Chapter 4 PowerPoint Slides

canoeornithologistNetworking and Communications

Oct 26, 2013 (3 years and 9 months ago)

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E. Wainright Martin


Carol V. Brown


Daniel W. DeHayes

Jeffrey A. Hoffer


William C. Perkins


MANAGING

INFORMATION

TECHNOLOGY

FIFTH EDITION

CHAPTER 4

TELECOMMUNICATIONS
AND NETWORKING



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Sharing of technology resources


Sharing of data


Distributed data processing and
client/server systems


Enhanced communications


Marketing outreach

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A
N
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VERVIEW OF
T
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Networking




the electronic linking of geographically dispersed devices

Telecommunications




communications (voice and data) at a distance



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Table 4.1 Functions of a


Telecommunications Network



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Analog and Digital Signals

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Analog network

uses continuous voltage
varying as a function of time


Example: voice over telephone lines


Digital network

directly transmits two discrete
states


Note: 0 for pulse off and 1 for pulse on




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Analog and Digital Signals

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Modem


Device needed when transmitting data over analog
lines


Converts data from digital to analog to be sent over
analog telephone lines


Also reconverts data back to digital after data
transmission


Abbreviation for
mo
dulator/
dem
odulator



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Analog and Digital Signals

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Figure 4.1 Use of Modem in Analog Network

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Speed of Transmission

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Bandwidth






difference between highest and lowest frequencies


(cycles per second) that can be transmitted on a
single medium



common measure of a medium’s capacity



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Speed of Transmission

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Hertz


cycles per second


Baud


number of signals sent per second


Bits per second (bps)


number of bits sent per
second



When each cycle sends one signal that transmits exactly
one bit of data (often the case), then the three terms are
identical



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Types of Transmission Lines

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Switched line system


Example: public telephone system


Uses switching centers to route signals along best
possible path to destination


Private (dedicated) lines


Leased from companies such as MCI, Sprint, AT&T


Use direct physical lines between source and
destination




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Types of Transmission Lines

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Simplex


data travels in one direction only


Half
-
duplex


data can travel in both directions,
but only one direction at a time


Full
-
duplex


data travels in both directions at the
same time






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Transmission Media

Page 101

KEY ELEMENTS OF

TELECOMMUNICATIONS AND

NETWORKING



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Transmission Media

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KEY ELEMENTS OF

TELECOMMUNICATIONS AND

NETWORKING

Typical Speeds


Table 4.2 Telecommunications


Transmission Speeds



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Transmission Media

Page 102

KEY ELEMENTS OF

TELECOMMUNICATIONS AND

NETWORKING


Figure 4.3 Construction of a Coaxial Cable



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Cordless telephone


Cellular phone


Wireless LAN


Microwave


Satellite


Transmission Media

Page 102

Wireless



broadcast technology in which radio signals are sent out
into the air

KEY ELEMENTS OF

TELECOMMUNICATIONS AND

NETWORKING



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Transmission Media

Page 102

KEY ELEMENTS OF

TELECOMMUNICATIONS AND

NETWORKING


Figure 4.4 Satellite Communications



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Types of Transmission Lines

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Fiber
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optic cabling


Newest transmission medium


Transmits data by pulses of light through thin fiber
of glass


Much faster than other media


Thinner … requires less space


More secure … harder to tap







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Topology of Networks

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Topology




term used to describe the configuration or
arrangement of network devices and media



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Topology of Networks

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KEY ELEMENTS OF

TELECOMMUNICATIONS AND

NETWORKING


Figure 4.5 Network Topologies



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More Complex Networks

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Figure 4.6 vBNS+ Network Map



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Types of Networks

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Computer Telecommunications Networks


Private branch exchange (PBX) Networks


Local Area Networks (LANs)


Backbone Networks


Wide Area Networks (WANs)


Internet


Internet2









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Types of Networks

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Computer Telecommunications Networks


Emanates from a single medium or large computer


Usually arranged as a tree


Uses coaxial and twisted pair cabling


Controlled by central computer


Often has a front
-
end processor to handle all
aspects of telecommunications









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Page 108


Figure 4.7 Computer


Telecommunications Network



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Types of Networks

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Private Branch Exchanges (PBX)


Originally analog, today usually digital


Can serve as the central device in a star or ring
network


Can function as front
-
end processor for mainframe









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Types of Networks

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Private Branch Exchanges (PBX)


Advantages:


Can connect ALL telecommunications devices in a
building or campus


Can use existing telephone wiring


Can carry voice and data over same network


Has a high
-
potential throughput








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Page 109


Figure 4.8 Schematic Representation


of a PBX



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Types of Networks

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Local Area Networks


Owned by a single organization


Operate within area 2
-
3 miles in diameter


Contain a number of intelligent devices, usually
microcomputers, that can process data … based
on peer
-
to
-
peer relationship


No part of telephone system, have their own wiring











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LAN Topologies and Standards


