Final Review Packet Diagrams

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Dec 14, 2012 (4 years and 10 months ago)

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Final Review Packet

Accelerated Biology

2011

Virus


This is a
bacteriophage


It targets bacteria

ProteinCapsid

Nucleic
acid

Bacteria

A.
Capsule

B.
Cell wall

C.
Cell membrane

D.
Cytoplasm

E.
Plasmid

F.
Flagellum

G.
Ribosome

H.
N/A

I.
Pilus

J.
DNA



Protist

Protist

Protist

Protist

Virus

Bacteria Shapes

A.
Bacillus


Rod
-
shaped

B.
Coccus


Sphere
-
shaped


Streptococcus


Staphylococcus

C.
Spirillum


Spiral
-
shaped

Flower Structures

Seed Structures

Earthworm

1.
Mouth

2.
Aortic arches

3.
C
rop

4.
Gizzard

5.
Blood vessel

6.

Intestines

7.
Anus

Pig

Blood Structures

Blood Flow

Ecology


Producers


Primary Consumers
(Herbivores)


Secondary Consumers
(Carnivores)


Top Consumer


Decomposer

Measurement

5 millimeters (mm) = _________ um

300,000 micrometers (um) = ________ mm

4500 um = _________ mm

Measuring under a microscope:





If the field of view is 3mm, how




wide is the paramecium in um?

What did they contribute?

1.
Lynn
Margulis


Endosymbiont

hypothesis

2.
Darwin


Theory of evolution due to Natural Selection

3.
Watson, Crick and Franklin


Decoded DNA and figured out its structure

1.
Pasteur


Pasteurization and controlling microbe growth

Genetic Disorders


Colorblindness


Sex linked recessive on the X chromosome


Males need only have 1 allele on their X chromosomes to it


Females need both X chromosomes with allele to have it


Females can be carriers


Sickle Cell Anemia


Codominant

allele


Carriers have a resistance to malaria


Hemophilia


Same as colorblindness

Wavy hair results in all the offspring of a parent with straight hair
& a parent with curly hair.


What type of inheritance is this?


Cross two wavy haired parents


Show the expected genotypic & phenotypic ratios of
the offspring

Cross a normal color vision carrier female & a normal male


What are the expected genotype and phenotypes of
their offspring for each sex?

How is sex determined & what are the probabilities that it will be
a male or a female


What causes each of these mutations?


Deletion


Loss of a section
of a chromosome


Duplication


Addition of a section
of a chromosome


Inversion


Section of a
chromosome curls
around and
exchanges sections


Translocation


Crossing over of
non
-
homologous
chromosomes

Darwin’s Theory of Evolution

1.
Overpopulation

2.
Variations within a population

3.
Competition for limited resources (Malthus


war, disease and famine result following
over
-
population

4.
Natural Selection


those with best variation
for the environment survive

5.
Survival of the fittest


those who survive,
reproduce

Evidence for Evolution

1.
Fossils

2.
Homologous structures

3.
Comparative biochemistry

4.
Comparative anatomy

5.
Comparative embryology

6.
Geographic distribution

Causes of mutations


Spontaneous mutations


Carcinogens


Crossing over


Non
-
disjunction

Genetic Engineering


Manipulations of genes and
chromosomes


Plasmids


Small circular bacterial DNA. Used
to insert genes into them


Electrophoresis


Separates DNA fragments by size


Restriction enzymes


Bacterial enzymes that cut DNA at
specific base sequences


Ligase


“glues” fragments of DNA together



Pedigrees

Karyotypes

Chart of an
invidividual’s

Chromosomes


Homologous structures


Same form but different
structures


Supports Divergent
evolution


Analogous structures


Same function but different
structure


Supports Convergent
evolution


Vestigial structures


Currently non
-
functioning
structure


Supports divergent
evolution

Genetic drift and evolution


Genetic Drift
-

random change in allele
frequencies that occurs in small populations
.


Polydactylism

among the Amish


Evolution
-

change over time in a species, process
by which modern organisms have descended from
ancient organisms.


Taxonomic Order


Most General
-

Domain


Kingdom


Phylum


(Division
for
plants)


Class


Order


Family


Genus


s
pecies
-

most specific


What categories are used in
determining a scientific name?



Genus
and
species
names


Which
species are the most closely related? Give
examples.


Those that belong to the same
Genus
.


Ex:
Paramecium
bursaria

&

Paramecium
caudatum


Amoeba
bursaria



not as closely related


Closely related species belong to the same
genus
.


If same species, can interbreed and produce
reproductive offspring


6 Kingdoms

Archaebacteria


Bacteria
, no nucleus, no membrane bound organelles; prokaryotes. Methanogens,
T
hermophiles
, “extreme living bacteria”

Eubacteria


Bacteria
, no nucleus, no membrane bound organelles; prokaryotes. pathogenic (bacteria
that make you sick) pertussis, tetanus, beneficial: nitrogen fixers, bacteria used in food
production


Protista
-

basically unicellular, eukaryotic organisms with plant like, animal like or
fungus like characteristics.


