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calvesnorthNetworking and Communications

Oct 24, 2013 (4 years and 2 months ago)

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1.


Hacker
-

son personas que se dedican a robar la identidad de individuos a traves de la
tecnologia. Tambien roban pogramas, musica y cometen plagio.

2.


Virus
-

es un tipo

"insecto"

virtual que es producido por personas con una experiencia amplia
en
programacion.


Es llamado virus porque una vez lo entran al sistema se reproduce,
causando

dano a todo el sistema de

la computadora.

Las razones que pudieran tener estas
personas para cometer este delito podrian ser varias.


Un

ejemplo podria ser que

el in
dividuio
(s)

se molestaron

con el propietario de la empresa para la cual trabajaban y la forma mas

facil
de desquitarse es paralizarle todo el sitema; ya que esto traera como consecuencia perdida
irreparables, tanto de equipo como de dinero y tiempo

en g
randes escalas.

3.


GIGO
-

"Garbage in, garbage out".


Es cuando a la computadora entra informacion que no
sirve,

invalida, e inecesaria.


Que ocurre cuando sale del sistema?


Sale del sistema informacion
basura, mala que traeria resultados no esperados.

4
.


Sistema operativo
-

este sistema es el alma de la computadora.


Es la principal parte de la
misma que hace funcionar los programas.


Existen diferentes sistemas operativos como por
ejemplo Macintosh, Windows, IBM, etc.




To the popular press, "hacker"

means someone who breaks into
computers. Among programmers it means a good programmer.
But the two meanings are connected. To programmers, "hacker"
connotes mastery in the most literal sense: someone who can
make a computer do what he wants

whether the co
mputer wants
to or not.


To add to the confusion, the noun "hack" also has two senses. It
can be either a compliment or an insult. It's called a hack when
you do something in an ugly way. But when you do something so
clever that you somehow beat the system
, that's also called a
hack. The word is used more often in the former than the latter
sense, probably because ugly solutions are more common than
brilliant ones.


Believe it or not, the two senses of "hack" are also connected. Ugly
and imaginative solutio
ns have something in common: they both
break the rules. And there is a gradual continuum between rule
breaking that's merely ugly (using duct tape to attach something
to your bike) and rule breaking that is brilliantly imaginative
(discarding Euclidean spa
ce).


Hacking predates computers. When he was working on the
Manhattan Project, Richard Feynman used to amuse himself by
breaking into safes containing secret documents. This tradition
continues today. When we were in grad school, a hacker friend of
mine w
ho spent too much time around MIT had his own lock
picking kit. (He now runs a hedge fund, a not unrelated
enterprise.)

It is sometimes hard to explain to authorities why one would want
to do such things. Another friend of mine once got in trouble with
the

government for breaking into computers. This had only
recently been declared a crime, and the FBI found that their usual
investigative technique didn't work. Police investigation apparently
begins with a motive. The usual motives are few: drugs, money,
se
x, revenge. Intellectual curiosity was not one of the motives on
the FBI's list. Indeed, the whole concept seemed foreign to them.


Those in authority tend to be annoyed by hackers' general attitude
of disobedience. But that disobedience is a byproduct of
the
qualities that make them good programmers. They may laugh at
the CEO when he talks in generic corporate newspeech, but they
also laugh at someone who tells them a certain problem can't be
solved. Suppress one, and you suppress the other.


This attitude

is sometimes affected. Sometimes young
programmers notice the eccentricities of eminent hackers and
decide to adopt some of their own in order to seem smarter. The
fake version is not merely annoying; the prickly attitude of these
posers can actually slow

the process of innovation.


But even factoring in their annoying eccentricities, the disobedient
attitude of hackers is a net win. I wish its advantages were better
understood.


For example, I suspect people in Hollywood are simply mystified by
hackers' a
ttitudes toward copyrights. They are a perennial topic of
heated discussion on Slashdot. But why should people who
program computers be so concerned about copyrights, of all
things?


Partly because some companies use
mechanisms

to prevent
copying. Show any

hacker a lock and his first thought is how to
pick it. But there is a deeper reason that hackers are alarmed by
measures like copyrights and patents. They see increasingly
aggressive measures to protect "intellectual property" as a threat
to the intellect
ual freedom they need to do their job. And they are
right.


It is by poking about inside current technology that hackers get
ideas for the next generation. No thanks, intellectual homeowners
may say, we don't need any outside help. But they're wrong. The
n
ext generation of computer technology has often

perhaps more
often than not

been developed by outsiders.


In 1977 there was no doubt some group within IBM developing
what they expected to be the next generation of business
computer. They were mistaken. The

next generation of business
computer was being developed on entirely different lines by two
long
-
haired guys called Steve in a
garage

in Los Altos. At about the
same time, the powers that be were coope
rating to develop the
official next generation operating system, Multics. But two guys
who thought Multics excessively complex went off and wrote their
own. They gave it a name that was a joking reference to Multics:
Unix.


The latest intellectual property

laws impose unprecedented
restrictions on the sort of poking around that leads to new ideas.
In the past, a competitor might use patents to prevent you from
selling a copy of something they made, but they couldn't prevent
you from taking one apart to see
how it worked. The latest laws
make this a crime. How are we to develop new technology if we
can't study current technology to figure out how to improve it?


Ironically, hackers have brought this on themselves. Computers
are responsible for the problem. Th
e control systems inside
machines used to be physical: gears and levers and cams.
Increasingly, the brains (and thus the value) of products is in
software. And by this I mean software in the general sense: i.e.
data. A song on an LP is physically stamped i
nto the plastic. A song
on an iPod's disk is merely stored on it.


Data is by definition easy to copy. And the Internet makes copies
easy to distribute. So it is no wonder companies are afraid. But, as
so often happens, fear has clouded their judgement. Th
e
government has responded with draconian laws to protect
intellectual property. They probably mean well. But they may not
realize that such laws will do more harm than good.


Why are programmers so violently opposed to these laws? If I
were a legislator,
I'd be interested in this mystery

for the same
reason that, if I were a farmer and suddenly heard a lot of
squawking coming from my hen house one night, I'd want to go
out and investigate. Hackers are not stupid, and unanimity is very
rare in this world. S
o if they're all squawking, perhaps there is
something amiss.


Could it be that such laws, though intended to protect America, will
actually harm it? Think about it. There is something very
American

about Feynman breaking into safes during the Manhattan Pr
oject.
It's hard to imagine the authorities having a sense of humor about
such things over in Germany at that time. Maybe it's not a
coincidence.


Hackers are unruly. That is the essence of hacking. And it is also
the essence of Americanness. It is no acci
dent that Silicon Valley is
in America, and not France, or Germany, or England, or Japan. In
those countries, people color inside the lines.


I lived for a while in Florence. But after I'd been there a few
months I realized that what I'd been unconsciously

hoping to find
there was back in the place I'd just left. The reason Florence is
famous is that in 1450, it was New York. In 1450 it was filled with
the kind of turbulent and ambitious people you find now in
America. (So I went back to America.)

It is gre
atly to America's advantage that it is a congenial
atmosphere for the right sort of unruliness

that it is a home not
just for the smart, but for smart
-
alecks. And hackers are invariably
smart
-
alecks. If we had a national holiday, it would be April 1st. It
says a great deal about our work that we use the same word for a
brilliant or a horribly cheesy solution. When we cook one up we're
not always 100% sure which kind it is. But as long as it has the
right sort of wrongness, that's a promising sign. It's odd
that
people think of programming as precise and methodical.
Computers

are precise and methodical. Hacking is something you
do with a gleeful laugh.


