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©2008 The McGraw
-
Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

Digital Electronics


Principles & Applications

Seventh Edition

Chapter 13

Computer Systems

Roger L. Tokheim

©2008 The McGraw
-
Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

©2008 The McGraw
-
Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

INTRODUCTION


Elements of a System


Computer Organization


Computer Peripheral Devices


MPU Based System


Serial/Parallel Data Transmission


Programmable Logic Controller


Microcontrollers


Digital Signal Processing

©2008 The McGraw
-
Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

Elements of a System

(Review)

Control

Input

Storage

Processing

Storage

Output

©2008 The McGraw
-
Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.


Computer Organization
-

Classical

Memory

Output

Input

Arithmetic

and Logic

Control

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-
Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

QUIZ

B

Output

Input

C

A

Q#1
-

In classical computer organization, the block

labeled A would be the ___ section.

ANS: control

Q#2
-

In classical computer organization, the block

labeled B would be the ___ section.

ANS: memory

Q#3
-

In classical computer organization, the block

labeled C would be the ___ section.

ANS: ALU

©2008 The McGraw
-
Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

CPU and

Internal Memory

Output

Input

Input/Output

Storage


Internet, network, wireless or modem



Fax

Computer Peripheral Devices



Monitor


(CRT or LCD)



Television



Printer



Speaker



Plotter



Keyboard



Mouse



Joystick



Paddles



Graphics tablet



Microphone



Light pen



Scanner



Bar code reader



Strip reader



Various Sensors



Digital Camera



Floppy disk drive



Hard disk drive



Optical disc drive



Tape unit



Flash memory device

©2008 The McGraw
-
Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

QUIZ

1.
Both CRT and thin
-
screen (LCD) monitors are
classified as __________ (output, storage)
peripheral devices in a computer system.

output

2. Both hard and floppy disk drives and well as
CD
-
ROM drives are classified as __________
(output, storage) peripheral devices in a
computer system.

storage

3. Both the keyboard and a mouse are classified as
__________ (input, output) peripheral devices in
a computer system.

input

4. A modem is classified as an storage peripheral
device in a computer system. (True or False)

False

©2008 The McGraw
-
Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

Microcomputer System Block Diagram

MPU

The MPU is the heart of the system

ROM

The ROM contains programs and permanent data

RAM

The RAM contains temporary data (and programs)

Input

ports

The input ports connect to devices such as keyboards

Output

ports

The output ports connect to devices such as printers

The address bus

is unidirectional

The data bus

is bidirectional

The control bus

is unidirectional

©2008 The McGraw
-
Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

QUIZ

1. In a microcomputer system, the ____
(MPU, RAM) is considered to be the
center of operations directing the other
sections.

MPU

(microprocessor unit)

2. In a microcomputer system, the
________ (data bus, address bus) is
bidirectional so information can pass
to and from the MPU.

data bus

3.
In a microcomputer system, both the
address bus and the control bus are
unidirectional paths for the MPU to
direct memory, input ports, and output
ports. (True or False)

True

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-
Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

Reading input data

1. The MPU places an input

address on the bus

2. The MPU asserts a READ

signal on the control bus

3. The addressed port puts

its data on the bus

ROM

RAM

Input

ports

Output

ports

MPU

4. The data is stored

in the MPU

MPU

IN

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-
Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

Writing output data

1. The MPU places an output

address on the bus

2. The MPU asserts a WRITE

signal on the control bus

3. The MPU places the

data on the bus

ROM

RAM

Input

ports

Output

ports

MPU

4. The data is written

to the output port

Output

ports

OUT

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-
Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

Serial/Parallel Data Conversion



1 0 1 0 1 1 1 1

Serial in

Serial out

Shift registers can be used to convert from
serial
-
to
-
parallel or the reverse from
parallel
-
to
-
serial.

1 0 1 0 1 1 1 1

Serial in

Parallel out

1 0 1 0 1 1 1 1

Serial out

Parallel in

1 0 1 0 1 1 1 1

Parallel in

Parallel out

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-
Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

Bit 0

Start bit

Bit 1

Bit 2

Bit 3

Bit 4

Bit 5

Bit 6

Bit 7

Stop Bit

UART

RS232

Driver

To modem

Transmitter

Receiver

Control

Serial data transmission

is relatively slow!

A UART receives bytes from
the data bus and transmits
them one bit at a time.

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-
Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

UART

RS232 to

Logic

Level

From modem

Transmitter

Receiver

Control

Here, the UART assembles bits from the serial port

and places them on the data bus one byte at a time.