Fungi
-

Eukaryotes have a nucleus and membrane bound organelles. Absorptive
heterotrophs, they break the food down and then absorb it. Most are multicellular.
Yeasts are unicellular.


Plantae


Eukaryotes
have a nucleus and membrane bound organelles. All multicellular
photosynthetic autotrophs.

Animalia


Eukaryotes
have a nucleus and membrane bound organelles. All are multicellular
heterotrophs.


Language for Classification?


Latin of course


Dead language so it will not evolve and change


Universal language

Microbiology Definitions

1.
P
athogen
-

harmful
microorganism, disease
-
causing
agent

2.
A
ntigen


something that stimulates an immune response


3.
A
ntibody
-

produced
by plasma cell in response to exposure to an
antigen

4.
V
accine


contains killed or weakened viruses or bacteria to stimulate an immune
response and antibody
production

5.
T
oxin


a poison produced by an
organism

6.
L
ytic


rapid viral replication resulting in the destruction of the host cell


7.
Lysogenic


viral DNA is incorporated into the host cell’s DNA and when the host cell
divides the resulting cells will have the viral genome as
well

8.
E
ndospore
-

bacilli
can form these when conditions for growth are unfavorable;
endospores contain a copy of the DNA inside the
spore

9.
Capsid
-

protein covering of the virus
particle

10.

Antibiotic


medication to treat bacterial infections


Effects of bacteria

Harmful and Helpful


Bacteria can cause
disease


pathogens, spoil
foods




Helpful


biotechnology,
antibiotics, nitrogen
fixation, saprophytes
(decomposers), used in
foods


milk products,
sauerkraut


Types of Asexual Reproduction and examples


Binary fission


asexual
reproduction by unicellular
organism dividing into 2


protists

and bacteria


Budding


asexual
reproduction


yeasts, hydra


Regeneration


asexual
reproduction


planarian,
starfish


Osmosis and Plants


Osmosis is the diffusion of water across a selectively
permeable membrane, water moving from an area of
greater concentration to lesser concentration.


If
water in the soil is more concentrated than in the plant,
water will move across the root hairs and into the plant


Plant Tropisms (responses)

Geotropism

plant
response to gravity


roots
will grow down

Phototropism


plant
response to sunlight


plant will bend toward the light


Plant Organs and their functions


Roots
-

anchor plants,
absorb water, and
sometimes store
food


Leaves
-

food production
-

Photosynthesis


F
lowers


structure for
sexual reproduction in
flowering plants that
produce seeds; many have
male and female parts in the
same
flower


Stems


support, transport of
water, minerals, and food



Land Plant Adaptations


Thick, waxy
cuticle on the
topside of leaves


Xylem,
Phloem to conduct
water and food


Seeds


with embryo and
its food


Adapted for different types
of biomes


very leafy


where there’s adequate
precipitation, broad leaf to
trap more sunlight


Cactus


modified stem to
minimize water loss in
desert environment


Invertebrates


Porifera



sponges



Cnidaria



stinging
-
cell animals


jellyfish, hydra, sea
anemones



Platyhelminthes


flatworms


planaria
, tapeworms,
flukes



Nematoda



Roundworm


heartworm, pinworm, hookworm



Annelida


segmented worms


earthworm, leech




Mollusca


soft
-
bodied animals


clams, scallops, snails, slugs, squid,
octopus,
chitons




Echinodermata


spiny
-
skinned animals


starfish, sand dollars, sea urchins,
sea cucumbers




Arthropoda



jointed
-
leg animals, the largest phylum


insects, crustaceans,
centipedes, millipedes, arachnids


Metamorphosis

Open and Closed Circulatory systems

In a closed circulatory system, blood is always
contained within a vessel
-

Earthworm and vertebrates

Open system has blood pooling in a sinus
-

Insects

Symmetry


Asymmetric


no
symmetry


Porifera


Radial Symmetry


can
be cut any way along a
central plain and have
two even parts


Cnidaria

(5 point radial
symmetry in
Echinoderms


Bilaterial

symmetry


can only be cut along
one plain


all
vertebrates and
everything else

What is a hermaphrodite?


An organism that contains both functioning
sex organs.


Earthworms and plants

Pistil

Vertebrate Characteristics

Mammals


Have
mammary glands, hair, lungs, 4
-
chambered heart, endotherms (warm
-
blooded
)

Birds


Have
outer covering of feathers, hollow(
ish
) (low density) bones, 2 scaly legs, forelimbs

modified
into wings, mouth modified into beak, 4
-
chambered heart, endotherms, shelled

amniotic
egg



Reptiles


vertebrates
with dry, scaly skin, lungs, shelled amniotic egg, primitive 4
-
chambered heart,

ectotherms



A
mphibians


Have
gills as larvae, usually lungs as adults


Must
return to water to reproduce, due to no shelled egg, gills


Heart


has 3 chambers


right and left atria, ventricle


Ectotherms

Fish


Have
vertebrae made of cartilage or bone. Fish live in water; have gills or gill slits

(
cartilagenous

fish,) scales, fins


2
-
chambered
heart


Ectotherms


Bony
fish have a swim bladder


Describe the structure and function of gills.