In our world some of the most characteristic solutions are not far
removed from practical jokes. IBM was no

doubt rather surprised
by the consequences of the licensing deal for DOS, just as the
hypothetical "adversary" must be when Michael Rabin solves a
problem by redefining it as one that's easier to solve.


Smart
-
alecks have to develop a keen sense of how mu
ch they can
get away

with. And lately hackers have sensed a change in the
atmosphere. Lately hackerliness seems rather frowned upon.


To hackers the recent contraction in civil liberties seems especially
o
minous. That must also mystify outsiders. Why should we care
especially about civil liberties? Why programmers, more than
dentists or salesmen or landscapers?


Let me put the case in terms a government official would
appreciate. Civil liberties are not jus
t an ornament, or a quaint
American tradition. Civil liberties make countries rich. If you made
a graph of GNP per capita vs. civil liberties, you'd notice a definite
trend. Could civil liberties really be a cause, rather than just an
effect? I think so. I

think a society in which people can do and say
what they want will also tend to be one in which the most efficient
solutions win, rather than those sponsored by the most influential
people. Authoritarian countries become corrupt; corrupt countries
become
poor; and poor countries are weak. It seems to me there
is a Laffer curve for government power, just as for tax revenues.
At least, it seems likely enough that it would be stupid to try the
experiment and find out. Unlike high tax rates, you can't repeal
t
otalitarianism if it turns out to be a mistake.


This is why hackers worry. The government spying on people
doesn't literally make programmers write worse code. It just leads
eventually to a world in which bad ideas win. And because this is
so important to

hackers, they're especially sensitive to it. They can
sense totalitarianism approaching from a distance, as animals can
sense an approaching thunderstorm.


It would be ironic if, as hackers fear, recent measures intended to
protect national security and i
ntellectual property turned out to be
a missile aimed right at what makes America successful. But it
would not be the first time that measures taken in an atmosphere
of panic had the opposite of the intended effect.


There is such a thing as Americanness.
There's nothing like living
abroad to teach you that. And if you want to know whether
something will nurture or squash this quality, it would be hard to
find a better focus group than hackers, because they come closest
of any group I know to embodying it.
Closer, probably, than the
men running our government, who for all their talk of patriotism
remind me more of Richelieu or Mazarin than Thomas Jefferson or
George Washington.


When you read what the founding fathers had to say for
themselves, they sound mo
re like hackers. "The spirit of resistance
to government," Jefferson wrote, "is so valuable on certain
occasions, that I wish it always to be kept alive."


Imagine an American president saying that today. Like the
remarks of an outspoken old grandmother, t
he sayings of the
founding fathers have embarrassed generations of their less
confident successors. They remind us where we come from. They
remind us that it is the people who break rules that are the source
of America's wealth and power.


Those in a posit
ion to impose rules naturally want them to be
obeyed. But be careful what you ask for. You might get it.





-

In computers, a virus is a program or programming code that replicates by being
copied or initiating its copying to another program, computer boot sector or document. Viruses
can be transmitted as attachments to an e
-
mail note or in a downloaded file, or

be present on a
diskette or CD. The immediate source of the e
-
mail note, downloaded file, or diskette you've
received is usually unaware that it contains a virus. Some viruses wreak their effect as soon as
their code is executed; other viruses lie dormant

until circumstances cause their code to be
executed by the computer. Some viruses are benign or playful in intent and effect ("Happy
Birthday, Ludwig!") and some can be quite harmful, erasing data or causing your hard disk to
require reformatting. A virus

that replicates itself by resending itself as an e
-
mail attachment or
as part of a network message is known as a
worm
.

Generally, there are three main classes of
viruses:

File infectors
. Some file infector viruses attach themselves to program files, usually selected
.COM or .EXE files. Some can infect any program for which execution is requested, including
.SYS, .OVL, .PRG, and .MNU files. When the program is load
ed, the virus is loaded as well.
Other file infector viruses arrive as wholly
-
contained programs or scripts sent as an attachment
to an e
-
mail note.

System or boot
-
record infectors
. These viruses infect executable code found in certain system
areas on a d
isk. They attach to the DOS
boot

sector

on diskettes or the
Master Boot Record

on
hard disks. A typical scenario (familiar to the author) is to receive a diskette from an innocent
source that contains a boot disk virus. When your operat
ing system is running, files on the
diskette can be read without triggering the boot disk virus. However, if you leave the diskette in
the drive, and then turn the computer off or reload the operating system, the computer will look
first in your A drive, f
ind the diskette with its boot disk virus, load it, and make it temporarily
impossible to use your hard disk. (Allow several days for recovery.) This is why you should
make sure you have a
bootable floppy
.

Macro viruses
. These are among the most common viruses, and they tend to do the least
damage. Macro viruses infect your Microsoft Word application and typically insert unwanted
words or phrases.

The best protection a
gainst a virus is to know the origin of each program or file you load into
your computer or open from your e
-
mail program. Since this is difficult, you can buy
anti
-
virus
software

that can screen e
-
mail attachments and also check all of your files periodically and
remove any viruses that are found. From time to time, you may get an e
-
mail message warning
of a new virus. Unless the warning is from a source you recogni
ze, chances are good that the
warning is a
virus hoax
.

The computer virus, of course, gets its name from the biological virus. The word itself comes
from a Latin w
ord meaning
slimy liquid

or
poison
.


Learn more about Malware, Viruses, Trojans and Spyware

Built
-
in Windows commands to determine if a system has been hacked
: Ed Skoudis
identifies five useful Windows command
-
line tools for machine analysis and discusses how
they can assist administrators in determining if a machine has been hacked.

More built
-
in Windows commands for system analysis
: Ed Skoudis defines five more useful
Windows commands that can provide new insight into the realm of Windows analysis.

Information security book excerpts and reviews
: Visit the Information Security Bookshelf for
book reviews and free chapter downloads.

Mini guide: How to remove and prevent Trojans, malware and spyware
: Organizations need
to learn how to implement proper protections and understand best practices for malware
defense in order to keep their network environments secure. In this mini guide you

will learn
.

Hacker attack techniques and tactics: Understanding hacking strategies
: This guide provides
you with a plethora of tips, expert advice and Web res
ources that offer more in
-
depth
information about hacker techniques and various tactics you can employ to protect your ...

The Pipe Dream of No More Free Bugs
:
Security researchers have declared they want
vendors to compensate them for their independent search for vulnerabilities.

Spyware Protection and Removal Tutoria
l
: This spyware protection and removal tutorial is a
compilation of free resources that explain what spyware is, how it attacks and what you can
to do to win the war on

More recently, operating systems have started to pop up in smaller computers as well. If you
like to tinker with electronic devices, you're probably pleased that operating systems can now be
found on many of the devices we use every day, from
cell phones

to wireless access points. The
computers used in these little devices have gotten so powerful that they can now actually run an
operating system and applications. The computer in a typical modern c
ell phone is now more
powerful than a desktop computer from 20 years ago, so this progression makes sense and is a
natural development.

The purpose of an operating system is to organize and control hardware and software so that the
device it lives in beha
ves in a flexible but predictable way. In this article, we'll tell you what a
piece of software must do to be called an operating system, show you how the operating system
in your desktop computer works and give you some examples of how to take control of
the
other operating systems around you.


