Plant Breeding

calendargrumpyBiotechnology

Dec 14, 2012 (4 years and 8 months ago)

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Crop Improvement and genetics

1928

2008

Modern Agriculture

http://
youtu.be/ocPBHMnBM9U


Modern Agriculture Facts


What is the average farm size in the US?


What is the average age of a farmer?


Who owns America’s farms?


Does Organic Agriculture use pesticides?


Who develops your food?



Crop Improvement


Plant domestication and origin


Plant breeding background


GMO Modification


Modern Agriculture


Future Struggles





Plant Origin


Hunter/Gatherer of food → producer


Places of origin


Near East/Africa, China/SE Asia, Mexico, S. America


Evidence of agricultural villages & plant
domestication 8000
-
9000 B.C. in fertile crescent


Wheat, barley, lentil, chickpea, oats, date, grape, olive,
almond, fig, pomegranate


Plant Origin

Plant Improvement


Wild plants modern crops


Selection


Natural vs. Artificial Selection


Natural selection:

plants are selected based on traits that
enable them to survive and thrive in the environmental
conditions in which they’re found.



Natural selection =
evolution



Artificial selection:
plants are selected based on traits
determined to be valuable by the one doing the selection (the
breeder). This often makes the plant unfit to survive under non
-
controlled conditions.


Artificial selection =
plant breeding




Plant Breeding


Conventional or Classical Plant Breeding


Genes are indirectly manipulated by
crossing/hybridization


Molecular Biotechnology/Genetic Engineering


Genes are directly isolation from one organism and
insertion into another


Several steps involved in genetic engineering:,
development of molecular markers, sequencing,
enzymatic restriction of DNA, vectors, tissue culture.


Plant Variety

A
cultivar

is an assemblage of plants that:


(a)
has been selected for a particular character
or combination of characters

(b)
is distinct, uniform and stable in those
characters

(c)
when propagated by appropriate means,
retains those characters


Plant Breeding


1.
Identify traits of interest


Yield


Resistance to pests (diseases, insects, etc.)


Forage quality


Tolerance to mineral and environmental stress


Adaptability to mechanization


Flavor


Photoperiod response


2.
Discover new genes of desired traits


Genetic variation is the basis of plant breeding


Variation in nature


Gene recombination, variation in chromosome number,
mutations


Variations in breeding programs


Induced mutations, gene recombination

3.
Combine genes into cultivar


Controlled plant crosses, evaluation, & selection


Genetic engineering

4.
Assess performance

5.
Distribute cultivar

Plant Breeding

One Plant

Identical

Egg cells

Pollen cells

Recombination

NOT identical

Variation !

Seed result from pollination…


Propagation
from Seed


Self pollination


Pollen from one
flower fertilizes that
same flower


Cross pollination


Pollen from flower
on one plant
fertilizes the pollen
from a flower on
another plant


Offspring resulting from cross pollination


Or crossing of 2 genetically pure lines

Hybrid Seed

Hybrid Seed


Offspring resulting from
cross pollination


Or crossing of 2 genetically
pure lines


Produce healthier, faster
growing plants due to
hybrid vigor


Should you save the seed
from a hybrid plant and
sow it the following year?


No

Hybrid Vigor

GMO Facts


Why does the USDA regulate GMOs?


How long have GMOs been used?


Have you ever eaten a GMO ?


Have GMOs ever caused negative health
effects?


How widely are GM crops grown in the
United States?


Genetic Modification



Is a process that has
been done since crops
were domesticated


The first experiments using
recombinant DNA were
preformed in 1973 By
Boyer and Cohen Labs
California.


Technologies using
recombinant DNA save
lives (Produce insulin
cheaply and safely)


First field trials were
established in 1978 (frost
resistance strawberries).

How it Works


Plant cells are de
-
differentiated


The Gene of interest is inserted into a vector contained
with in an
agrobacterium



The
agrobacterium

then transfers the gene of interest
into the host plant cells DNA


The host cell then incorporates the foreign gene into its
genome expressing that gene(cannot be used for yield)

Just a Natural Process at Work


Happens frequently in Nature


Examples Crown Gall and Nodules

Why do we do it ?



Genetic material allows Plant breeders to
accelerate their breeding program (MAS)


Transforming plant cells using
agrobacterium

enables researchers to insert genes that would
not normally be available in natural
populations.


Faster cheaper requires less space reducing
the carbon footprint.


The Future of Plants

VS

Bioreactor

Bananas

Corn Yields !

Plant breeding Future Struggles


Climate change


Over population


Public rejection of new technologies


Monoculture


Bioenergy

competition


LOOK!


When is the first evidence of agricultural
villages & plant domestication?


8000
-
9000 B.C.


Transfer of foreign DNA into plants is a
natural process?’


True


Should you save the seed from a hybrid
plant and sow it the following year?


No



ANY QUESTIONS?

In The Gardens Today


Weed ~ 15 min


Finish Planting!


Fertilize if you didn’t last week


Herbs are available to plant


Re
-
plant transplants if needed


Broccoli Transplants DIED!



Choose Kohlrabi or maybe a delicious
Eggplant


Blogs!


Primarily about what is going on in your
garden


Someone should be able to read your blog and
have an idea of what you did for 3 hours a week
for 4 months and be able to replicate it.


Use lecture materials to support blog
statements


ie
-

don’t just write an essay about the lecture,
write about what you did in the garden and
incorporate the important (required) class topics.

Blogs this week!


What did you do in your garden this week?


Planting, weeding, fertilizing,


What changed from last week?


Incorporate lecture material!