Contention bus design … IEEE 802.3


Token bus design … IEEE 802.4


Token ring design … IEEE 802.5


Wireless design … IEEE 802.11









Local Area Networks



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Local Area Networks

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Contention Bus Design (Ethernet)


Bus topology


Implemented with coax or twisted pair


Usually half
-
duplex


All devices contend for use of cable


Design now called
Shared Ethernet
… uses a
contention bus as its logical topology and
implemented with a physical star arrangement …











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Page 109


Figure 4.9 Shared Ethernet Topology:


Logical Bus, Physical Star



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Switched Ethernet


Newer variation, better performance, higher price


Uses switch instead of hub


Operates both logical and physical star


Each device has own dedicated circuit








Local Area Networks



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Token Bus


Employs bus topology, no contention


Uses single token passed around to all devices in
order


Device can only transmit when has token


Central to
Manufacturing Automation Protocol
(MAP)



connects robots and other machines on
assembly line by a LAN








Local Area Networks



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Token Ring


Device attached to ring must seize token before
can send a message


Collisions cannot occur


Usual implementation is physical star, logical ring








Local Area Networks



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Wireless LAN


Known as Wi
-
Fi (wireless fidelity)


Growing in demand for corporate and home use


Use IEEE 802.11 standards with shared Ethernet
design


Requires use of wireless network interface card
(
NIC
)


Wireless Access Point (
WAP
)


radio transceiver that
acts as a hub








Local Area Networks



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Page 112


Figure 4.10 Wireless Local Area Network


Topology



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Types of Networks

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Backbone Network



In
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between network that interconnects LANs in a single
organization with each other and with organization’s
WAN and the Internet









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Types of Networks

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Backbone network terminology:


Bridge



connects two LANs using same protocol


Router (gateway)



connects two or more LANs that
may use different protocols


Switch



connects more than two LANs using the
same protocols









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Page 112


Figure 4.11 Sample Backbone Network



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Types of Networks

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Wide Area Networks (WANs)


Communicate voice and data across greater
distances


Usually owned by several organizations (including
user organization and common carrier)


Employ point
-
to
-
point transmission


Often rely on public telephone network









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Types of WANs

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Switched
-
circuit


Direct distance dialing (DDD)


Wide Area Telephone Service (WATS)


Integrated Service Digital Network (ISDN)


Dedicated
-
circuit


Leased lines


Satellite





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Packet
-
switched



Shared private lines using store
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and
-
forward data
transmission


Permits multiple connections to exist
simultaneously over the same physical circuit





Types of WANs



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ATM



fast packet switching with short, fixed
-
length
packets


Virtual Private Networks (VPNs)



provide same as
private packet
-
switched network using the public
Internet






Types of WANs



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Types of Networks

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The Internet


Network of networks that use the TCP/IP protocol


Contain gateways to computers that do not use
TCP/IP


Provides four basic functions:


Electronic mail


Remote login


Discussion groups


Sharing of data resources








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Page 118


Table 4.4 Internet Applications



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DSL, Cable Modem, and Satellite

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Internet access services:


Digital subscriber line (DSL)



service offered by
telephone companies using copper wire already installed
in homes … moving data over wires without disturbing
voice traffic


Cable modem



connection obtained from cable TV
company using existing home coaxial cable


Satellite



most expensive, but may be only option for
customers in rural areas








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Intranets

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Intranet




a network operating within an organization that uses
the TCP/IP protocol



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Internet2




not
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for
-
profit consortium of over 200 universities,
working with over 60 technology companies and the
U.S. government, to develop and deploy advanced
network applications and technologies



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Primary goals of Internet2:


Create a leading
-
edge network capability for the
national research community


Enable revolutionary Internet applications based on a
much higher
-
performance Internet that we have
today


Ensure the rapid transfer of new network services
and applications to the broader Internet community




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Network Protocols

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Protocol




agreed
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upon set of rules governing communication
among layers or levels of a network



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LAN protocols:


Contention bus


Token bus


Token ring


Wireless


IBM’s own protocol


Systems Network Architecture
(SNA)






Network Protocols



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International Organization for Standardization (ISO)
network protocol


Open Systems Interconnection
Reference Model (OSI)


Thought to become the only standard for networking


Gained momentum until Internet explosion


Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol

(TCP/IP)


Has become the de facto standard for networking today


Network Protocols



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Figure 4.17 Data Transmission


Based on OSI Model



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Online Operations


Connectivity


Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) and
Electronic Commerce


Marketing



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T
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NDUSTRY


Carriers


Own or lease the physical plant


cabling,
satellites, cellular towers, etc.


Sell service of transmitting communication
from one location to another

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T
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ELECOMMUNICATIONS
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NDUSTRY


Equipment vendors


Manufacture and sell LAN software and
hardware


Includes routers, hubs, wireless access
points, digital switches, multiplexers, cellular
telephones, modems


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Service providers


Operate networks and deliver services
through the network


Provide access to or services via the Internet
(such as AOL, Microsoft Network, Yahoo!,
and many ISPs