Your Browser Does Not Support iFramesStands for "Garbage In, Garbage Out." It means that if
invalid data is entered in a computer program, the resulting output will also be invalid. So if a
program asked you to ent
er a letter of the alphabet and you decided to be funny and enter
"3.14159", there's a good chance the results you would get back would be pretty messed up, or
"garbage." Because we computer users aren't always smart enough to enter valid data,
programmers

have to take extensive mesaures to prevent GIGO
== Answer == This is an
acronym for "
G
arbage
I
n,
G
arbage
O
ut" and originated as a reference to computer
programming. It means that the validity and integrity of the results of a program depend on the
validit
y and integrity of the input data. This concept is also sometimes applied to human (rather
than programming) decisions that are based on "bad" data and therefore lead to undesired
results.


.

A markup language used to structure text and multimedia document
s
and to set up hypertext links between documents, used extensively on
the World Wide Web.

HTML

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Britannica Concise Encyclopedia


Markup language derived from SGML that is used to prepare hypertext documents. Relatively
easy

for nonprogrammers to master, HTML is the language used for documents on the World
Wide Web. The text coding consists of commands contained in angle brackets <> that affect the
display of elements such as titles, headings, text, font style, colour, and re
ferences to other
documents, which can be interpreted by an Internet browser according to style rules.

For more information on
HTML
, visit
Britannica.com
.



Computer Desktop Encyclopedia:


HTML

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(
H
yper
T
ext
M
a
rkup
L
anguage) The document format used on the Web. Web pages are built
with HTML tags, which are codes embedded in the text. The tags define the page layout, fonts
and hypertext links to other documents on the Web. Each link contains the URL (the address)

of
a Web page residing on the same server or any server worldwide, hence "World Wide" Web."
The HTML also defines all the graphic elements used on the page, which are separate files on a
local or remote server.

HTML 2.0 was defined by the Internet Engine
ering Task Force (IETF) with a basic set of
features, including interactive forms. Subsequent versions added more features such as blinking
text, custom backgrounds and tables of contents. With each new version of HTML, Web
browsers must be updated to take

advantage of the new codes. See
HTML tag
.

HTML Is Not a Programming Language


HTML is a markup language (the ML in HTML) that uses a fixed set of markup tags. A markup
language can also
be thought of as a "presentation language," but it is not a programming
language. You cannot "if this
-
do that" like you can in Java, JavaScript or C++. However, in
order to make pages interactive, programming code can be embedded in an HTML page. For
examp
le, JavaScript code is widely used alongside the HTML code to make the Web page
function like an application. See
JavaScript

and
VBScript
.

HTML was originally conceived as a simple markup language to render research documents on
the Web. No one envisioned Web pages turning into multimedia applications, but HTML pages
have been reworked and jury
-
rigged to make them functi
on as such. As a result, the source code
behind some of today's Web pages is often a complex concoction of tags and scripting.

HTML5


A major attempt to standardize HTML as a Web application platform is HTML Version 5. It
consolidates features and adds nu
merous programming functions (see
HTML5
). See
HTML tag
,
XML
,
XHTML

and
SGML
.


World Wide Web Linking

Accessing a Web document requires typing in the address, or URL (Uniform Resource Locator),
of the home page in your Web browser. The home page is an HTML document, which contains
hypertext links to other HTML documents that can be stored on the same serve
r or on a server
anywhere in the world.


Web Server Fundamentals

Web browsers communicate with Web servers via the TCP/IP protocol. The browser sends
HTTP requests to the server, which responds with HTML pages and possibly additional
programs in the fo
rm of ActiveX controls or Java applets.


HyperText Markup Language
-

HTML

b.

Investopedia Says
:

If you want to see what HTML language looks like, then, in your browser, click on "view" then
"view source." Those hundreds of tags and coding is

what makes up HTML.

Uniform coding for defining Web documents. The browser used by the user examines the
HTML to ascertain the manner in which to display the graphics, text, and other multimedia
components. The use of HTML is recommended in developing i
ntranets/extranets because it is
easier to program than window environments such as Motif or Microsoft Windows. HTML is a
good integrating tool for data base applications and information systems. It facilitates the use of
hyperlinks and search engines, ena
bling the easy sharing of identical information among
different responsibility segments of the company. Intranet data usually goes from back
-
end
sources (e.g., mainframe host) to the Web server to users (e.g., customers) in HTML format.


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Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) is an authoring tool that is used in creating Internet Web
pages. It is the preferred tool for those who wish to make their Web page more accessible and
userfriendly because it is ab
le to accelerate downloading over the Internet, although its
quickness comes at the expense of formatting control. Users appreciate the way HTML allows
Web pages to link both to and from each other. Several Web browsers use HTML to format and
structure pag
es because it is able to reach an extremely large audience. Many Web designers
who use HTML find it simple to learn and easy to use, because it offers a stripped down
approach to Web design that does not rely a lot on
extraneous

features. Another aspect of its
popularity is its ability to deal primarily with bandwidth
-
friendly text documents.

Internet lingo is full of acronyms and
buzzwords
. When you consider what each letter in HTML
stands for, it may be easier to understand exactly what it does and how it works. As Joe Burns
stated on
www.htmlgoodies.com
: "Hyper

is the opposite of linear. It used to be that computer
programs had to move in a linear fashion. This before this, this before this, and so on. HTML
does not hold to that pattern and allows the person viewing the World Wide Web page to go
anywhere, any ti
me they want. Text is what you will use. Real, honest to goodness English
letters. Mark up is what you will do. You will write in plain English and then mark up what you
wrote. Language because they needed something that started with 'L' to finish HTML and

Hypertext Markup Louie didn't flow correctly. Because it's a language, really

but the language
is plain English."

The History of Html

HTML, along with Hypertext Transport Protocol (HTTP) and uniform resource locator (URL),
were created by Tim Berners
-
Lee
in the latter part of the 1980s. Berners
-
Lee was collaborating
in Switzerland at the
CERN

physics laboratory with another scientist by the name of Robert
Calliau. When Berners
-
Lee was faced with t
he problem of organizing his notes, he created
HTML to make the information accessible and easy to link.

At first, Berners
-
Lee was faced with the problem of only being able to use his creations on his
own personal computer. In an article on Berners
-
Lee for

Time

magazine, Joshua Quittner asked
the question: "But what if he wanted to add stuff that resided on someone else's computer? First
he would need that person's permission, and then he would have to do the
dreary

work of adding
the new material to a central database. An even better solution would be to open up his
document

and his computer

to everyone and allow them to link their stuff to his. He co
uld
limit access to his colleagues at CERN, but why stop there? Open it up to scientists everywhere!
Let it span the networks! In Berners
-
Lee's scheme there would be no central manager, no central
database and no scaling problems. The thing could grow like

the Internet itself, open
-
ended and
infinite. …Sohe cobbledtogether a relatively easy
-
to
-
learn coding system

HTML

that has
come to be the
lingua franca

of the Web. It's the way Web
-
conte
nt creators put those little
colored, underlined links in text, add images, and so on."

Because of his accomplishments, Berners
-
Lee is considered the father of the World Wide Web
and he has received many awards and accolades for his contributions to the wo
rld of computers
and technology. Awards and accolades may be the only thing he received for his creations. As
Quittner put it: "You'd think he would have at least got rich; he had plenty of opportunities. But
at every
juncture
, Berners
-
Lee chose the non
-
profit road, both for himself and for his creation."

How Html Works

HTML helps to define the structure of a Web page. It is useful to help set up paragraphs,
headers, and default fonts so that a

user can always read the text regardless of whether or not
they have the font installed on their own personal computer. The acceptance of HTML by Web
page designers has allowed them to think of a document as a way of accessing information,
rather than a c
ollection of static pages that can only be read when downloaded.

When someone types in a URL or clicks on a Web page link, the browser requests a document
from a Web server via the Hypertext Transport Protocol, or HTTP. The server then sends the
document b
ack to the user, which is displayed on the browser. The things that are contained in
the document (text, photos, audio and video files, etc.) were all put there using HTML structure.

