towards
his
parents.
The
nomin
ally
religi
ous
par-
ents
took
their
son
for
religi
ous
counsel
to
no
avail
.
Psych
iatric
dia
gnos
is
included
a
thought
disorde
r
.
Psych
otropic
me
dication
failed
to
contr
ol
the
sympt
oms
but
caused
numerous
side
effects.
Huma
n
expo
sure
asse
ssment
uncove
red
extremely
high
gauss
me
asurem
ents
(
4
200
mG
auss)
at
the
head
of
the
teen’
s
bed,
as
elec
trical
ent
ry
to
the
house
was
imm
ediate
ly
adjace
nt
to
the
bedr
oom,
right
bes
ide
his
bed.
As
w
ell
as
changing
rooms,
all
other
sources
of
EMF
expos
ure
were
minimized.
Within
12
weeks,
the
intr
usive
th
oughts
abated
consid
erably
,
the
mood
symptom
atolog
y
decli
ned,
the
med
ication
was
stoppe
d,
and
the
parents
indica
ted
that
their
son
was
now
a
frien
dly
,
moti
vated
boy
.
One
episo
de
of
sympt
om
aggr
ava-
tion
subsequ
ently
occurre
d
imm
ediately
followin
g
4
h
of
online
work
in
a
high
school
compu
ter
labor
atory;
symptom
s
sub
sided
w
ithin
72
h
o
f
delib
erate
EMF
avoida
nce.
All
adve
rse
sympt
oms
comple
tely
clear
ed
within
6
month
s
and
well
ness
was
maintaine
d
over
the
next
2
years
and
at
the
time
of
w
riting.
Case
history
#4
A
51-yea
r-old
man
in
general
ly
good
hea
lth
com-
plaine
d
o
f
chronic
difficu
lty
w
ith
insomni
a.
Altho
ugh
he
exper
ienced
no
proble
m
fal
ling
asleep
,
for
the
last
17
years
he
had
rout
inely
awo
ken
at
about
2:30
a.m
after
4
h
of
slum
ber
and
was
consist
ently
unable
to
re
turn
to
sleep.
As
a
r
e
sult
of
sleep
depriva
tion,
he
exper
ienced
const
ant
fatigu
e,
often
falling
asleep
at
vari
ous
interva
ls
during
the
day
.
While
on
hol
iday
in
the
ir
mobile
home,
howeve
r
,
the
patien
t
enjo
yed
improved
sleep,
causin
g
his
physici
an
to
attri
bute
the
insomni
a
t
o
job
stress.
Numero
us
the
rapies
had
been
uns
uccessf
ul
incl
uding
coun
selling,
relaxation
tech
niques,
benzodi
azepine
me
dication,
acup
unc-
ture
and
various
nut
ritional
sup
plements
.
Micro-
surge
meter
assess
ment
in
the
patie
nt’
s
bedr
oom
revea
led
power
surges
reach
ing
1600
GS
uni
ts
(safe
level
s
reporte
d
a
s
o
30
GS
units
).
Filtration
of
dirt
y
electr
icity
reduced
levels
to
unde
r
3
0
G
S
units
,
a
n
d
the
patien
t
noticed
a
dramat
ic
and
con
sistent
impr
ovement
in
sleep
patterns
within
1
week.
AR
TI
CL
E
I
N
P
RE
S
S
S.J.
Genuis
8
Please
cite
this
article
as:
Genuis
SJ.
Fielding
a
current
idea:
exploring
the
public
health
impact
of
electromagn
etic
radiation.
Public
Health
(2007),
doi:
10.1016/j.pu
he.2007.04
.008
Conclud
ing
thoughts
Des
pite
diffe
ring
perspecti
ves
on
the
seve
rity
of
impac
t,
the
re
is
compell
ing
researc
h
t
o
suggest
that
EMR
has
th
e
potent
ial
to
have
an
adve
rse
effect
on
cells
and
ti
ssues.
Comm
enting
on
resear
ch
by
himse
lf
and
co-wo
rkers,
107
T
rosko
rec
ently
summ
ed
up
the
prevai
ling
sen
timen
t:
‘until
now
,
the
w
eight
of
the
theoret
ical
and
exper
iment
al
evidence
has
suggest
ed
that
[low
-
fre
quency
EMFs]
did
not
have
the
ability
to
intera
ct
wit
h
genetic
mate
rial
to
damage
it
’,
but
recent
studi
es
show
that

y
there
is
a
biological
effec
t
o
f
the
energy
impart
ed
by
extreme
ly-low-fr
equenc
y
EMF
on
living
syst
ems’.
Definitiv
e
con
clusions
on
the
exten
t
o
f
resultant
harm,
how
ever
,
remain
difficul
t
t
o
establish
compre
hensively
as
contr
olled
trials
with
expos
ure
of
cohorts
to
potent
ially
toxic
infl
uences
are
unethi
cal.
Fu
rthermore,
the
allega
-
tion
that
indust
ry-funded
studies
ten
d
t
o
produce
indu
stry-desir
ed
outco
mes
fur
ther
compli
cates
the
abi
lity
to
establish
veraci
ty
on
this
is
sue.
