genetically identical

calendargrumpyBiotechnology

Dec 14, 2012 (4 years and 11 months ago)

208 views

Genetic Engineering


Is the process of changing DNA on
purpose


1.
Recombinant DNA

2.
DNA Fingerprints

3.
Cloning

Uses of Genetic Engineering


Medicines


Create organisms that make proteins for
people who can’t make the proteins
themselves


Insulin

Uses of Genetic Engineering


Agriculture


Create plants that are


D
isease or pest resistant


More nutritious


More tasty

Uses of Genetic Engineering


Gene Therapy:
insert correct gene into a
person who has a defective gene


blindness, deafness, skin cancer, Parkinson's


I. Recombinant DNA

Is DNA from 2+ different organisms &
is made with restriction enzymes



Restriction Enzymes




Will cut DNA
at
specific sequences


This creates DNA fragments


Restriction Enzymes



Most
cuts made by restriction enzymes
create
sticky ends


Have a few
bases on one strand that are unpaired


W
ill
easily bind to
complementary strands

Making Recombinant DNA



Step 1


2
sets of DNA are cut by
the same
restriction
enzyme
so each set has same sticky ends


1
set
is
from an organism containing
a gene of interest


1 set
is part of a vector, such as
a bacteria plasmid or
virus. Vectors can transfer DNA to new organisms.

Making Recombinant DNA


Step 2:


DNA
fragments from
each
set are “glued” together
with an enzyme called DNA
ligase


You now have Recombinant
DNA!!

Making Recombinant
DNA



Step 3


The vector can transfer
the recombinant DNA to
other organisms, if
needed


DNA Fingerprints


Each person has a “DNA
Fingerprint” due to unique
DNA fragment sizes



U
sed to identify criminals,
parents, dead bodies,
genetic disorders



Crime Scene DNA Fingerprints


Steps to Making DNA Fingerprints with
Gel Electrophoresis


Step 1: DNA fragments
are made with restriction
enzymes



Step 2: Fragments are
separated by size.



More on Step 2…


DNA
has a negative
charge


DNA is placed at one end of a gel and is pulled
towards the positive side of the gel with an
electric current



More on Step 2…



Shorter
DNA fragments move faster than longer
fragments




Virtual Gel Electrophoresis


Problem Solving


Establishing Paternity



A baby gorilla is born at the zoo. There are 4
adult males in the population that may be its
father. DNA fingerprinting is done to establish
the correct father, so that for future
generations, the gene pool is kept as varied as
possible.

Mother

Baby

Male 1

Male 2

Male 3

Male 4

-------

--------

--------

--------

--------

--------

--------

---------

--------

--------

---------

---------

--------

--------

--------

--------

--------

---------

--------

--------

--------

--------

--------

--------

--------

--------



---------

--------

--------

---------

--------



---------

Below is a DNA fingerprint for a father and
his four children.


Which DNA is
the father’s?

CLONING


Making a
genetically identical
copy of an
organism


Steps:


Put the nucleus (DNA!) of one organism into an
empty egg cell


Put the egg cell into a surrogate mother to grow


Making Mimi