The Drawbacks of Html

HTML is not a perfect tool for designing
graphic
-
intensive sites or those that contain a large
overall amount of information. The fact that the documents contained in a HTML structure are
static pages does not make it the tool of choice for sites that contain animation, either. It is
getting bett
er in that department thanks to the development of different HTML extensions and
other upgrades.

HTML also lacks the ability to create custom window sizes, compress files, and other standard
navigational controls. Distribution size is also a crucial issue
because the standard HTML file
format is not suited for delivering a large amount of content over a network. In addition, an
HTML programmer may have difficulty dealing with a large number of HTML and graphics
files at once. Certain software does exist to
help deal with all of these problems.

Dynamic Html and Other Competing Tools

Because of HTML's weaknesses in the area of graphics, dynamic HTML was created to enhance
the capabilities in Web page design. As William R. Stanek stated in
PC Magazine:

"With
dy
namic HTML, you can create Web pages with eye
-
popping special effects, animation, and
much more without relying on server
-
side scripts, database engines and hundreds of lines of
complicated
mark
up

code. One of the key design goals in creating dynamic HTML was easing
the complexities involved in interactive multi
-
media presentations on the Web. An important
part of that goal was building the necessary support framework into the browser. The result

is
that you don't have to rely on controls, plug
-
ins, or other helper applications to achieve special
effects, animation, or anything else that dynamic HTML enables."

Dynamic HTML allows Web page designers to create impressive graphics and animation with
minimal coding. These features are visible to viewers almost instantaneously. As Stanek
explained, "The key to dynamic HTML in both Internet Explorer and Navigator is a live update
mechanism that allows a browser to modify sections of a Web page in the bac
kground. Once the
page has been modified, the browser reformats it as necessary and displays the changes. Anyone
viewing the page sees the updates instantly and doesn't have to wait for the browser to
reload

the page or access another page. The browser makes the changes without ever having to go back
to the Web server for additional content."

In addition to dynamic HTML and other advancements in that area, there are several other tools
that were
designed to directly compete with HTML. One such tool is Java, which is hailed as a
complete programming language, with many features that are compatible with other
applications. Another innovation is eXtensible Markup Language (XML) that allows for the
st
andardized exchange of information between computers.
XML

is being touted as the next big
Internet standard, the heir apparent to the HTML throne. It is still an evolving tool that has a
maximum po
tential which remains to be seen. Another tool known as
XHTML

is also being
developed. It is a version of HTML that is based on XML.

Html and Small Business

If a small business owner intends to s
et up his own Web site, there are several steps to consider.
First, the site should be carefully planned out, and its content should be determined. The Web
site should be designed by a person with a strong sense of graphic design in order to make it
visual
ly appealing for the users. When the site enters the programming phase, a basic
knowledge of HTML will come into play. If someone within the company is familiar with
HTML, then they could easily do it. If not, a professional programmer should be called upo
n to
lend

their expert opinion. This person will then write the code containing the text, graphics, and
other aspects of the Web site's structure.

The person doing the implementation of the HTML c
ode should take into consideration the
range browsers and browser versions that exist. Since the Web site is a potentially important
part of any company with online presence, the references of the programmer should be carefully
checked in order to ensure t
hat they know what they are doing. After the programming is done,
a host should be chosen for the Web site and then it can finally be promoted in order to attract
customers.

Wikipedia:


HT
ML

Top


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>
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>
Miscellaneous

>
Wikipedia

For the use of HTML on Wikipedia, see
Help:HTML in wikitext
.

HTML

(HyperText Markup Language)

Filename extension

.html, .htm

Internet media type

text/html

Type code

TEXT

Uniform Type
Identifier

public.html

Developed by

World Wide Web Consortium

&
WHATWG

Type of format

Markup language

Extended from

SGML

Extended to

XHTML

Standard(s)

ISO/IEC 15445

W3C HTML 4.01

W3C HTML 5

(draft)

HTML
, which stands for
HyperText

Markup Language
, is the predominant
markup language

for
web pages
. A markup language is a set of markup tags, and HTML uses markup tags to
describe
web pages
.

HTML is

written in the form of
HTML elements

consisting of "tags" surrounded by
angle
brackets

(like <html>) within the web page con
tent. HTML tags normally come in pairs like
<b> and </b>. The first tag in a pair is the
start tag
, the second tag is the
end tag

(they are also
called
opening tags

and
closing tags
).

The purpose of a
web browser

is to read HTML documents and display them as web pages. The
browser does not display the HTML tags, but uses the tags to interpret the content of the page.

HTML is the building b
locks of all basic websites. It allows
images and objects

to be embedded
and can be used to create
interactive forms
. It

provides a means to create
structured documents

by denoting structural
semantics

for text such as headings, paragra
phs, lists, links, quotes and
other items. It can embed
scripts

in languages such as
JavaScript

which af
fect the behavior of
HTML webpages.

HTML can also be used to include
Cascading Style Sheets

(CSS) to define the appearance and
layout of text and other material. The
W3C
, maintainer of both HTML and CSS standards,
encourages the use of CSS over explicit presentational markup.
[1]


The historic logo made by the W3C.

Origins



Tim Berners
-
Lee

In 1980, physicist
Tim Berners
-
Lee
, who was
a contractor at
CERN
, proposed and prototyped
ENQUIRE
, a system for
CERN

researchers to use and share documents. In 1989, Berners
-
Lee
wrote a memo proposing an
Internet
-
based
hypertext

system.
[2]

Berners
-
Lee specified HTML
and wrote the browser and server software in the last part of 1990. In that year, Berners
-
Lee and
CERN data systems engineer
Robert Cailliau

collaborated on a joint request for funding, but the
project was not formally adopted by CERN. In his personal notes
[3]

from 1990 he lists
[4]

"
some
of the many areas in which hypertext is used
" and puts an encyclopedia first.

First specifications

The first publicly available description of HTML was a document called
HTML Tags
, first
mentioned on the Internet by Berners
-
Lee in late 1991.
[5]
[6]

It describes 20 elements comprising
the init
ial, relatively simple design of HTML. Except for the hyperlink tag, these were strongly
influenced by SGMLguid, an in
-
house SGML based documentation format at CERN. Thirteen
of these elements still exist in HTML 4.
[7]

HTML is a text and image formatting language used by web browsers to dynamically format
web pages. Many of the text elements are found in the 1988 ISO technical report TR 9537
Techniques for using SGML
, which in turn covers th
e features of early text formatting languages
such as that used by the
RUNOFF command

developed in the early 1960s for the
CTSS

(C
ompatible Time
-
Sharing System) operating system: these formatting commands were derived
from the commands used by typesetters to manually format documents




n.

A protocol used to request and transmit files, especially webpages

and webpage components,
over the Internet or other computer network.


Standard application
-
level protocol used for exchanging files on the World Wide Web. HTTP
runs on top of the TCP/IP protocol. Web browsers are HTTP clients that send file requests to
We
b servers, which in turn handle the requests via an HTTP service. HTTP was originally
proposed in 1989 by Tim Berners
-
Lee, who was a coauthor of the 1.0 specification. HTTP in its
1.0 version was "stateless": each new request from a client established a ne
w connection instead
of handling all similar requests through the same connection between a specific client and server.
Version 1.1 includes persistent connections, decompression of HTML files by client browsers,
and multiple domain names sharing the same
IP address.

For more information on
HTTP
, visit
Britannica.com
.