Gills are the respiratory organs of most aquatic
animals that breathe water to get oxygen,
consisting of a filamentous structure of vascular
membranes across which dissolved gases are
exchanged.(Dictionary.com)


Amphibian
vs

Mammal Heart

Amphibian heart


3 chambers (2 Atria

& 1 Ventricle)

Incomplete septum


Oxygenated and

deoxygenate blood

mixes

Mammalian




4 chambered heart

(2 Atria & 2

Ventricles) Complete

septum


Oxygenated and

deoxygenated blood

never mix


2 system pump

(Pulmonary and

Systemic circulation)

Mammals

Monotremes



most primitive mammals



Lay eggs


Only
several living species


Duckbilled
Platypus


Australia, Tasmania


long snout with
bill
like

duck’s



webbing
between toes


lives in
burrows
along
stream
banks, feeds in


water.


Echidna
(spiny anteater)


Australia, Tasmania, New





Guinea


insect eater, long narrow
snout
,
spine
-

covered
back, short
tail
Marsupials



Marsupium



abdominal pouch where young complete
development
; contains

nipples
where
young

fed
by

mammary
glands
.

Placentals



develop in mother’s uterus while attached to a placenta


16 different orders of

placentals
.


1
. All organ systems develop while inside mother’s uterus


more fully developed

at
birth than marsupials.


2
. Gestation period


length of time developing in uterus


varies with species



longer
in
placentals
.



(
a.) Embryo


during early stages of development this is what animal is



called
.



(
b.) Fetus


what animal is called in later stages of development



(
c.) Longer gestation allows more complete development & provides



protection
& nourishment



What’s an amniotic egg?


Reptiles, birds, and
monotremes

have
amniotic eggs. The
amnion is a
membrane that
grows around the
embryo & encloses it
in amniotic fluid.



A
nterior


located on or near
the front (head end) of the
body






D
orsal
-

the back or upper
surface of an organ, part, or
organism



P
osterior
-

toward
the rear of a
structure, or the caudal end of
the body in quadrupeds



V
entral
-

the lower (abdominal)
surface of the body of an
animal



What is transpiration?


It is a plant’s loss
of water through
its leaves
.


Occurs through
stomates

on
underside of
leaves


Controls upward
pull of water


Effected by wind,
humidity, light
intensity and
temperature


Biodiversity


The sum total of
the variety of
species in the
biosphere.


Ecology Definitions


Renewable resources
-

They are resources that can regenerate if they are living
things or if nonliving, they can be replenished by biochemical cycles.



Trees are renewable. A new tree can be planted and grow if one was cut
down.


The
water cycle can replenish water that has been used. However the capacity to provide
fresh potable water is limited.



Nonrenewable resources
-

Resources that can’t be replenished by natural
processes because they took hundreds of millions of years to form, like coal or oil
are considered nonrenewable.


They
are finite and not replaceable once used up.



Invasive
(and exotic) species

any species, including its seeds, eggs, spores, or
other biological material capable of propagating that species, that is not native to
that ecosystem; and whose introduction does or is likely to cause economic or
environmental harm or harm to human health


More definitions


Endangered species
-


A
species present in such
small numbers that it is at
risk of extinction.



Extinct
species


a species
that has ceased to exist
because the last organisms
of the species have died
out


Ex: Great Auk


flightless
bird, ,
Steller’s

Sea
Cow
,
Dodo


flightless bird



Still more


Biological
Magnification


increasing
concentration of a
harmful substance
in organisms at
higher trophic
levels in the food
chain or food web


DDT

Food Web and Food Chain

Food
web


interconnected food
chains in an ecological
community


Food
chain
-

The sequence of
the transfer of food energy from
one organism to another in an
ecological community.


It begins
with a
producer, usually a green plant
or alga that creates its own food
through photosynthesis. In the
typical predatory food chain,
producers are eaten by primary
consumers (herbivores) which
are eaten by secondary
consumers (carnivores), some of
which may in turn be eaten by
tertiary consumers (the top
carnivore in the chain


Symbiosis

Organisms living together & their interactions


Mutualism


both organisms
benefit


+ +


Bacteria in our intestines


Cleaner shrimp & anemone


Commensalism


one benefits, 1
is unharmed


+ 0


Shark and remora fish


Parasitism


one benefits, the
host is harmed


+
-


Tick and us

Abiotic
vs

Biotic


Abiotic are factors in the
environment that are not
living


Wind


Temperature


Light


Soil


Water


pH


Biotic are living factors


All the living organisms

What is Global Warming?


It is an increase in the
earth's average
atmospheric temperature
that causes corresponding
changes in climate and
that may result from the
greenhouse effect and
human activity.


B
urning
of fossil fuels


Cutting down trees/forests


B
urning
rain forests
contribute to the
problem


Car emissions