01101110

Parallel data

transmission

is relatively fast!

©2008 The McGraw
-
Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

QUIZ

1.
The transfer of data over a single path, one
bit after the other, is called __________
(serial, single
-
channel codec) transmission.

serial

2. The transfer of data over multiple paths,
many bits at once, is called __________
(multipactor, parallel) transmission.

parallel

3. A(n) __________ (AND gate, UART) IC can
send and receive serial and parallel data.

UART

4. Generally, serial transfer of data is faster than
parallel data transmission. (True or False)

False

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-
Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

Programmable Logic Controllers


PLCs

are heavy
-
duty computer systems used for machine control.


PLCs

must be rugged to withstand the rigors of a chemical,

warehouse/storage, or assembly line environment.


PLCs

use

MODULAR organization.



Input Sensors


-

pressure


-

mechanical


-

optical


-
magnetic



A/D converters



Motors



Solenoids



Pneumatic devices



D/A converters

Power Supply

Programming Module

Memory


Processing

Module


CPU

Output

Module

Input

Module

©2008 The McGraw
-
Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

QUIZ

1. A(n) __________ (MCU, PLC) is a heavy
duty computer system used for machine
control.

PLC

(programmable

logic controller)

2. Programmable logic controllers (PLCs) must
be rugged to withstand the rigors of a
chemical, warehouse, or assembly line
environment. (True or False)

True

3. The typical input device to a PLC system
might be an A/D converter or
pressure/optical/magnetic sensor instead
of a keyboard and mouse. (True or False)

True

4. The typical output device from a PLC system
might be a monitor or printer and not a D/A
converter, motor or solenoid. (True or False)

False

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-
Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

Microcontrollers



A
microcontroller
is considered a “computer on a chip.”




A
microcontroller

IC contains a CPU, RAM, ROM


or EEPROM, a clock, and input/output capabilities.




Microcontrollers

are:



Very inexpensive



Commonly preprogrammed and embedded in products



Commonly used to perform control functions



Manufactured in huge quantities



NOT used as the CPU in general purpose computers




Microcontroller
-
based systems have much less


semiconductor memory (RAM, EEPROM), cost less,


use less printed circuit board space, and perform


fewer commands than microprocessor based systems.

©2008 The McGraw
-
Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

QUIZ

1. A __________ (microcontroller, PLD) IC is
considered close to a “computer on a chip.”

microcontroller

2. A microcontroller IC is an expensive unit used
in only the highest priced computer
workstations. (True or False)

False

3. Microcontrollers are manufactured in huge
quantities and are very inexpensive. (True
or False)

True

4. A microcontroller contains a CPU, RAM, ROM
or EEPROM, a clock, and some input/output
capabilities. (True or False)

True

5. Inexpensive microcontrollers are commonly
embedded in products to perform control
functions. (True or False)

True

©2008 The McGraw
-
Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

Digital Signal Processing
System Block Diagram

A/D

Mem
-
mory

DSP

D/A

0

7

10

7

0

-
7

-
10

-
7

0

0

14

20

14

0

-
14

-
20

-
14

0

x 2

DSP

A/D

Mem
-
mory

D/A

©2008 The McGraw
-
Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

QUIZ

DSP

A

B

C

Q#1
-

The digital signal processor (DSP) is a microprocessor
-
like IC

that can be programmed to condition or enhance signals. (T or F)

ANS: True

Q#2
-

The block labeled A in the DSP system is a(n) ___ (A/D, D/A)

converter.

ANS: A/D

Q#3
-

The block labeled B in the DSP system is a ___ (memory,

microprocessor) device.

ANS: memory

Q#4
-

The block labeled C in the DSP system is a ___ (D/A converter,

printer interface device).


ANS: D/A converter

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-
Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

Digital Signal Processing


Digital Signal Processors

are used in many electronic
devices today, such as: MP3 players, DVD players,
modems, cellular phones, and digital cameras.


Digital Signal Processors:


Are designed to quickly perform many multiplications
and additions per second


Are used to consistently and reliably change the
characteristics of a digital signal


Can process signals in real
-
time or ‘off
-
line’


Are NOT used as the CPU in general purpose
computers

©2008 The McGraw
-
Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

REVIEW


Elements of a System


Computer Organization


Computer Peripheral Devices


MPU Based System


Serial/Parallel Data
Transmission


Programmable Logic
Controller


Microcontrollers


Digital Signal Processing