Computer Desktop Encyclopedia:


HTTP

Top


Home

>
Library

>
Technology

>
Computer Encyclopedia

(
H
yper
T
ext
T
ransfer
P
rotocol) The communications protocol used to connect to Web servers on
the Internet or on a local networ
k (intranet). Its primary function is to establish a connection with
the server and send HTML pages back to the user's browser. It is also used to download files
from the server either to the browser or to any other requesting application that uses HTTP.

Addresses of Web sites begin with an
http://

prefix; however, Web browsers typically default to
the HTTP protocol. For example, typing
www.yahoo.com

is the same as typing
htt
p://www.yahoo.com
. In fact, only
yahoo.com

has to be typed in. The browser adds the rest.

HTTP vs. HTTPS


With HTTP, the Web page is transmitted without any encryption. However, HTTPS (HTTP
Secure) is used to encrypt sensitive data such as credit card and social security numbers (see
HTTPS
).

A Sta
teless Connection


HTTP is a "stateless" request/response system. The connection is maintained between client and
server only for the immediate request, and the connection is closed. After the HTTP client
establishes a TCP connection with the server and se
nds it a request command, the server sends
back its response and closes the connection.

The first version of HTTP caused considerable overhead. Each time a graphics file on the page
was requested, a new protocol connection had to be established between th
e browser and the
server. In HTTP Version 1.1, multiple files could be downloaded with the same connection. It
also improved caching and made it easier to create virtual hosts (multiple Web sites on the same
server). See
HTTP header

and
cookie
.


Web Server Fundamentals

Web browsers communicate with Web servers via the TCP/IP protocol. The browser sends
HTTP requests to t
he server, which responds by sending back headers (messages) and files
(HTML pages, image files, Java applets, etc.). See HTTP header.

Download

Computer Desktop Encycl
opedia to your PC, iPhone or Android.



Business Dictionary:


Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP)

Top


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>
Library

>
Business & Finance

>
Business Dictionary

The protocol used by the
World Wide Web

to transfer HTML files.



Wikipedia:


Hypertext Transfer Protocol

Top


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>
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Miscellaneous

>
Wi
kipedia


This article includes a
list of references
, but
its sources remain unclear because it has
insufficient
inline citations
.

Please help to
improve

this article by introducing more precise citations
where appropriate
.
(December
2009)

HTTP

Persistence


Compression


HTTP
Secure

Header fields

ETag


Cookie


Referrer


Location

Status codes

301 Moved permanently

302 Found

303 See Other

403 Forbidden

404 Not Found

This box:
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edit

The
Hypertext Transfer Pr
otocol

(
HTTP
) is a
networking protocol

for distributed,
collaborative, hypermedia information systems.
[1]

HTTP

is the foundation of data
communication for the
World Wide Web
.

The standards development of HTTP has been coordinated by the
Internet Engineering Task
Force

(IETF) and the
World Wide Web Consortium
, culminating in the publication of a series of
Requests for Comments

(RFCs), most notably
RFC 2616

(June 1999), which defines HTTP/1.1,
the version of HTTP in common use.

Internet Protocol Suite

Application Layer

BGP



DHCP



DNS



FTP



HTTP



IMAP



IRC



LDAP



MGCP



NNTP



NTP



POP



RIP



RPC



RTP



SIP



SMTP



SNMP



SSH



Telnet



TLS/SSL



XMPP



(more)

Transport Layer

TCP



UDP



DCCP



SCTP



RSVP



ECN



(more)

Internet Layer

IP

(
IPv4
,
IPv6
)



ICMP



ICMPv6



IGMP



IPsec



(more)

Link Layer

ARP/InARP



NDP



OSPF



Tunnels

(
L2TP
)



PPP



Media Access Control

(
Ethernet
,
DSL
,
ISDN
,
FDDI
)



(more)

This box:
view



talk



edit

Contents

[
hide
]



1

Technical overview




2

History




3

HTTP session




4

Request message




5

Request met
hods


o

5.1

Safe methods


o

5.2

Idempotent methods and web applications




6

Status codes




7

Persistent connections




8

HTTP session
state




9

Secure HTTP


o

9.1

https URI scheme


o

9.2

HTTP 1.1 Upgrade header field




10

Example session


o

10.1

Client request


o

10.2

Server response




11

See also




12

References




13

Further reading




14

External links


Technical overview

HTTP functions as a
request
-
response

protocol in the
client
-
server

computing model. In HTTP, a
web browser
, for

example, acts as a
client
, while an application running on a computer
hosting

a
web site

functions as a
server
. The client submits an HTTP
request

message to the server. The
server, which stores content, or provides
resources
, such as
HTML

files and images, or generates
such content as required, or perfor
ms other functions on behalf of the client, returns a response
message to the client. A response contains completion status information about the request and
may contain any content requested by the client in its message body.

A client is often referred to

as a
user agent

(UA). A
web crawler

(
spider
) is another example of a
common type of client or user agent.

The HTTP protocol is designed to permit intermediate network elements to improve or enable
communications between clients and servers. High
-
traffic websites often benefit from
web cache

serve
rs that deliver content on behalf of the original, so
-
called
origin server

to improve response
time. HTTP
proxy servers

at network boundaries facilitate communication when clients without
a globally routable address are located in
private networks

by relaying the requests and responses
between clients and servers.

HTTP is an
Application Layer

protocol designed within the framework of the
Internet Protocol
Suite
. The protocol definitions presume a reliable
Transport Layer

protocol for host
-
to
-
host data
transfer.
[2]

The
Transmission Control Protocol

(TCP) is the dominant protocol in use for this
purpose. However, HTTP has found application even with unreliable protocols, such as the
User
Datagra
m Protocol

(UDP) in methods such as the
Simple Service Discovery Protocol

(SSDP).

HTTP
Resources

ar
e identified and located on the network by
Uniform Resource Identifiers

(URIs)

or, more specifically,
Uniform Resource Locators

(URLs)

using the
http

or
https

URI schemes
. URIs and the
Hypertext Markup Language

(HTML), form a system of inter
-
linked
resources, called
hypertext

documents, on the
Internet
, that led to the establishment of the
World
Wide Web

in

1990 by English physicist
Tim Berners
-
Lee
.

The original version of HTTP (HTTP/1.0) was revised in HTTP/1.1. HTTP/1.0 uses a separate
connection to the same server for every request
-
res
ponse transaction, while HTTP/1.1 can reuse
a connection multiple times, to download, for instance, images for a just delivered page. Hence
HTTP/1.1 communications experience less
latency

as the establishment of TCP connections
presents considerable overhead.

History

The term
HyperText

was coined by
Ted Nelson

w
ho in turn was inspired by
Vannevar Bush
's
microfilm
-
based "
memex
". Tim Berners
-
Lee first proposed the "WorldWideWeb" project



now known as the
World Wide Web
. Berners
-
Lee and his team are credited with inventing the
original HTTP protocol along with the HTML and the associated technology for a web server
and
a text
-
based web browser. The first version of the protocol had only one
method
, namely
GET, which would request a page from a server.
[3]

The response from the server was always an
HTML page.
[4]

The first documented version of HTTP was
HTTP V0.9

(1991). Dave Raggett led the HTTP
Working Group (HTTP WG) in 1995 and wanted to expand the protocol extended operations,
extended negotiation, richer meta
-
information,
tied with a security protocol and got more
efficient by adding additional methods and header fields.
[5]
[6]

RFC 1945

officially introduced and
recognized HTTP V1.0 in 1996.