It
is
thu
s
difficult
to
winnow
fact
from
fiction
amon
g
the
many
claim
s
r
e
lating
to
the
impact
of
EMR
on
peop
le
as
well
as
on
the
environm
ent.
While
some
autho
rs
have
discus
sed
adverse
effects
of
EMR
on
plants
and
trees,
8,108
and
much
re
search
sugge
sts
health
disorders
an
d
behav
ioural
abnor
m-
alities
in
animal
s
expos
ed
to
adverse
EMFs,
109

111
the
inten
sity
of
impact
on
hum
an
health
re
mains
the
subject
of
muc
h
deba
te.
With
a
multipli
city
of
views
and
potent
ially
compet
ing
prio
rities
inc
lud-
ing
comfort
,
conven
ience,
fin
ancial
intere
st,
health
and
technol
ogical
nece
ssity
,
a
consen
sus
on
the
risk/ben
efit
ratio
of
EMF
expos
ure
may
be
challen
-
ging
to
achiev
e
i
n
the
near
fut
ure.
However
,
with
a
gre
at
per
centage
of
peop
le
in
the
early
21st
Century
bathi
ng
in
EMF
smog
resulting
from
living,
work
ing
and
pla
ying
in
close
prox
imity
to
electr
ical
appl
iances,
wirel
ess
netw
orks,
cellular
phone
masts
,
power
lines,
TV
and
radio
towers,
fluo
res-
cent
lightin
g
and
dirty
powe
r
,
as
w
ell
as
from
ubiqu
itous
us
e
o
f
cordl
ess
and
cell
ular
phone
s,
automo
bile
seat
warmer
s,
electric
toot
hbrushes
,
electr
ic
shavers
,
h
a
i
r
drye
rs
etc.,
a
respons
e
from
the
medica
l
and
publ
ic
health
comm
unity
is
indica
ted.
The
moral
and
political
ques
tion
ari
ses
regardin
g
whet
her
public
health
policy
should
be
based
on
‘proof
of
safet
y’
or
‘proof
of
harm’.
In
relation
to
envi
ronment
al
health
is
sues,
an
‘innocen
t
unt
il
guilty’
approach
has
genera
lly
been
adopted
whereby
public
hea
lth
initiativ
es
commen
ce
onl
y
after
‘proof
of
harm’
is
esta
blished
conc
lusively
.
112
Medica
l
hist
ory
has
rep
eatedly
demons
trated
that
desp
ite
str
ong
suspic
ions
and
prelimin
ary
evide
nce,
various
toxic
agen
ts
and
devi
ces
routinel
y
r
e
main
in
use
for
years
prior
to
the
avail
ability
of
definitive
evide
nce
of
harm;
precauti
onary
avo
idance
is
genera
lly
not
imple
mented.
As
a
result,
sch
ools
and
resid
ences
conti
nue
to
be
erecte
d
i
n
imme
di-
ate
prox
imity
to
powe
r
lines
emit
ting
immense
EMR,
pregnan
t
women
conti
nue
unaw
ares
to
be
expos
ed
to
EMR
in
various
occupat
ions,
tee
ns
spend
inord
inate
amoun
ts
of
time
attache
d
t
o
cellu
lar
phon
es,
an
d
m
o
bile
phon
e
masts
contin
ue
to
be
plac
ed
in
comm
unitie
s
close
to
residence
s,
school
s,
presch
ools,
hospital
s
and
workp
laces.
Sickne
ss
is
often
the
conseque
nce
of
an
interac-
tion
between
a
causati
ve
agent
and
a
suscep
tible
host,
and
adve
rse
EMR
appe
ars
to
be
one
such
causa
tive
agen
t.
With
increasing
evide
nce
lin
king
significa
nt
EM
F
expo
sure
to
adverse
hea
lth
se
que-
lae,
and
w
ith
the
increas
ing
intensity
of
elec
tronic
pollut
ion
resulti
ng
from
wirele
ss
tech
nology
and
dirty
electrici
ty
,
i
t
may
be
pr
udent
to
conside
r
erring
on
the
side
of
caution.
Con
sidering
the
potent
ial
long-term
dange
r
,
physici
ans
an
d
public
healt
h
officials
shoul
d
ale
rt
indivi
dual
pati
ents
and
the
public
to
th
is
issue
and
provide
ongo
ing
infor
mation
on
pre
cautions
to
dimi
nish
pot
ential
risk
associa
ted
with
EMF
exposur
e.
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10
Please
cite
this
article
as:
Genuis
SJ.
Fielding
a
current
idea:
exploring
the
public
health
impact
of
electromagn
etic
radiation.
Public
Health
(2007),
doi:
10.1016/j.pu
he.2007.04
.008
we
bs
it
e
/
h
t
tp
:/
/w
ww
.n
ei
lc
he
r
r
y
.
co
m/
ca
rt
/E
LF
+H
eal
t
h
+
Ef
fe
ct
s?
mo
de
=s
h
o
w
_
ca
te
g
o
r
y
S
[a
cc
e
s
s
e
d
1
0
J
a
n
u
a
r
y
2
0
0
7
]
.
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