The HTTP WG planned to publish new standards in December 1995
[7]

and the support for pre
-
standard HTTP/1.1 based on the then developing
RFC 2068

(called HTTP
-
NG) was rapidly
adopted by the major browser developers in early 1996. B
y March 1996, pre
-
standard HTTP/1.1
was supported in
Arena
,
[8]

Netscape 2.0
,
[8]

Netscape Navigator Gold 2.01,
[8]

Mosaic 2.7
,
[
citation
needed
]

Lynx 2.5
[
citation needed
]
, and in
Internet
Explorer 3.0
[
citation needed
]
. End user adoption of the new
browsers was rapid. In March 1996, one web hosting company reported th
at over 40% of
browsers in use on the Internet were HTTP 1.1 compliant.
[
citation needed
]

That same web hosting
company reported th
at by June 1996, 65% of all browsers accessing their servers were HTTP/1.1
compliant.
[9]

The HTTP/1.1 standard as defined in
RFC 2068

was officially released in January
1997. Improvements and updates to the HTTP/1.1 standard were released under
RFC 2616

in
June 1999.

HTTP session

An HTTP sessio
n is a sequence of network request
-
response transactions. An HTTP client
initiates a request. It establishes a
Transmission Control Protocol

(TCP) connection to a
particul
ar
port

on a host (typically port 80; see
List of TCP and UDP port numbers
). An HTTP
server listening

on that port waits for a client's request message. Upon receiving the request, the
server sends back a status line, such as "HTTP/1.1 200 OK", and a message of its own, the body
of which is perhaps the requested resource, an error message, or some other i
nformation.

Request message

The request message consists of the following:



Request line, such as
GET /images/logo.png HTTP/1.1
, which requests a resource
called
/images/logo.png

from server



Headers
, such as
Accept
-
Language: en




An empty line



An optional message body

The request line and headers must all end with <CR><LF> (that is, a
carriage return

followed by
a
line feed
). The empty line must consist of only <CR><LF> and no other
whitespace
.
[10]

In the
HTTP/1.1 protocol, all headers except Host are optional.

A request line containing only the path name is accepted by servers to maintain compatibility
with HTTP clients before the HTTP/1.0 specifica
tion in
RFC1945
.
[11]

Request methods



An HTTP request made using telnet. The request, r
esponse headers and response body are
highlighted.

HTTP defines nine methods (sometimes referred to as "verbs") indicating the desired action to be
performed on the identified
resource
. What this resource represents, whether pre
-
existing data or
data that
is generated dynamically, depends on the implementation of the server. Often, the
resource corresponds to a file or the output of an executable residing on the server.

HEAD

Asks for the response identical to the one that would correspond to a GET request,

but
without the response body. This is useful for retrieving meta
-
information written in
response headers, without having to transport the entire content.

GET

Requests a representation of the specified resource. Requests using GET (and a few other
HTTP
methods) "SHOULD NOT have the significance of taking an action other than
retrieval
".
[12]

The
W3C

has published guidance principles on this distinction, saying,
"
Web application

design should be informed by the above pri
nciples, but also by the
relevant limitations."
[13]

See
safe methods

below.

POST


Submits data to be processed (e.g., from an
HTML form
) to the identified resource. The
data is included in the body of the request. This may result in the creation of a new
resource or the updates of existing resources or both.

PUT

Uploads a representation of the specified resource.

DELETE

Deletes the sp
ecified resource.

TRACE

Echoes back the received request, so that a client can see what (if any) changes or
additions have been made by intermediate servers.

OPTIONS

Returns the HTTP methods that the server supports for specified
URL
. This can be used
to check the functionality of a web server by requesting '*' instead of a specific resource.

CONNECT

Converts the request connection to a transparent
TCP/IP tunnel
, usually to facilitate
SSL
-
encrypted communication (HTTPS) through an unencrypted
HTTP proxy
.
[14]


PATCH

Is used to apply partial modifications to a resource.
[15]


HTTP servers are required to implement at least the GET and HEAD methods
[16]

and, whenever
possible, also the OPTIONS method.
[
citation needed
]

Safe methods

Some methods (for example, HEAD, GET, OPTIONS and TRACE) are defined as
safe
, which
means they are intended only for information retrieval and should not change
the state of the
server. In other words, they should not have
side effects
, beyond relatively harmless effects such
as
logg
ing
,
caching
, the serving of
banner advertisements

or incrementing a
web counter
.
Making arbitrary GET requests without regard to the context of the application's state should
therefore be considered safe.

By contrast, methods such as POST, PUT and DELETE are intended for actions that may cause
side effects either on

the server, or external side effects such as
financial transactions

or
transmission of
email
. Such methods are therefore not usually used by conforming
web robots

or
web crawlers
, which tend to make requests witho
ut regard to context or consequences.

Despite the prescribed safety of
GET

requests, in practice their handling by the server is not
technically limited in any way, and careless or deliberate programming can just as easily (or
more easily, due to lack of u
ser agent precautions) cause non
-
trivial changes on the server. This
is discouraged, because it can cause problems for
Web caching
,
search engines

and other
automated agents, which can make unintended changes on the server.

Furthermore, methods such as TRACE, TRACK and DEBUG are considered potentially 'unsafe'
by some security professionals, because they can be used by a
ttackers to gather information or
bypass security controls during attacks. Security software tools such as Tenable Nessus and
Microsoft URLScan report on the presence of these methods as being security issues.

Idempotent methods and web applications

Method
s PUT and DELETE are defined to be
idempotent
, meaning that multiple identical
requests should have the same effect as a single request. Methods GET, HEAD, OPTIONS and
TRACE, being prescr
ibed as safe, should also be idempotent, as HTTP is a stateless protocol.

In contrast, the POST method is not necessarily idempotent, and therefore sending an identical
POST request multiple times may further affect state or cause further side effects (suc
h as
financial transactions
). In some cases this may be desirable, but in other cases this could be due
to an accident, such as when a user does not realize that their action will r
esult in sending another
request, or they did not receive adequate feedback that their first request was successful. While
web browsers

may show
alert dialog boxes

to warn users in some cases where reloading a page
may re
-
submit a POST request, it is generally up to the web application to handle cases where a
POST request should not be submitted more than once.

Note that whether a method is idempotent is not enforced by the protocol or web server. It is
perfectly possible to write a web application in which (for example) a database insert or other
non
-
idempotent action is triggered by a GET or other request. Igno
ring this recommendation,
however, may result in undesirable consequences, if a
user agent

assumes that repeating the same
request is safe when it isn't.

Status codes

See also:
List of HTTP status codes

In HTTP/1.0 and since, the first line of the HTTP response is called the
status line

and includes a
numeric
status code

(such as "
404
") and a textual
reason phrase

(such as "Not Found"). The way
the
user agent

handles the response primarily depends on the code and secondarily on the
response hea
ders. Custom status codes can be used since, if the user agent encounters a code it
does not recognize, it can use the first digit of the code to determine the general class of the
response.
[17]

Also, the standard
reason phrases

are only recommendations and can be replaced with "local
equivalents" at the
web developer
's discretion. If the status code indicated a problem, t
he user
agent might display the
reason phrase

to the user to provide further information about the nature
of the problem. The standard also allows the user agent to attempt to interpret the
reason phrase
,
though this might be unwise since the standard explicitly specifies that status codes are machine
-
readable and
reason phrases

are human
-
readable.

Persistent connections

Main article:
HTTP persistent connection

In HTTP/0.9 and 1.0, the connection is closed after a single request/response pair. In HTTP/1.1 a
keep
-
alive
-
mechanism was introduced, where a connection could be reused for more than one
request.

Such
persistent conne
ctions

reduce
lag

perceptibly, because the client does not need to re
-
negotiate the TCP connection after the first request has been sent.

Version 1.1 of the protocol made bandwidth optimization imp
rovements to HTTP/1.0. For
example, HTTP/1.1 introduced
chunked transfer encoding

to allow content on persistent
connections to be streamed, rather than buffered.
HTTP pipelining

further reduces lag time,
allowing clients to send multiple requests before a previous response has been received to the
first one. Another improvement to the protocol was
byte serving
, which is when a server
transmits just the portion of a resource explicitly requested by a client.

HTTP session state

HTTP is a
stateless

protocol. A stateless protocol does not require the server to retain
information or status about each user for the duration of multiple requests. For example, when a
web server is required to customize the content of a
web page

for a user, the
web application

may have to track the user's progress from page to page. A common solution is the use of
HTTP
cookies
. Other methods include server side sessions, hidden variables (when the current page is a
form
), and URL
-
rewritin
g using URI
-
encoded parameters, e.g.,
/index.php?session_id=some_unique_session_code
.

Secure HTTP

There are currently two methods of establishing a secure HTTP connection: the
https

URI

scheme and the HTTP 1.1
Upgrade

header, introduced by
RFC 28
17
. Browser support for the
Upgrade

header is, however, nearly non
-
existent, so HTTPS is still the dominant method of
establishing a secure HTTP connection. Secure HTTP is notated by the prefix
https://

instead
of
http://

on web URIs.

https URI scheme

Main article:
HTTPS

https

is a
URI scheme

that is, aside from the scheme token, sy
ntactically identical to the
http

scheme used for normal HTTP connections, but which signals the browser to use an added
encryption layer of
SSL
/
TLS

to protect the traffic. SSL is especially suited for HTTP since it can
provide some protection even if only one side of the communication is
authenticated
. This is the
case with HTTP transactions over the Internet, where typically only the
server

is authenticated
(by the client examining the server's
certificate
).

HTTP 1.1 Upgrade header field

HTTP 1.1 introduced support for the
Upgrade

header field. In the exchange, the client begins by
making a clear
-
text request, which is later upgraded to
Transport Layer Security

(TLS). Either
the client or the server may request that the connection be upgraded. The most common usage is
a clear
-
text request by the client followed b
y a server demand to upgrade the connection:

Client:

GET /encrypted
-
area HTTP/1.1

Host: www.example.com


Server:

HTTP/1.1 426 Upgrade Required

Upgrade: TLS/1.0, HTTP/1.1

Connection: Upgrade

The server returns a 426 status
-
code because 400 level codes indicate a client failure (see
List of
HTTP status codes
), which correctly alerts legacy clients that the failure was clie
nt
-
related.

The benefits of using this method for establishing a secure connection are:



that it removes messy and problematic redirection and URL rewriting on the server side,



it allows
virtual hosting

of secured websites (although HTTPS also allows this using
Server Name Indication
), and



it reduces user confusion by providing a single way to access a particu
lar resource.

A weakness with this method is that the requirement for a secure HTTP cannot be specified in
the URI. In practice, the (untrusted) server will thus be responsible for enabling secure HTTP,
not the (trusted) client.

Example session

Below is a

sample conversation between an HTTP client and an HTTP server running on
www.example.com
, port 80.


tools.


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programación, páginas de internet, diseño gráfico, ecommerce, seo


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n.

A document on the World Wide Web, consisting of an HTML file and any related files for
scripts an
d graphics, and often hyperlinked to other documents on the Web.





English▼








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Computer Desktop Encyclopedia:


Web page

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Computer
Encyclopedia

A Web document. A Web page is a text file coded in HTML, which may also contain JavaScript
code or other commands. See
HTML
,
World Wide Web

and
Webmaster
.

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Computer Desktop Encyclopedia to your PC, iPhone or

Android.



Marketing Dictionary:


web page

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Marketing Dictionary

Individual document on the
world wide web
. Each web page is identified by its own unique
URL.
See also

web site
.



Accounting Dictionary:


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Accounting Dictionary

On
-
line advertisement or information on the
World Wide Web

e
ncouraging business or getting
information. Hyper Text Markup Language (HTML) is designed to implement home page
design. Any text editor may be used to code HTML. Microsoft Front Page is a tool providing
users with a graphical user interface (GUI).



Wikipedia:


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A
screenshot

of a webpage on
Wikipedia

A
web page

or
webpage

is a
document

or information
reso
urce

that is suitable for the
World
Wide Web

and can be accessed through a
web browser

and displayed on a
monitor

or
mobile
device
. This information is usually in
HTML

or
XHTML

format, and may provide
navigation

to
other webpages via
hypertext

links
. Web pages frequently subsume other resources such as
style
sheets
,
scripts

and
images

into their final presentation.

Webpages may be retrieved from a local computer or from a remote
web server
. The web server
may restrict access only to a private network, e.g. a corporate
intranet
, or it may publish pages on
th
e World Wide Web. Webpages are requested and served from web
servers

using
Hypertext
Transfer Protocol

(HTTP).

Webpages may
consist of files of static text and other
content

stored within the
web server
's file
system (
static webpages
), or may be constructed by
server
-
side software

when they are requested
(
dynamic webpages
).
Client
-
side scripting

can make webpages more responsive to user input
once on the client browser.

Contents

[
hide
]



1

Color, typography, illustration, and interaction


o

1.1

Dynamic behavior




2

Browsers




3

Elements




4

Rendering




5

URL




6

Viewing




7

Creation




8

Saving




9

See also




10

References


Color, typography, illustration, and interaction

Webpages usually include information as to the colors of text and backgrounds and very often
also contain links to images and sometimes other types of
media

to be included in the final view.
Layout, typographic and color
-
scheme information is provided by
Cascading
Style Sheet

(CSS)
instructions, which can either be embedded in the HTML or can be provided by a separate file,
which is referenced from within the HTML. The latter case is especially relevant where one
lengthy stylesheet is relevant to a whole
website
: due to the way HTTP works, the browser will
only download it once from the web server and use the
cached

copy for the whole site. Imag
es
are stored on the web server as separate files, but again HTTP allows for the fact that once a
webpage is downloaded to a browser, it is quite likely that related files such as images and
stylesheets will be requested as it is processed. An HTTP 1.1 web

server will
maintain a
connection

with the browser until all related resources have been requested and provided.
Web
browsers

usually render images along with the text and other material on the displayed webpage.

Dynamic behavior

Main article:
dynamic web page

Client
-
side computer code s
uch as
JavaScript

or code implementing
Ajax

techniques can be
provided either embedded in the HTML of a webpage or, li
ke CSS stylesheets, as separate,
linked downloads specified in the HTML. These scripts may run on the client computer, if the
user allows.

Browsers

A
web browser

can have a
Graphical User Interface
, like
Internet Explorer
,
Mozilla Firefox
,
Chrome

and
Opera
, or can be
text
-
based
, lik
e
Lynx

or
Links
.

Web users with disabilities often use assistive technologies and adaptive strategies to
access

webpages.
[1]

Users may be color blind, may or may not want to use a mouse perhaps due to
repetitive stress injury or motor
-
neurone problems, may be deaf and require audio to be
captioned, may be blind and using a
screen reader

or
braille

display, may need screen
magnification, etc.

Disabled and able
-
bodied users may disable the download and viewing of images and other
media, to save time,
network bandwidth or merely to simplify their browsing experience. Users
of mobile devices often have restricted displays and bandwidth. Anyone may prefer not to use
the fonts, font sizes, styles and color schemes selected by the web page designer and may
apply
their own CSS styling to the page.

The
World Wide Web Consortium

(W3C) and
Web Access
ibility Initiative

(WAI) recommend
that all webpages should be designed with all of these options in mind.

Elements

A
webpage
, as an information set, can contain numerous types of information, which is able to
be seen, heard or interact by the
end user
:

Perceived

(rendered) information:



Textual information
: with diverse render variations.



Non
-
textual information
:

o

Static images

may be
raster graphics
, typically
GIF
,
JPEG

or
PNG
; or
vector formats

such as
SVG

or
Flash
.

o

Animated images

typically
Animated GIF

and
SVG
, but also may be
Flash
,
Shockwave
, or
Java applet
.

o

Audio
, typically
MP3
,
ogg

or various proprietary formats.

o

Video
, WMV (Windows), RM (Real Media), FLV (Flash Video), MPG,
MOV (QuickTime)



Interactive information
: see
interactive media
.

o

For "on page" inter
action:



Interactive text
: see
DHTML
.



Interactive illustrations
: ranging from "click to play" images to
games
, typically using
script orchestration
,
Flash
,
Java applets
,
SV
G
, or
Shockwave
.



Buttons
: forms providing alternative interface, typically for use
with
script orchestration

and DHTML.

o

For "between pages" interaction:



Hyperlinks
: standard "change
page" reactivity.



Forms
: providing more interaction with the server and server
-
side
databases.

Internal

(hidden) information:



Comments




Linked Files through Hyperlink (Like DOC,XLS,PDF,etc).




Metadata

with
semantic meta
-
information
, Charset information,
Document Type
Definition

(DTD), etc.



Diagramation and style i
nformation
: information about rendered items (like
image size attributes) and visual specifications, as
Cascading Style Sheets

(CSS).



Scripts
, usually
JavaScript
, complement interactivity and functionality.

Note: on server
-
side the webpage may also have "Processing Instruction Information Items".


The webpage can also contain dynamically adapted information elemen
ts, dependent upon the
rendering browser or end
-
user location (through the use of IP address tracking and/or "cookie"
information).

From a more general/wide point of view, some information (grouped) elements, like a
navigation
bar
, are uniform for all website pages, like a standard. These kind of "website standard
information" are supplied by technologies like
we
b template systems
.

Rendering

Webpages will often require more screen space than is available for a particular
display
resolution
. Most modern browsers will place a
scrollbar

(a sliding tool at the side of the screen
that allows the user to move the page up or down, or side
-
to
-
side) in the window to allow the
user to see all content. Scrolling horizontally is less preval
ent than vertical scrolling, not only
because such pages often do not print properly, but because it inconveniences the user more so
than vertical scrolling would (because lines are horizontal; scrolling back and forth for every line
is much more inconveni
ent than scrolling after reading a whole screen; also most
computer
keyboards

have page up and down keys, and many
computer mice

have vertical scroll wheels,
but the horizontal scrolling equivalents are rare).

When webpages are stored in a common
directory

of a
web server
, they become a
website
. A
website will typically contain a group of webpages that are linked together, or have some other
coherent method
of navigation. The most important webpage to have on a website is the
index
page
. Depending on the web server settings, this index page can have many different names, but
the most common is
index.html
. When a browser visits the
homepage

for a website, or any
URL

pointing to a directory rather than a s
pecific file, the web server will serve the index page to
the requesting browser. If no index page is defined in the configuration, or no such file exists on
the server, either an error or directory listing will be served to the browser.

A webpage can eith
er be a single HTML file, or made up of several HTML files using
frames

or
Server Side Includes

(SSIs)
. Frames have been known to cause problems with
web accessibility
,
copyright,
[2]

navigation, printing and search
engine rankings
[3]
, and are now less often used than
they were in the 1990s.
[4]
[5]

Both frames and SSIs allow certain content which appears on many
pages, such as page navigation or page headers, to be repeated without duplicating the HTML in
many files. Frames and the W3C recommended alte
rnative of 2000, the
<object>

tag,
[4]

also
allow some content to remain in one place while other content ca
n be scrolled using conventional
scrollbars
. Modern CSS and
JavaScript

client
-
side techniques can also achieve all of these g
oals
and more.

When creating a webpage, it is important to ensure it conforms to the
World Wide Web
Consortium

(W3C) standards for HTML, CSS, XML and other standards. The W3C standards
are in place to ensure all browsers which conform to their standards can display identical content
without any special consideration for proprietary rendering techniques. A properly

coded
webpage is going to be accessible to many different browsers old and new alike, display
resolutions, as well as those users with audio or visual impairments.

URL

Main article:
Uniform Resource Locator

Typically, webpages today are becoming more dynamic. A
dynamic webpage

is one that is
created server
-
side when it is requested, and then served to the

end
-
user. These types of
webpages typically do not have a
permalink
, or a static URL, associated with them. Today, this
can be seen in many popular forums, online shopping, and even on Wikipedia. This practice is
intended to reduce the amount of static pages in lieu of storing the relevant webpage information
in a
database
. Some
search engines

may have a hard time indexing a webpage that is dynamic, so
static webpages can be provided in
those instances.

Viewing

In order to graphically display a webpage, a web browser is needed. This is a type of
software

that can retrieve webpages from the
Internet
. Most current web browsers include the ability to
view the
source code
. Viewing a webpage in a text editor will also display the source code
, not
the visual product.

Creation

To create a webpage, a
text editor

or a specialized
HTML editor

is needed. In order to
upload the
created webpage to a web server, traditionally an
FTP client

is needed.

The design of a webpage is highly personal. A design can be made according to one's own
prefere
nce, or a premade
web template

can be used. Web templates let webpage designers edit
the content of a webpage without having to worry about the overall aesthetics. Many people
publish thei
r own webpages using products like Tripod, or Angelfire. These web publishing tools
offer free page creation and hosting up to a certain size limit.

Other ways of making a webpage is to download specialized software, like a
Wiki
,
CMS
, or
forum
. These options allow for quick and easy creation of a we
bpage which is typically
dynamic
.

Saving

While one is viewing a webpage, a copy of it is saved locally; this is what is being viewed.
Depending on the browser settings, this copy may

be deleted at any time, or stored indefinitely,
sometimes without the user realizing it. Most GUI browsers provide options for saving a
webpage more permanently. These may include:



Save the rendered text without formatting or images, with hyperlinks reduc
ed to plain
text



Save the HTML as it was served



Overall structure preserved, but some links may be
broken



Save the HTML with relative links changed to absolute ones so that hyperlinks are
preserved



Save the entire webpage



All images and other resour
ces including stylesheets and
scripts are downloaded and saved in a new folder alongside the HTML, with links to
them altered to refer to the local copies. Other relative links changed to absolute



Save the HTML as well as all images and other resources in
to a single
MHTML

file. This
is supported by
Internet Explorer

and
Opera
.
[6]

Other browsers may support this if a
suitable plugin has been installed.

Most operating systems allow applications such as web browsers not only to print the currently
viewed webpage to a printer, but optionally to "print" to a file that can be viewed or printed later.
Some webpages are designed, for example by use of CSS, so t
hat hyperlinks, menus and other
navigation items, which will be useless on paper, are rendered into print with this in mind.
Sometimes, the destination addresses of hyperlinks may be shown explicitly, either within the
body of the page or listed at the end

of the printed version. Webpage designers may specify in
CSS that non
-
functional menus, navigational blocks and other items may simply be absent from
the pri
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n.

A weblog.


intr
.v.
,
blogged
,
blog∙ging
,
blogs
.

To write entries in, add material to, or maintain a weblog.



[
(WE)BLOG
.]

blogger

blog∙ger

n.


web∙log

(
wĕb
'
lôg',
-